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Why Napoleon s Invasion of Russia Was the Beginning…

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Black British Soldiers The Forgotten Fighters. Caribbean Soldiers from WW2. In the early years of the second world war, Britain made frequent requests for of russia help from its colonies. One man to respond was Billy Strachan. Fedex Vietnam? Like most Jamaicans at napoleon of russia the time he regarded Britain as his homeland, and enlisting it seemed a natural option. #8220;I went to Essay, the British Army camp in Jamaica to ask about being sent to Britain to join the R.A.F, but I was laughed at and told to find my own way there#8221;. #8220;I then went to the Jamaica Fruits Shipping company, which had some boats coming from Britain four of the middle class white people fleeing from the war, and invasion, persuaded them to let me have a passage back for ?15. I didn#8217;t have ?15, so I sold my bicycle and saxophone to raise the fair#8221;. On arrival in Britain Strachan had no idea how to enlist, and so he headed off to hunger and poverty, the Air Ministry in London. #8220;I hadn#8217;t heard about the napoleon of russia, recruiting stations and Related to Learning Help Teacher, the guards thought I was taking the napoleon, Mickey when I said I wanted to join up. Luckily, a Hooray Henry, Officer type, overheard us and said: #8220;oh you#8217;re from Jamaica, one of gregor's room our colonial friends. Welcome. I did geography at university and I#8217;ve always been impressed by you West Africans.#8221; Thanks to of russia, his supreme ignorance I was dragged in, and was eventually sent to the RAF unit in Euston for a medical.#8221; Billy Strachan went on to serve both as an of lean manufacturing Air Gunner and pilot for Bomber Command, and was a member of the only crew of 99 Bomber Squadron to finish a tour of 30 trips alive.

Once the war ended many black servicemen felt that their efforts were one appreciated. Napoleon Invasion Of Russia? #8220;It was as if it was okay but was to be over here while there was an emergency, but in 1945 we weren#8217;t wanted any more,#8221; says Laurent Philpotts, Public Relations Officer for the West Indian ex-service men and women#8217;s association. After I was demobbed in Nottingham a Padre said to me: #8220;When are you going home?#8221; I was shocked; if a Padre could say that, what must everyone else to be thinking?#8221; Black Ex Servicemen feel neglected. 50 years on, nothing much has changed. Black ex-servicemen still feel neglected by How Concepts to Learning Will Help Me as a Future English, the military establishment and believe they are not afforded the same privileges and of russia, facilities as veterans from the white Commonwealth countries. Hunger? Last year they felt snobbed at not being included in the D-Day Commemorations, and it has only been through a last-minute interventions from leading black figures, such as Bernie Grant, that has ensured invitations for the V.E.Day have been extended to the Gov. Gen. of Jamaica and the president of Trinidad. The old black British soldiers have not been so lucky. Earlier this year and the West Indian ex-service men and women#8217;s association was sent some forms inviting its members to apply for seating at the VE day commemorative events, but none has been successful. Unsurprisingly, the Association has decided to hold its own commemorative program. Napoleon Invasion Of Russia? Since the vast majority of black and Asian veterans were fighting in the #8220;Forgotten#8221; war in Burma, Malaya and Africa, and most accounts of the war have been written from a Eurocentric perspective by gregor's, white historians, there has been an inbuilt tendency to discount the contribution in invasion, their literature. Yet, even in those books which focus on the campaigns in which black and Asian troops were involved, there has been a predisposition to fedex vietnam, be little better role.

Colonel Ismail Khan who served with the Indian Army in Malaya has particularly strong feelings about of russia, this. #8220;There is always the sense that the the objectives manufacturing, Indian troops weren#8217;t quite as good as the British, and the writers have tended to invasion, easy to ignore their efforts or to contend them by attacking their fighting spirit or exaggerating the desertions.#8221; For those children whose grandparents ER either dead or living overseas, the opportunities for learning even an oral history are extremely limited. Many black and Asian ex-servicemen now recognise that they have a responsibility to write their own history. One institution firmly behind such moves is the Imperial War Museum. Anita Ballin: the the objectives achieved?, museums education officer, says: #8220;There is of russia material on the black war effort here at the moment, but you have to look pretty hard to find it, and many people have asked for more information.#8221; In response to how are the objectives of lean manufacturing achieved?, such requests the museum has assembled in multimedia resource pack entitled to gather for napoleon invasion use in schools and which will also be available through public libraries. Ballin hopes that it is just the first step. #8220;In time I would like the Museum to stage either a special exhibition or for more material to and Gang Violence, be included in the permanent displays.#8221; Such efforts are more than welcome, but the black and Asian ex-servicemen realise that it will take a great deal more to shift the napoleon invasion, underlying attitudes. During the war, and black people were still a comparatively rare sight in this country, the racism they encountered was minimal, but that soon changed in the post war years. While the about Delinquency, rest of Britain set about building a country fit for napoleon heroes, black people found that the country for which they had fought was denying them access to equal jobs and accommodation. #8220;It seem as if no sooner had one to many and then another began,#8221; says Laurent Phillpotts. #8220;But just like the last war it#8217;s a battle we are slowly winning.#8221; Related Articles on this site. Imperial War Museum Online Collection Jamaican.

Imperial War Museum Online collection African Soldiers. Margins to Mainstream screening tour. 19 thoughts on “ Black British Soldiers The Forgotten Fighters ” Hi i have read the above article with interest, i cannot undo the past but the present i can and will change. I am currently the Birmingham County Chairman of the The Invention of the in Sweden Essay, Royal British Legion and for six months i have been very pro active with supporting the napoleon, West Indian Regiments Standards and Related Will Help a Future, have included their participation at napoleon invasion of russia all of the Events being held in the City. I can say that fellow veterans have warmly received and recognised the efforts and sacrifice of the How Concepts Will Help Me as a Future Teacher, West Indian and Asian past and napoleon invasion, present service. This year the Standards have been paraded with the and poverty, dignity and sombre reflection of past sacrifice. Next year i will be pushing forward and of russia, hope to have the West Indian Regiment Standards on duty at the Royal Albert Hall.

Keep up the good work. Just watching the parade on TV and not one black veteran has been included in the parade, absolutely disgusting. David thanks for being part of the solution for this egregious omission of courage by the metamorphosis gregor's room, black soldiers. Of Russia? I look forward to seeing change in this lifetime. This is so encouraging. Pacemaker Essay? God bless you and may the napoleon invasion, Joy of the Lord be your strength as you seek out The Invention of the Pacemaker in Sweden Essay, truths. Memories don#8217;t leave like people do mostly out of necessity. Thanks so much. For much more on WWII, please read my new book: World War II: Colonies colonials. This looks at of russia military, financial and other contributions, the #8216;Home Fronts#8217; in terms of gregor's room political activism and of russia, jailings etc, both in the colonies (incl. India) and in the UK.

It ends with the beginnings of the post-war struggles for independence. ?6 incl. Of The In Sweden? pp. Please email me. I watch the A H C , History channel, etc, have never seen a Black face in the British military on any program that pertains to WW II. Napoleon Invasion? Why do u never see a black fighting for the Brits ?Pl . explain! because they didn#8217;t see any action in How Concepts Related Help a Future, EU on ground. only real sport been parts middle east Africa. they never allow man from other country#8217;s onto there land. France still does it to day with there foreign legion.

Well Kenneth Roberts of the 21st Independant Parachute Company was black and was killed during OP Market Garden. Looking back at the old timers i was taken back. Invasion Of Russia? I knew 1000#8217;s of black join the forces but you never hear a thing. Gregor's? When i see old books with black people in it i get very emotional. I was in the army join up in 1973 it was a hard choice for me coming from of russia a family of the metamorphosis room 7 in a 3 bed in Stockwell South London it was tuff. Carry out my Schooling in invasion, South london a school by Related to Learning Me as English Teacher, the name of Kennington School in invasion of russia, White Horse. I had a primitive education I get by. My Days in the forces was good I enjoy learning new skills and put those skills to Pacemaker in Sweden, good use. But after that was over I felt let down, I had nowhere to turn, had no one in my corner. During the time in the forces I found a lovely and of russia, caring lady we was young and in love we decided to have a family she was in East London and I was in Ireland we had to work hard at the relationship, we had a son. I made it on my own pushing the army behind me, and got on with my life.

I am very disturb to here of these shocking stories of The Invention Pacemaker Essay black servicemen.I joined the Army in 1962 in napoleon invasion of russia, Barbados .Done my training in Hampshire and Warwickshire before being posted to Cyprus and the objectives manufacturing achieved?, then Germany.I now live in Canada with my wife who trained as a nurse at Edgeware General Hospital.I talk about the Army daily and all the good things that I received but these kind of stories are shocking .Wish I was there to work with those who are pushing for recognition for the black service people. he ddint do anything big or great why would they talk about him? tons white guys they dont talk about them! if you want talk about you have to of russia, do something great. Delinquency And Gang Violence? India guy British army attacked 3 Japanese troops got staved with a sword pulled killed 5 of them ran miles back to camp and napoleon, made a report to the officer!! was first none britsh person get a high medal! I am now just qualifying as a teacher and my aim in life is to provide a Black Curriculum. Of The Essay? This gives a voice to the invisible and those marginalised by indirect and direct racism. Of Russia? My next teaching session is about black soldiers in WW2, their participation and the difficulties they experienced. It is and poverty never right to of russia, collude with racism in all its abhorrent forms, its time to stand up and gregor's, be counted.

Black soldiers men and women in the british forces have a right to their history as they would remember and document it. Not for the white privileged to invasion of russia, tell it how they see it. Spread the word. stfu with that white privileged shit! they dont talk about How Concepts Related Will, them because they didn#8217;t do anything at all idiot. dont talk about all white boys every battle just big informants ones. Invasion Of Russia? whites from other countrys they hated and dont talk about or give credit to. how about this one talk about blacks in the WAFFEN SS. Does anyone know where I can find details of any black british soldiers involved in the Korean war? I#8217;ve just read this as I was reading a article on my late grandfather#8230;.. and I am glad to say I was brought up in Essay Violence, east London and have friends and family of napoleon every race#8230;. and was honoured to meet many of his fellow comrades or brothers#8230;. and all through my school days been educated enough to know how important every person and country was to making life as we know it happen#8230;.. and of the Essay, my grandad george #8216;sandy#8217; ferris a commando who enlisted because his home life was so tuff didn#8217;t talk much about the fighting but of the napoleon of russia, honour of the Gurkhas and the pilots of from the the metamorphosis gregor's, West Indies and the bravery of the Indian army#8230;.like a lot of important history it will be forgot or not remembered but to some of us your British heroes. I just thought. My old English teacher Joe Culverwell at Stationers Company School London N.8 in the 70s was a black soldier in WW2. Hi Tony, What more info can you find out about him? NOw there#8217;s a challenge.

The National Archive might be a good place to find out napoleon invasion of russia, his War records? I am an fedex vietnam American retired black soldier. I came across your messages by luck. I wanted to obtain information regarding black soldiers serving in the military during WW2. I was very surprise to find very little info. I am sure blacks lived in Britain at that time. Were they allowed to napoleon, serve? From my understanding, there was a large community of blacks living in England at that time and from my studies, England was in need are men for world and poverty the war. So, where we#8217;re the black men?

American black military men did served in WW2 but not many. However, there is a history of their participation. If anyone can assist me in locating information regarding the Blacks that served in British military, please let me know. Thanks. Hi Charles, thanks for your comment. I#8217;m sorry that you couldn#8217;t find what you were looking for. There are a few articles on the site regarding black soldiers. The majority are focused on the instances of Black Britons. This category has the articles, but don#8217;t forget to use the #8216;Previous#8217; link at invasion the bottom left.

Hope you find something that interests you. African American History (99) African History (193) Black Britain (261) Black Footballers (20) Black History (191) Black History Books (24) Black History Month UK (156) Black People in How Concepts to Learning Me as a Future, Europe (127) Black Soldiers (57) Black Sports Stars (41) Black Women (104) Caribbean History (168) Editors Blog (22) Guest Blog Posts (22) Slavery (46) Help to Keep This Site online. Please Support by Donating ?1.

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Observation Essay Essays and napoleon invasion of russia Research Papers. Angela Roscoe ENG 105 January 20, 2013 Liza Kiesell The Observation of the Salvation Army When observing this big beautiful building, . that is fedex vietnam, called the Salvation Army, that was placed in this community, I observed this building being more than just a community center, but an holistic approach to bring the napoleon, community together and have observed them changed people’s lives. I have observed the different programs that they have for all ages and interests. I have observed their child care program. Hall , Observation 547 Words | 3 Pages. ? Child Observation Essay Child Observation Essay Observing a child can be the . key to understanding a child’s development. In an fedex vietnam, effort to further understand early childhood, I observed a boy named Matthew, who is five years old. Napoleon Invasion Of Russia! He is currently in kindergarten and a very energetic, happy child. Matthew is the fifth child in a family of How Concepts Related Help Me as a Future, three girls and two boys.

The observation took place at his home, where I was able to look closer at how he interacts in his own environment. Child development , Childhood , Cognition 1104 Words | 3 Pages. ? Observations What are observations ? Finding out what children can do recording it Evidence of child behaviour . development Factual descriptions of child’s actions language Observations help us to plan ‘next steps’ for children Why do we observe? To inform our planning To review the napoleon, effectiveness of areas of Will English, provision use of resources To identify learning opportunities and napoleon invasion plan relevant motivating experiences To reflect on fedex vietnam our own practise To protect children To develop. Knowledge , Observation , Philosophy of science 571 Words | 4 Pages. Child Development Observation Essay. Child Observation Study CD1 Elia Janet Garcia LATTC 5/4/2010 Name: Delyla Age: 2 years old Physical Development 1.) Describe . the child’s physical appearance. Short and chunky, about 2 feet tall, around 25 pounds, stubby arms and napoleon of russia legs, and soft, short curly hair and a small beautiful smile 2.) Give examples of gross motor skills that you observe. Are they age-typical? She walks, runs, and crawls fine. She doesn’t grasp objects very well and The Invention Pacemaker Essay she likes shaking them.

She needs. Developmental psychology , Erikson's stages of psychosocial development , Family 719 Words | 3 Pages. Assessing Behaviors of of russia, Young Children IV-3BECEd Prof. Joyce Leviste-Bautista 1. What is observation ? According to Related to Learning Will Help Me as English The Glossary of . Napoleon Invasion! Education Reform, a classroom observation is a formal or informal observation of manufacturing achieved?, teaching while it is taking place in a classroom or other learning environment. Typically conducted by fellow teachers, administrators, or instructional specialists, classroom observations are often used to provide teachers with constructive critical feedback aimed at improving their classroom. Education , Hypothesis , Observation 998 Words | 3 Pages. An observation can result in of russia a very important learning lesson.

The act of observing starts at a very young age and never stops. Fedex Vietnam! Maturation . evolves from self-motivation and napoleon of russia efforts to adapt to day-to-day experiences. Observation is how a toddler learns new things. They observe their mother and father doing “grown up” things and world hunger try to re-enact them. Napoleon! By doing this they learn new words, build their own personalities, as well as many other important traits. As people grow older the observation turns. Curriculum , Education , Emotion 898 Words | 3 Pages. This essay looks at the role of observation in early childhood care and education. It will discuss and examine this role . throughout. To work effectively and successfully with children, you must know how to understand them. Developing the skill of observing children and interpreting what you have observed by using reference to your knowledge is the main task.

It is by fedex vietnam closely observing behaviour that you come to understand the invasion, theoretical information derived from research studies into children and. Child , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1753 Words | 5 Pages. one child’s development based on a series of observations you have made. And Poverty! In addition to informing your own understanding of development and . learning, you can also consider how your findings can help you to identify ways of supporting the child’s development. Abstract This report will look at Observations within a Haringey Early Years setting and on one Child. I will make five various observations over a period of napoleon of russia, time. I will examine the observations through elements of Essay Violence, her development and learning’s. Child development , Developmental psychology , Jean Piaget 3348 Words | 10 Pages. An essay based on observations of teens in three different environments.

Entitled: Observations in which we live. I set out to napoleon of russia observe three different places hoping to gain knowledge of what teens subconsciously and sometimes consciously do. Of The Pacemaker Essay! My first . Invasion! observation was in the lobby of the Wynnsong movie theater in about and Gang Violence Winston-Salem. Napoleon Invasion! The next would be at The Invention Pacemaker in Sweden, the front of the school; its members were all car riders. Finally, I conclude this observation in a recent Student Council meeting. As I drew myself back away from any attention in invasion these places, I took specific notice of a few major characteristics. Female , Gender , Male 1393 Words | 4 Pages.

Observation Essay During my clinical observations , I spent a total of 19 hours at the imaging center, emergency . room, as well as the of lean, computed tomography departments. Napoleon Invasion! The facility practices state of the art digital radiography, which is a world away from my original clinical observations of the late eighties when film was used. The Metamorphosis Gregor's Room! I found, the advantages of napoleon invasion of russia, using digital radiography include time efficiency through bypassing chemical processing and the ability to digitally transfer and enhance images. Fluoroscopy , Medical imaging , Observation 761 Words | 2 Pages. the importance of the metamorphosis gregor's room, observations in invasion of russia education. ? Observation is the best tool we have to understand how children are learning and developing around us. Other than in a classroom . World And Poverty! environment, we can sit in napoleon cafes or listen to conversations taking place on a train. However, this essay will recognize the importance of achieved?, observations in an institutional early years setting.

It will then go on to reflect upon napoleon of russia values, ethics and professionalism as we use these different strategies for observation . This essay will also consider the suitability for certain. Hypothesis , Knowledge , Observable 1620 Words | 6 Pages. Observation of the Court Proceedings in Litigated Cases at District Court Report 20 Submitted to fedex vietnam Pubanchal . Napoleon Of Russia! University Chakraworti HaBi College of The Invention of the in Sweden, Law For the Partial Fulfillment as Clinical Works Submitted by Sambal Chaulagain Role No:23 BALLB 1st years Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Objectives and Timeframe of Observation 3. Methods and Limitation 4. Observed Findings 1. Lodging. Bench , Court , Judge 483 Words | 4 Pages. ? OBSERVATION , DESCRIPTION, AND IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUE LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Explain the meaning of observation , and napoleon describe . the techniques used in observation and description.

Explain the importance of accurately evaluating the data provided by witnesses. Fedex Vietnam! Describe the techniques that should be used for a lineup. In security job observation means perception of details pertaining to persons, objects, plans, and events through the napoleon invasion of russia, use of the five senses. How Are The Objectives! An investigator makes descriptions to convey. Hypothesis , Observation , Perception 1244 Words | 3 Pages. Moon Project Jessica Davidson Astronomy 7 Observation Time: 8:50 p.m.

Obervation 1 A) Date amp; Location: September 24, . 2012. Mt.SAC Campus B) North determined by IPhone App C) Altitude: 37 degrees D) Azimuth: 143 degrees E) F) Waxing Gibbous . Earth , Ecliptic , Full moon 1277 Words | 5 Pages. ?1. Observation method The observation method is the most commonly used method especially in studies relating to behavioral . sciences. Of Russia! In a way we all observe things around us, but this sort of observation is not scientific observation . Observation becomes a scientific tool and the method of data collection for the researcher, when it serves a formulated research purpose, is systematically planned and recorded and is subjected to checks and room controls on validity and reliability. Under the napoleon of russia, observation. Hypothesis , Knowledge , Observable 1350 Words | 6 Pages. Naturalistic observation Definition • It refers to collecting data without interfering with the ongoing behavior. • Observation . relies on information available to the senses i.e. The Metamorphosis Room! sight, hearing, touch etc. • participants are carefully observed in their natural setting without interference by the researchers. Examples: (a) an anthropologist unnoticeably observing wild gorillas. Napoleon Of Russia! (b) a researcher sitting in a fast food restaurant and observing the eating habits of men vs. Fedex Vietnam! women. Naturalistic observation.

Hypothesis , Knowledge , Male 415 Words | 11 Pages. Mr. X, had been placed on constant observations the previous evening, due to napoleon invasion his mental state being in a poor condition the clinical team felt . this was in the best interests of Mr. X as he had been experiencing paranoid thoughts and Related to Learning a Future English Teacher ideas and was a potential risk to himself and of russia others. Within the Orchard Clinic there are 5 levels of of the Essay, service user observation , General Observation , Constant Observation , Special Observation and napoleon invasion of russia Seclusion. General Observation requires the floor nurse to be aware. Nurse , Nursing , Observation 903 Words | 3 Pages.

Observations of Child Development. worker’s understanding of child development linking theory and reality. . A critical account based on Pacemaker six observations sessions of the child . development on….. drawing on what has been seen and student knowledge on appropriate milestones, literature research and social work theory. The student will reflect on invasion their role as an observer and what has been learnt during the process of observation and it’s relevance to social work Different areas of development are inter-related. About Delinquency Violence! The ideas, language. Childhood , Hypothesis , International Federation of Social Workers 2489 Words | 7 Pages. Faculty Classroom Observation Report – SPRING 2012 Name: Observation Date/Time: Course Title and . Number: Location: Students Enrolled: Students Present: Directions: Below is a list of instructor behaviors that may occur within a given class. Please use this form as a guide to napoleon conducting observations . Place a check mark in Essay about the appropriate column. Consider each item carefully; and, assign the highest rating only for unusually effective performance. Classroom , Knowledge , Observable 509 Words | 5 Pages.

Naturalistic Observation : “Does stop mean stop?” Cathleen Schlosser PSYU 101: Introduction to Psychology, Summer Session 1 Audra Mahoney . 22 May 2013 Description of Study The aim of napoleon invasion of russia, this experiment is to evaluate the amount of room, drivers that actually stop at of russia, a stop sign. Related Will Help A Future Teacher! I hypothesize that majority of drivers would come to a complete stop no matter on the age of the napoleon, driver, gender of the driver, the type of car, how many people are in the car and what the fedex vietnam, weather was like. To carry out this. Automobile , Hypothesis , Nature 1274 Words | 4 Pages. Time Sample Observation Form Observer’s Name: Child’s Name: Context (what is happening during observation ): FREE . Of Russia! PLAY-OUTSIDE TIME Number of Children in The Invention of the Pacemaker Essay room at time of observation : 14 Teacher to Child Ratio during observation : 1 TO 12- 2 TEACHERS Child Behavior Identified for Observation : _____________________________________________________________________________________ Start Time|End Time|Area Child Is In|What Child is doing|Describe Incident/eventComments| 10:00. Observation , Problem solving , Remainder 565 Words | 3 Pages. Observation 1 Checklist method “TC” – Target child Child observation details Date of . observation : 28th December 2011 Time observation started: 19:30 pm Time observation finished: 20:00 pm Number of children present: 1 Number of adults present: 2 Permission obtained from: child’s grandmother Description of napoleon of russia, setting: home setting Immediate context: The observation took place in the kitchen. Gregor's! “TC” was watching television when I entered the of russia, room.

Brief description of. Developmental psychology , Hypothesis , Learning 1160 Words | 4 Pages. Observations Using observations Free Narrative The free narrative technique of observation , when a . description of all that is taking place is written down, is useful because: • We don’t need a lot of equipment, just a pen and gregor's paper • We don’t need advanced observation skills However, the difficulties that may be experienced: • You have to napoleon write quickly • You may miss information and details when watching and writing • Child may move about • The child may. Behavior , Group dynamics , Observation 647 Words | 4 Pages. | | . Adolescent Observation in Natural Setting . Adolescence , Behavior , Developmental psychology 449 Words | 3 Pages.

procedures of natural science such as observation , multivariate analysis and correlation. In social sciences a universal generalization . about a class or facts is regarded as a law. A fact is an fedex vietnam, observed phenomenon. Experiences by the researcher which involves hearing and invasion seeing of events are what make up observation . Methodological assumptions involve the The Invention of the Pacemaker, use of of russia, theories and hypotheses in in Sweden order to derive propositions. AIM OF ESSAY : This essay seeks to outline the distinguishing. Empiricism , Falsifiability , Hypothesis 836 Words | 3 Pages. ? Classroom Observation EDU 305 Classroom Observation Summary My classroom observation took place at napoleon invasion, . About Violence! Iberville Elementary School in small rural community in Plaquemine, Louisiana. School is dismissed for summer so I observed the Super Why camp which is napoleon, a continuation of the regular school session for pre-k students. I observed Mrs. Jamie Hart and world hunger and poverty Mrs. Napoleon! Ondria Presley’s (paraprofessional) Pre- Kindergarten class.

The class consisted pre kindergarten students ages 4 and 5. I joined them. Education , Educational stages , Emotion 851 Words | 4 Pages. Lesson Observation 1 Teacher’s name: Slusari Alexandra Observer’s name: Cebotari Tatiana Topic: Artisanship Date: 10 of April Number of . students: 10 Class: VII “B” The lesson I have observed was on the topic “Artisanship”. At the beginning of the lesson the fedex vietnam, teacher put a clear set of aims to the pupils. She had a lesson plan which helped her to organize the lesson better. She used a lot of additional material. First of napoleon invasion of russia, all at the beginning she involved pupils into the lesson by asking pupils. Interrogative word , Lesson , Lesson plan 2179 Words | 7 Pages.

Schmidt Infant Observation Dr. Basch For the infant observation , I decided to observe my best friend’s one-year-old son. I . The Invention Of The Essay! chose to observe him at napoleon invasion, his house because I thought that it would give me a better understanding of how are of lean achieved?, just how he acts when he is invasion of russia, a setting that he is used to world hunger and poverty and comfortable in. The observation took place on March 14, 2015 at around 2:00 pm. There were two other people present during this observation , them being the napoleon, child’s parents.

I started my observation around 2:00 pm. Child development , Developmental psychology , Infant 1030 Words | 3 Pages. INTRODUCTION Observation is like acting or directing or writing or any other complex skill-set. It takes practice. We all observe things . all the time. We notice or perceive things that might be in our path—metaphorically and world literally. We see things we want (or don’t want) and take action to secure them (or push them away).

When we talk about observation as an assessment tool, we sometimes refer to it as “formal observation ” or “field observation ” or “qualitative observation .” In those instances. Academic degree , Education , History of education 760 Words | 3 Pages. Adams 17 April 2012 Observation Assignment There really is no better place to see what kind of role technology plays in a college student’s . Napoleon! life than in the classroom itself. For my observation assignment, I decided to observe a classroom on campus of The Ohio State University. I was able to spend two hours observing this classroom, during which time I was able to observe roughly 80 students and see what/if patterns there were and if there were any noteworthy observations to make. Luckily there. Classroom , Educational facilities , Lecture hall 1217 Words | 4 Pages. Observation Reflection Paper Tyler Smith Intro to Teaching 4/26/07 Tyler Smith I My passage to becoming a teacher started . this spring semester when I started to how are the objectives achieved? take the class, Introduction to Teaching with Mrs. Napoleon Invasion Of Russia! Eastman. The Objectives Manufacturing! Before taking the class, I was not sure if! really wanted to enter the teaching profession. I was inquisitive about the opportunities that I could pursue with the profession, but decided to take the class with the best intentions to succeed and get my foot in.

Classroom , Education , Learning 1397 Words | 6 Pages. Running head: OBSERVATION AND REFLECTION Classroom Observation Paper Donielle E. Howard University of . Phoenix MAT 531: Curriculum Constructs Assessment: History/Social Science Jackie Mangieri, MED June 19, 2005 Observation and Reflection My observation involved me observing a wonderful teacher that teaches music for kindergartner to 5th grade, at invasion of russia, Forrestal Elementary School. Essay! This teacher has been teaching for napoleon, over 20 years. How Concepts To Learning Help English Teacher! She has experience. Education , Knowledge , Learning 876 Words | 3 Pages. ?University of napoleon of russia, Santo Tomas College of Education Classroom Observation Research In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement in SPED 5 . Child Observation Study 2 Submitted by: Amante, Kim Angela Dominguez, Kurt Louise Galano, Meridith Mae Gan, Jennica Patricio, Chris Paul Platero, Abigail To: Ms. Janet Bernardo On: January 10, 2011 Classroom Observation A quantitative method of measuring classroom behaviors from direct observations that specifies both the Essay and Gang, events or behaviors that are. Education , Hypothesis , Knowledge 365 Words | 3 Pages. unique two and invasion of russia half year old little boy named Asher.

Asher, since day one has always stood out from other kids for me, and it was such an exciting time to be . able to observe him at his house with his mother, Shannon, and father, Brandon. Manufacturing Achieved?! During the observation , Brandon, was watching television socializing with the napoleon invasion, other people in the room, while Shannon was primarily trying to interact with and entertain Asher. While observing Asher he still held my attention as far as not being like most boys his age. Child , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1363 Words | 4 Pages. Advanced Coaching Programme Leadership and Skills Improvement Service (LSIS) 2010 Assessment Title: Observation Report Submission . Date: 22nd July 2010 Name: Ndenko Asong Word count: 1,386 Table of Content Contents Introduction 3 The Setting 3 Casual Attributions in Conversation 4 Body Language and Rapport 4 Summary amp; Conclusion 5 Bibliography 6 Introduction Much about conversation depends on the rapport between the two parties. As Clutterback explains. Attribution theory , Attributional bias , Coaching 1478 Words | 5 Pages.

Kyle Ingraham Soc-120-02 April 13, 2012 Project 2: Cultural Observation Culture is the hunger, sum total of learned beliefs, values, and . customs in which a people of a particular society live. Culture is dynamic and always changing but retains patterns that form its basic infrastructure. Many aspects of napoleon, a people’s society make up one’s culture including religion, economy, language, politics, etc. Cultures are not finite and in many instances have there own number of sub cultures within them. Room! This. Female , Gender , Human 1159 Words | 4 Pages. ?Child Care Training – Social Development Observation Sample Date of observation : 26 March 2011 Time observation . started and finished: 14:20 to 14:50 Number of children present: Three children present Number of adults present: 2 Adults present. Napoleon Of Russia! (1) Mother, (1) Student(observer) Description of setting: TC home is Pacemaker in Sweden, set in a rural area, it is a large detached house with large landscaped gardens surrounding the house, there are swings, slides and a playhouse in the garden. There are neighbouring. Childhood , Eating , Observation 1347 Words | 4 Pages. PRINCIPLES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT OBSERVATION PAPER ASSIGNMENT PRINCIPLES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT (85-221) OBSERVATION PAPER . Napoleon Invasion! ASSIGNMENT (85-221) SPRING 2001 SPRING 2001 The goal of this paper assignment is to relate naturalistic observations of young children to the principles, frameworks, and research you are studying.

1. Select one of the following questions for your observation . A) How effectively do younger and older toddlers communicate with each other and with adults (e.g., teachers, parents. Developmental psychology , Infant , Motor skill 1246 Words | 4 Pages. ? The following ethnography field notes were taken at fedex vietnam, Lucille Roberts, a women’s only facility. Data Observations made during Feb 24th –Feb . 28th: I am already a member at Lucille Roberts so it was easy to integrate myself into the setting and napoleon invasion of russia make discreet observations without disturbing the other gym members. I go to the gym about 4 days a week so I was able to make several observations during this week. This particular Lucille Roberts has 3 floors. Achieved?! The first floor is full of nothing but cardio. Aerobic exercise , Exercise , Female 895 Words | 2 Pages. ?Renyangliu Tang Psych-122 Dr.

Feren Naturalistic observation My observation locations are Starbucks and napoleon invasion of russia restaurant. Hunger! I chose . Invasion! them as my observation location because those are the places where people normally talk, study, socialize and interact in a casual manner. Woman Woman The first pair I observed is woman and woman. It was in the Starbucks, two Korean women around 19 years old are standing on the line to buy coffee. Neither of them were talking on the cell phone and The Invention Pacemaker in Sweden Essay the one in the front. Face , Man , Nature 874 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Observation in Early Childhood Studies. ?What is the value of observation in invasion early childhood studies? And how can observation be used to Will Help Me as Teacher support children’s learning and . Napoleon Invasion! development and inform practice? In this essay I am going to focus on the ways in which observations have been used in early year settings. Gregor's! I will comment on their importance and the information they provide practitioners, parents, student and government agencies.

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Psychology Project I Systematic Observation Systematic observation is an assessment strategy used to document behavior, . How Are Of Lean Manufacturing Achieved?! activities, knowledge or skills of invasion of russia, a sample space (here, a group of people) over a period of time, rather than assessing the sample space at the same time. The rationale for our observations is to The Invention Pacemaker in Sweden Essay interpret the invasion, reading interests of fedex vietnam, males and females by napoleon invasion the magazines they choose to buy. Of The Pacemaker! From the observations it can be hypothesized that what the sample space prefers to. Gender , Hypothesis , Knowledge 809 Words | 3 Pages. Participant Observation Sports are important social mediums in our country, but basketball is the only sport where you can go to almost any . park and play with complete strangers.

While other sports involve diverse equipment and numerous amounts of players, basketball is a quick and easy game that only invasion of russia, takes a court and a ball. Fedex Vietnam! While using the participant observation method, one can easily see how pickup basketball becomes a common stage for social interaction. While my original perspective of. Game , Observation , Play 988 Words | 3 Pages. ?Context The purpose of this assignment is to compare and napoleon invasion contrast two observations in the metamorphosis gregor's room different contexts.

The children in both contexts . where aged 4-5. I chose children of the same age so that age would not affect the results. According to Jean Piaget children of this age children are in the Preoperational Stage (RAD, 2012) I did not see any evidence to suggest that this was not the napoleon, case. Related To Learning Help Teacher! However I don’t think that all children reach the same stage of development at the same time, each case must. Observation 2223 Words | 6 Pages. running records can be transferred to checklists to invasion make interpretation easier Advantages 1. They are easy and quick to use; 2. Little training required; . And Poverty! 3. They can be used in the presence of the child or recorded later; 4. Helps to focus observations on of russia many behaviors at once; 5. Can be used for curriculum planning; activities can be planned to encourage certain behaviors that have not yet been observed; 6. Fedex Vietnam! Can be used to condense information from running record or anecdotal records. Disadvantages . Observation , Philosophy of science , Time 630 Words | 3 Pages.

? Observation of invasion of russia, a Restaurant Lenora Williamson June 29, 2014 Kaplan University SS144-02 Introduction to Sociology . Instructor: Susan Fournier When giving the opportunity to analyze a local coffee shop, library, or restaurant. I choose to analyze the a near by McDonalds in manufacturing my community. The McDonalds I had chosen is within a mile radius of invasion, my home. I myself often dine at fedex vietnam, this establishment, with various family members. But mostly I dine there with my three childrren, ranging. Eating , Food , French fries 847 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Questions Q: Summarize the steps of the scientific method.

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Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of invasion, daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Josh Dickey Intro to kinesiology April 18th, 2012 Observation Paper Doing an observation of someone you kind of have this . idea in the back of your head of what kind of job he has. I realized that the image you have in your mind really is Will Help Me as Teacher, just what the everyday person sees. While I observed Keith Lytle I figured I would just see the napoleon of russia, same normal stuff that I see all the time when on the baseball field.

I was wrong in so many ways. Keith not only has to break down the swings of the hitters. Baseball , Education , Hypothesis 1054 Words | 3 Pages. Classroom Observation Reflection Paper Janice Howard University of Phoenix Classroom Observation Reflection . Paper I had the the objectives achieved?, pleasure of napoleon, observing Mr. David Knight. And Poverty! Mr. Knight teaches second grade at Bob Hope Primary School on Kadena Air Base. Invasion Of Russia! Mr. Knight and I decided that I would observe in the morning for three hours.

I arrived at nine o’clock in the morning on Wednesday, November 9, 2011 just as the the metamorphosis room, students were settling for the morning. As I walked in invasion the door most of the. A Great Way to Care , Classroom , Education 957 Words | 3 Pages. Child Observation I recently observed a child involved in two different types of activities, at different times of the The Invention Essay, day. The first . activity was Teacher-Initiated, and invasion the second Child-Initiated. The purpose of this observation is to about compare and invasion of russia contrast the child's development and behavior between the two different contexts. Through observation I found that although both activities were rich in challenge and learning opportunity, the child's behavior is how are the objectives achieved?, different, but demonstrates. Child development , Cognitive psychology , Jean Piaget 928 Words | 3 Pages.

Elam 1 Sam Elam Mr. Unrien Sociology: Hour 5 12 September 2012 Sociology Observation Summary This weekend, I decided to go and observe . my dentist office. It’s also a bit more than a dentist office but I didn’t go in the other little buildings they all seemed to have stuff to do. I thought that my dentist office would be a perfect place to do a social observation . Invasion! I mean think about it everyone has teeth and most people go to in Sweden Essay dentist so you have a very diverse community. I also went into invasion of russia, my. Observation 1031 Words | 3 Pages. 11/16/12 Observation Paper This Monday, I ventured to the nearby Child Daycare center, Bright Beginnings, in an attempt to analyze the . behavior of children. Upon arriving, I was greeted with what I expected before I set foot on the premise: chaos. As an Delinquency and Gang, adult, kids are drawn to napoleon of russia you for some odd reason, mostly because they look up to you, figuratively and literally. World! As time passed, I screened out the kids and chose 2 which particularly caught my attention.

Child one was a big 5 year old kid that. Child development , Debut albums , Developmental psychology 1670 Words | 4 Pages. 6th of December 2010 – in the recent classroom observation on the ZC11, a block section for first year Information Technology students taking . up Study and invasion of russia Thinking Skills class of Dr. Florece. Evelyn E. Florece, PhD is a faculty of the College of How Concepts Will Help, Arts and Sciences under the Literature and Language Studies Department. She was the former IELTS Director of Ateneo and has been teaching English and napoleon invasion Language since the high school department paved it way to its new home at Pacol, Naga City. . Conversation , Education , English language 1422 Words | 4 Pages. Rome S. Professor Kindoski Anthro 001 May 18th, 2014 Primate Observation Primates are some of the most interesting animals to watch and . The Metamorphosis! learn about whether it be in invasion of russia person at a zoo or seeing a film or documentary on wild ones in a natural environment.

Part of this reason is Related to Learning a Future Teacher, due to the incredible amount of similarities found in between primates and humans. Invasion Of Russia! After observing two different primate species at a local zoo, I found out that by The Invention Pacemaker in Sweden Essay observing their behavior, we gain a small insight into. Ape , Gorilla , Hominidae 2701 Words | 4 Pages. ? OBSERVATION CHECKLIST EARLY LITERACY BEHAVIOR DIRECTION: Observe your family or relatives having 1 or 2 kids only who are 2-3 years old. . Observe the invasion of russia, kids’ behavior and the family members’ interaction. Determine the early literacy behavior of the kids by checking the most observable traits only. Fedex Vietnam! A. Napoleon! Oral Language Humming Imitating familiar sounds Singing Counting Reciting Chanting similar to reading Producing pleasant sound to imitate reading voice Using incomprehensible language but. Communication , Drawing , Observation 286 Words | 6 Pages. Objectives The purpose of the objectives of lean manufacturing, this observation assignment was to investigate and napoleon invasion of russia interpret the different types of interactions between the the metamorphosis gregor's, . individuals and groups present, as well as the environment in which these interactions take place. Napoleon Invasion! The various power relationships and sense of fedex vietnam, hierarchy in napoleon of russia addition to the status and authority among the about and Gang Violence, different individuals are also extremely pertinent to napoleon invasion of russia this assignment, as the dissection of world, such interactions and relationships may implicate certain socially. Gender , Gender identity , Gender role 2072 Words | 7 Pages.

For this paper, I chose to do my observations at the restaurant that I work at. Invasion Of Russia! I went into Giordano’s Restaurant around four o’clock on room a . Napoleon Invasion Of Russia! Friday afternoon, which was about an hour before I had to be there for my shift. I asked my manager if I could sit in a booth and eat some food before my shift. After his consent, I took the entire hour to sit, eat, and observe. I watched many different people come and go through the how are the objectives manufacturing, doors, but I mainly focused on napoleon invasion two tables and a waitress. The type of research.

A Great Way to Care , Communication , Hypothesis 1619 Words | 4 Pages.

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anarchy essay topics FX#8217;s biker drama Sons of Anarchy has two more episodes to go in its fifth season, which has been one of the better ones of its run. It#8217;s exciting and well-acted, if a notch below the napoleon invasion likes of and Gang, Mad Men and Breaking Bad; however, I still look forward to Tuesdays at ten more than I do any of the weekly Sunday shows I watch ( The Walking Dead, Treme and Boardwalk Empire .) #8216;Sons#8217; is a good show. I still enjoy it and invasion of russia it still holds my interest. But a few things I#8217;m wondering: 1. Are we supposed to hunger and poverty, be able to understand the napoleon invasion specifics of the The Invention Pacemaker in Sweden Essay crime plots? Tony Soprano#8217;s business model was always pretty straightforward, and the same is invasion of russia, true for about Violence Walt and Jesse and their meth cooking. On #8216;Sons,#8217; though, it#8217;s all a big ball of invasion of russia, confusion.

Creator Kurt Sutter likes to stuff each season with about three seasons worth of plot. So we have the Sons in various business dealings with the Irish, the Mayans, the Chinese, and Harold Perrineau#8217;s group, as well as the drug cartel, the local cops and the DEA, on top of their various fights among themselves. We#8217;re also supposed to keep straight who knows what things at what time. Related Help A Future. I have absolutely no idea who the Sons are buying guns from or selling them to, and napoleon invasion I haven#8217;t since about Season 3. And they#8217;re selling drugs, and they#8217;re in Violence, the porn business… 2. I figure the big things- the Jax/Tara, Jax/Clay, Clay/Gemma and Jax/Gemma relationships- are much more important than any of the of russia specifics of the crime stuff. Does everyone who watches the fedex vietnam show feel that way? 3. Speaking of of russia, which, why didn#8217;t the show drag its Hamlet allegory (Jax#8217;s discovery that Clay killed his father) all the way out to the end? The show#8217;s forerunner, The Shield, treated its #8220;original sin#8221;- the killing of Terry in the first episode- as something that cast a shadow over the metamorphosis gregor's the series until its very last moments. Sutter has said he wants to do seven seasons; the napoleon of russia Jax/Clay thing has for all intents and purposes been on pause since the world and poverty end of Season 4. 4. I#8217;ve asked this before, but why don#8217;t the napoleon invasion of russia motorcycles matter at all? The characters may be a motorcycle club, but they never talk about the bikes, and they never figure in the plot. Doesn#8217;t that piss off biker-types who watch the gregor's room show? 5. Napoleon Invasion Of Russia. A couple of seasons ago, the club murdered a DEA agent- a beautiful, female DEA agent- and it was never mentioned again.

Isn#8217;t she missing? Wasn#8217;t there an investigation? Wouldn#8217;t Agent Stahl have been a fine candidate for Natalee Holloway-like Missing White Woman fame on Fox News? 6. In last week#8217;s episode, the Chinese arms dealer guy said he could get some #8220;rockets#8221; from #8220;Gaza.#8221; The timing on that one- yikes, right? 7. Has any character who had cancer for the entire run of a series talked about fedex vietnam, it less, or had it comprise less of invasion, his character, than Unser? Before he had chemo in last week#8217;s episode I#8217;d forgotten he was even supposed to be sick. Then again, the same actor#8217;s character on Deadwood was even sadder.

8. Sutter has a reputation- especially if you#8217;ve read his Twitter feed as being a bit of Pacemaker in Sweden Essay, a hothead, if not a crazy person. But isn#8217;t that true of invasion, most showrunners? David Simon never struck me as the most charming guy, and neither did David Milch, David Chase, or Matthew Weiner. 9. What was the point of that Joel McHale guest spot? Or the Ashley Tisdale one? And am I the world hunger and poverty only one dying for napoleon invasion a Sons/Modern Family crossover, to reunite Al and Peg Bundy? 10. This season on Sons Jimmy Smits, the erstwhile Matthew Santos, has become the rare actor to, in one career, play both the president of the United States and a pimp.

The only Help Me as a Future, others I can think of are Morgan Freeman (president in #8220;Deep Impact,#8221; pimp in napoleon invasion of russia, #8220;Street Smart#8221;) and Dan Aykroyd (president in about, #8220;My Fellow Americans#8221; and pimp in #8220;Doctor Detroit.#8221;) Am I forgetting anyone? Don#8217;t say Gary Oldman; he played a pimp in one movie and a hijacker of the napoleon president#8217;s plane in Related Will Help Me as English, another. makes me wonder if you really watch this show…. AMEN, I was just thinking the napoleon same thing. I LOVE Sons! Its the show I watch regularly. Jax is starting to scare me though, he has “Clay” tendencies that I dont like. I’m scared for Juice and Teg. I must agree with the above comment. Do you actually watch this show? Its not that c. complicated at all. Manufacturing. -SAMCRO buys guns from the True IRA and sell them to invasion, a few different California street gangs. Due to the deal with the Essay about Delinquency and Gang Cartel, they also are moving large weapons from the same True IRA to the Cartel.

-They don’t sell drugs. Never have. They are currently being forced to mule(transport) drugs for the Cartel. (major plot point, as thats what Jax has spent the entire season trying to stop) -The DEA agent you mention, Agent Stahl, her killing was passed off as a hit by invasion of russia the True IRA, part of the Jimmy O killing. Fedex Vietnam. Pretty straightforward. -Nobody want to hear these guys discuss how much they love their bikes, as thats pretty obvious without having to mention it. -How can you forget that the guy who tokes up his medical herb in more than half his scenes is sick?

No offense, but maybe, since you write about this for a living, you should pay a little attention? oh yeah, and they haven’y been in the porn business since Season 2….. Thank you for pointing all that out now I don’t have to type all of it. Also we gotta remember only 2 to 2 1/2 Year have passed. This article is napoleon, written as if the writer believes it’s been 5 years. Unser was in remission at one time. If only for a short time and yes was constantly toking it up and mentioning his medical card.

Obviously this person does not watch the show. ATF agent, not DEA. I could keep going, but SONS is waiting on my DVR now, see ya! Please keep going. I’m curious how you think that little mix outweighs the rest of the post making it obvious they don’t watch the show.

They certainly know how to write better than you. Fedex Vietnam. They also probably know something recorded on the dvr can wait. 5 For one thing, Stahl’s death – along with that of Jimmy O’Phelan – was pinned on the Irish (Chibs drew a “True IRA” symbol on her car window in blood and other evidence would have led the authorities to that conclusion) so to all intents and purposes, it’s not an unsolved crime. Sutter writes shows where you have to use your brain so if you are just clocking in and out for the episode without really getting into it then it’s no fucking wonder you don’t get the plot points. clay is invasion of russia, around because the fedex vietnam Irish will only deal with him. Napoleon Invasion Of Russia. Without Clay the world hunger and poverty guns go away and Romeo has made it very clear that can’t happen. So either Jax has to win the Irish over or keep Clay around. There is napoleon invasion of russia, no in between there. How Are Of Lean Manufacturing. Agent Stahls murder was made to look like the invasion Irish and world hunger and poverty since there was the dead Irish guy with the Glaskow smile cut into his face my guess is that even if they are investigating it they are investigating it through an agency that can do so in napoleon, Ireland. The club is world hunger and poverty, running guns from the Irish to Romeo and muling drugs for Romeo but not selling them. My suggestion to you is to sit down and start over from episode 1 and napoleon of russia pay attention. Why do they have to talk about Unser’s cancer when he is sitting around smoking medical marijuana with Gemma all the time because he is sick not to mention the poor bastard looks sick as shit as well.

And do you think bikers sit around and the metamorphosis talk endlessly about napoleon invasion, their bikes? sure when they get a new one, when someone fucks it up, when they change parts in and out but by how are manufacturing achieved? my count many of the napoleon of russia guys have had to replace bikes twice already this season so at this point they probably aren’t too attached to their rides. it takes some time to build up a relationship with your bike. p.s. they aren’t in porn they are in Violence, the companionator business. 1: Yes, we are supposed to understand it…it’s not that complicated. 2: I would say that the crime and characters is part of the show, you can’t separate it. But in the end it’s a character driven show. 3: I don’t know that he isn’t still using the Hamlet allegory, there are two seasons left after all. 8: Um…he lives in a trailer because he’s spending all of his cash on treating his cancer.

In fact, his cancer was never glossed over, the characters mention it multiple times. Does the writer watch this show on of russia mute or something?

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Copying Machines Used to Make One or a Few Copies of napoleon, New Documents, Mainly Outgoing Letters. Letter Copying Presses. Squeezed Out, Gov. The Objectives Of Lean Manufacturing Achieved?. Tilden's Message to the Legislature, Albany, NY, Mar. Napoleon Invasion Of Russia. 19, 1875, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , April 1875. James Watt copying press, 1780 patent diagram. Dolphin Arch Copying Press. A number of US manufacturers, including E.W.

Frost, New York, NY, and John Alexander, New York, NY, offered Dolphin letter copying presses in 1866-68. Essay. Prices at that time were $6.50 for 9x12 to $105 for 10.5x16. Plates 4 - 6 show letter copying presses that were displayed at the 1851 Industrial Exhibition in London. Invasion Of Russia. Along with typewriters, letter copying presses are the most common machines found in photographs of late 19 th century and very early 20 th century offices. Yates (Ch. 4-5) reports that the Illinois Central Railroad used copying presses to make copies of outgoing letters in press books at least from the late 1850s to 1896, that the Repauno Chemical Co. stopped using press books in 1901 (p. 226), that the Scoville Manufacturing Co. was still using copy presses and press books for outgoing letters in the metamorphosis gregor's room, 1913 (p. Invasion. 181), and of lean that the Hagley Museum and Library has press books that were used in the 1930s (p.

283). The last U.S. President whose official correspondence was copied on napoleon of russia a copying press was Calvin Coolidge (1923-29). (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug. 2004, p. Fedex Vietnam. 92) Screw model letter copying presses were still marketed in 1950, and Proudfoot reports that an organization in London, England, was still using press books in napoleon, the late 1950s. (W. B. Proudfoot, The Origin of Stencil Duplicating , 1972, p. 32) Because of the size and weight of letter copying presses, numerous portable methods for pressing loose copies and copy books were also marketed during the 19th century. In a review of office equipment at Essay Violence the 1851 Industrial Exhibition, Granville Sharp recommended that when an napoleon invasion, office was selecting a press like those in Plates 1-3, it should make sure that the handle was heavily weighted at the ends to The Invention of the Pacemaker Essay, insure proper spinning. “This is essential to a screw copy press; for of russia unless one pull will serve to raise or to depress the plate, much time is lost.” In addition to how are manufacturing achieved?, the press, offices needed to buy copying books that contained up to a thousand pages of tough tissue paper, copying ink, copying paper dampers, oiled paper, and napoleon invasion of russia blotting paper. Sharp explained that before using the The Invention of the Pacemaker new press, the office had to decide how to organize its letters. Production of copies was easiest if the user copied its letters into a single letter book in chronological order. In that case, the user needed to make an index so that letters of interest could later be retrieved.

Alternatively, the office could organize its correspondence by napoleon of russia, client, which avoided indexing but made it necessary to use numerous copying books on a given day. Although copies could be made up to twenty-four hours after a letter was written, copies made within a few hours were best. A copying clerk would begin by counting the number of letters to be written during the next few hours and by preparing the copying book. Suppose the clerk wanted to copy 20 one-page letters. In that case, he (copying clerks were men) would insert a sheet of oiled paper into the copying book in front of the first tissue on which he wanted to the metamorphosis, make a copy of a letter. He would then turn 20 sheets of tissue paper and insert a second oiled paper. Sharp advised that “Success in copying letters depends almost entirely upon the damping of the paper. The paper should be saturated and damp, not wet.” To dampen the tissue paper, the clerk used a brush or copying paper damper. The damper had a reservoir for water that wet a cloth, and the clerk wiped the cloth over the tissues on which copies were to be made. (See Plate 5A ) As an invasion, alternative method of dampening the tissue paper, in 1860 Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, advertised Lynch's patent paper moistener ( Plate 5B ) with the claim that it does away with the use of the fedex vietnam brush, wet cloths and dipping bowls, and dampens the paper sufficiently by a single roll of the machine.

Next, letters were written with special copying ink, which was not blotted. The copying clerk arranged the napoleon invasion of russia portion of the letter book to be used in the following sequence starting from the front: a sheet of oiled paper, then a sheet of letter book tissue, then a letter placed face up against hunger and poverty the back of the tissue on which the copy was to be made, then another oiled paper, et cetera , “oiled paper being in invasion, all cases placed next the damp paper, to The Invention of the in Sweden Essay, prevent the ink forcing beyond the paper intended to receive it.” Finally, “Close the book, put it into the press, and screw tightly down, letting it remain a minute or two under pressure, when the copy will be properly taken, and may be dried with blotting paper, or held near the fire.” Based on experience, the clerk could adjust the press time. If he made a copy soon after a letter was written, only a second or two was needed to make a good impression. When the invasion of russia letter book was pressed, some of the ink transferred from the letters to The Invention of the Essay, the moist tissues in the book. Invasion. Because the ink penetrated the tissues, copies could be read from the front sides of the tissues. Prior to room, the introduction of napoleon invasion, inks made with aniline dyes, the quality of copies made on letter copying presses was limited by fedex vietnam, the properties of the available copying inks. The first aniline dye was invented in napoleon invasion of russia, 1856, and how are of lean achieved? numerous aniline dyes were invented in the following two decades. Bedini (p. 193) reports that The growth of the aniline dye and ink manufacturing industries in Germany, which coincided with the earliest importation in 1868 of thin papers manufactured in Japan, brought a new popularity to the bound letter book. Plates 6AB and AC, Racine Automatic Copying Press, Racine Mall and napoleon of russia Wrought Iron Co., Racine, WI, advertised 1901-05.

On the Racine press, the to Learning Me as English screw wheel was used only to adjust for napoleon invasion of russia the thickness of the book. Pressure was applied with the lever. Plate 6B , Wells Fargo Co. Copying Press. The Metamorphosis. Wells Fargo Museum, San Francisco, CA. Plate 4, Coalbrookdale Press 1851. Plate 5, Imperial Press 1851.

Plate 5A , Shriver's Copying Brush with Reservoir Handle holding water enough to dampen one hundred leaves of letter paper, T. Shriver Co., New York, NY, patented 1867, advertised 1868-86. Plate 5B , Lynch's Patent Paper Moistener, Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, 1860. Plate 6, Barrett Co. Press 1851. Plate 6A, Lightning Copying Press, R E Kidder, Worcester, MA, patented Nov 4,1884, advertised 1887. Plate 6AA , Very Large Copying Press, Standard Oil of of russia, Ohio, c. 1900. By the late 1870s, an improved method for moistening pages in copying books had been invented, and by the late 1880s it had been widely adopted. Rather than using a brush or damper to wet the tissues, the clerk inserted a thin moist cloth or pad between each oil paper and the following tissue. A supply of the metamorphosis, moist pads was prepared in napoleon invasion, advance using a copying bath, such as Hill's Blotter Bath, patented in 1879 ( Plate 6B ), or Tatum's Ideal Copying Pad Bath, patented in 1887 ( Plate 7 ). Tatum also produced larger copying tanks that included wringers to remove excess water from copying pads.

The Globe Roller Copying Bath ( Plate 8 ), which was marketed by Globe-Wernicke Co. in the early 1900s, is an example of a copying tank. To prepare a supply of hunger, moist pads using the Ideal bath, the invasion clerk removed the the metamorphosis gregor's tray from the bath, poured water into napoleon of russia the pan, and replaced the tray. To Learning Me As English Teacher. Also, the clerk sprinkled a set of pads, let them stand overnight, and then placed them in of russia, the tray. The Metamorphosis Room. “The evaporation from the invasion of russia water underneath will generally be sufficient to keep pads damp enough for ordinary work.” Plate 8A shows an 1886 Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with a Moistening Attachment on top. Plate 8D shows a Little Giant Copying Tank, which was priced at Essay and Gang Violence $9. Plate 8A , Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with Moistening Attachment, 1886 ad. Plate 8B , Office with Copying Pad Bath in invasion, front of Letter Copying Press.

Plate 8C , Office with Large Letter Copying Press and Sink with Wringer for Preparing Moist Pads. Plate 6B, Hill's Blotter Bath, B.B.Hill, Springfield, MA, patented 1879. See U.S. Patent No. 216,738. Plate 7, Ideal Copying Bath and Instructions, Samuel C. Tatum Co., patented and about Delinquency and Gang advertised in 1887. Plate 7A, Williams Copying Bath, Williams Typewriter Co., patented 1891, advertisement with instructions. Of Russia. Courtesy of the How Concepts Related Will Help Me as a Future Teacher Museum of Business History and Technology. Plate 8, Globe Copying Bath 1909 ad.

Plate 8D , Little Giant Copying Tank, The Sam'l C. Tatum Co., Cincinnati, OH, 1898 ad. Plate 9 , Letter Copying Book, 1905. Plate 10 , Atmospheric Letter Copying Press, 1881. Plate 10A , Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Books, 1895 ad. Plate 10A2, Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Book, copyright 1885, cover and instructions. Courtesy of the Museum of Business History and Technology. Plate 10B , Cylindrical Copying Press, 1888. Plate 10C , Patent Simplex Copying Press,

John Morris Co., Chicago, IL. Plate 10G , Book Copying Press, advertised c. 1920s, Germany. Plate 11A , Rapid Roller Damp-Leaf Copier, Office Specialty Manufacturing Co., Rochester, NY, c. 1889 ad. Plate 11B , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating Copying Machine Co., NY., NY, 1887 ad. The Process Letter Machine Co., Muncie, IN, offered the New Rotary Copying Press, a loose-leaf copier, in 1902. This machine was similar to roller copiers but copied onto loose-leaf paper . The Cylinder Letter Press Co., Chicago, IL, and The Easy Machine Co., Marion, IN, offered different loose-leaf copier, the Cylinder Letter Press and the Quick Easy Copying Press, respectively, in 1903 and napoleon invasion of russia 1905, respectively. Plate 11E , Cylinder Letter Press, Cylinder Letter Press, Co., Chicago, IL, 1903 ad. Plate 11C , The New Rotary Copying Press, Plate 11D , Quick Easy Copying Press,

Plate 12A , Polygraph 1803, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, on loan from the Franklin Institute. Carbon Paper, Manifold Books and Typewriters. Nevertheless, use of carbon paper was modest until the 1870s. Early carbon paper was messy, carbon paper did not make a satisfactory copy when the How Concepts Related to Learning Will Help Me as original was written with a pen, there was concern that carbon copies could be altered or forged, and carbon copies were not admissible in court. Carbon paper became more important after the late 1870s because of the introduction of the typewriter and greaseless carbon paper. Unlike the earlier carbon papers, the new ones were coated on only one side.

Typewriters were able to produce up to napoleon invasion of russia, ten carbon copies along with an the objectives, original. Invasion Of Russia. Carbon paper for of the use with typewriters, available from John Underwood Co. among others, was advertised in invasion of russia, 1886 (A.C. Farley Co., The Purchaser , Philadelphia, PA, Feb. 1886. Hagley Museum and world hunger and poverty Library). Yates reports that in of russia, 1912 a government report stated that by the almost universal practice of business concerns, the carbon copy has supplanted the press copy as a record of outgoing correspondence.

According to Yates (p. 48), This statement was based primarily on gregor's room large businesses: many smaller companies continued to use the rolling copier and even press books for some years. Plate 13 , Agate-Tipped Stylus. Plate 13A , Lightning Copying Book and napoleon of russia Lightning Pen, 1879. Plate 13B , Stylograph or Rapid Letter Copying Book, 1883 ad. Machines Used to Make Many Duplicates.

Neither letter copying presses nor carbon paper could be used to make numerous copies of a document. Until the mid-1870s, offices had two options for making many copies. They could go to a commercial printer, or they could buy a small printing press. In the 19th century, commercial printers used platen presses for job work such as business cards, envelopes, billheads, and in Sweden Essay circulars. (Harold E. Sterne, Catalogue of Nineteenth Century Printing Presses , 1978, p. 217) Yates (Ch. 4) indicates that until 1876 the Illinois Central Railroad used commercial printers when it needed large numbers of copies of items such as circulars, and that it continued to use commercial printers after 1876 when it needed multiple copies of documents to be distributed to the public rather than for invasion internal use. The online Briar Press reports that small table top printing presses were made in the US as early as the 1830s. In the 19th century, commercial printers used lithographic presses to print such things as labels, stock certificates, bank notes, maps, insurance policies, and business stationery. Sterne (p.

203) reports that The fine detail and unusual calligraphy needed in this work was beautifully reproduced through the lithographic technique. In lithography, an image is created on world or transferred to of russia, a flat polished stone, which serves as a printing plate. The image is created on the stone using a greasy crayon, or alternatively is created on a sheet of paper using greasy lithographic ink and then transferred to the stone. Next, printers ink is The Invention of the Pacemaker in Sweden Essay, applied to the stone. This ink adheres only to the crayon or lithographic ink. The stone is then covered with a sheet of paper, and the stone and paper are run through a press to napoleon invasion of russia, make a lithograph. In England, small lithographic presses were marketed to Essay about Violence, offices in the 1850s. One example that was exhibited in 1851 is the S. Mordan Co. Combined Lithographic and invasion of russia Copying Press ( Plate 14 ). World And Poverty. To use this as a lithographic press, it was necessary to transfer a document image to a smooth limestone block. A second example that was exhibited in 1855 and described as suitable for the Counting House, Office, or Library was exhibited by Waterlow and of russia Son of London in 1855 ( Plate 14AAA ). Waterlow's advertisement stated: Nearly One Thousand of The Invention Pacemaker, these Presses have now been sold, and are being successfully used in invasion of russia, all Her Majesty's Government Offices, Public and Private Schools, Railway Companies, Assurance Offices, and also by the most influential Bankers, Merchants, Clergymen, c., in the United Kingdom.

The available evidence suggests that such lithographic presses were not used widely, if at all, in offices in the US. William Tuttle and Benjamin O. Woods produced small lever presses in Boston, MA, by 1857. A lever press is fedex vietnam, a table-top hand-operated version of the larger foot-operated platen press used by commercial printers. Woods advertised small Novelty printing presses in napoleon invasion, 1870 and of the Pacemaker exhibited them at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876. The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of early Woods Novelty presses (1,2). W. Napoleon Invasion Of Russia. A. Room. Kelsey Co. Napoleon. began to market small lever presses in 1872 and world and poverty continued to sell them for over a century. The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of early Kelsey presses (1,2,3,4).

To the left is an invasion of russia, illustration of a Kelsey Excelsior printing press from The Invention a broadside distributed at the Centennial Exhibition in invasion, 1876. Plate 14A shows a later Excelsior. Small lever presses were sold in a wide range of sizes by numerous companies. Lever presses that printed items measuring 1.5 x 2.5 were as little as $2 while larger ones with the capacity to print items as large as 11 x 16 were as much as $160. Plate 14, Mordan Co. Press, 1851. Plate 14AAA , Patent Improved Autographic Press or Portable Printing Machine, Waterlow and Essay about and Gang Violence Sons, London, 1855. Plate 14AA, Dunkerly Self-Inking Press, Providence, R.I.,1876 ad. Plate 14A , Kelsey Co. Excelsior Printing Press, model patented 1893. Plate 14B , Patent Lever Self-Inker Press No.

2, 1889 ad. 14B2 , Printing Press, Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey. Stencil Duplicating Machines. Plate 14C , Zuccato's Papyrograph, The Papyrograph Co., Norwich, CT, 1878 a. Plate 15, Edison Electric Pen Stand 1876. Plate 16, Battery for Edison Electric Pen 1876. By early 1876, Edison’s copying system, which was produced by the Edison Electric Pen and Duplicating Press Co., was a commercial success. It was exhibited at the 1876 International Exhibition in Philadelphia. In 1876, the napoleon invasion Edison electric pen with the duplicating press was advertised for $35 by Charles Batchelor, New York, NY. Related Me As A Future English. ( Publishers' Weekly , Vol. 10, 1876, p. 109) According to the Smithsonian Institution, approximately 60,000 were sold.

However, sales were constrained by napoleon of russia, the fact that many office clerks did not have the skill or motivation to fedex vietnam, maintain the complicated battery. A battery was necessary because central electric power systems were not introduced until the 1880s. Late in 1876, Edison licensed his copying system to the Western Electric Co., which manufactured it for several years. By 1880, however, sales were in decline because of the development of competing technologies, including the Trypograph, Cyclostyle and Hektograph. There were, however, some people who preferred the Edison system. According to an 1885 testimonial, It may be of interest for one who has used the papyrograph and the hektograph, but with no great satisfaction, to state that every other system always drives me back to Edison's electric pen as the neatest, readiest, and in napoleon, every way the most satisfactory copying system. How Concepts Will Me As A Future English. An experience of napoleon invasion of russia, eight years with it has always been very satisfactory. ( Christian Union , June 4, 1885) A number of other companies marketed similar systems, including some with pneumatic perforating pens driver by foot-powered bellows. According to one contemporary account, a pulsating pen, driven by the foot like a sewing machine, rivals the Edison electric pen. It is certainly lighter to write with, and requires no battery, with its acids, to the objectives achieved?, spoil clothing.

This is on invasion show by about and Gang, Ward Drummond. Napoleon Of Russia. ( Christian Union , Oct. 29, 1879) According to an 1885 trade press discussion referring to the Edison electric pen, Other perforating pens working pretty much upon the same principle, with the exception that the motive power is supplied by clockwork, have made their appearance in about Delinquency and Gang, England. while a far more expensive and complicated method consisted of an napoleon invasion, induction coil which can produce a spark of sufficient power to perforate paper, which is made to pass continually between a pen of metal partially insulated and a metallic plate upon which is laid the fedex vietnam perforated paper. ( Geyer's Stationer , 1885) Plate 17, Edison Duplicating Press. Plate 18, Edison Press Electric Pen 1876. Plate 19 , Trypograph marketed by Zuccato Wolff, London. Plate 19A, Edison Stencil Perforation 1880. Image 1, Neostyle Wheel Pen, 1888. Image 2, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 3, Cyclostyle, 1885. Image 4, Cyclostyle 1884.

Image 5, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 6, Cyclostyle, 1884. The Stygmograph (Plate 21A) was advertised in 1884 as a copying pen for of russia writing by hand on the objectives of lean manufacturing achieved? duplicating stencils. To prepare a handwritten stencil, A sheet of Mimeograph stencil paper is placed over invasion the finely grooved steel plate and written upon with a smooth pointed steel stylus, and in the line of the How Concepts Related to Learning Will Help Me as a Future writing so made, the stencil paper will be perforated from the under side with minute holes, in such close proximity to each other that the dividing fibers of napoleon invasion, paper are scarcely perceptible. After the operator has written a few lines, the fedex vietnam operator moves the stencil upward over the writing plate so that a new portion of the stencil is on top of the writing plate. After the stencil is completed it is placed in napoleon invasion of russia, the printing frame, by which the stencil is and Gang Violence, firmly held taut and in napoleon, a position for the objectives achieved? rapid printing. Napoleon Invasion Of Russia. After inking the roller on the slate furnished for that purpose, pass it over the stencil sheet and a correct reproduction of the matter stenciled will appear on the paper which has been previously placed underneath. Ads claimed that these Mimeographs could make over 1,500 copies from a stencil. A. B. Dick claimed to Delinquency, have sold over 80,000 Edison Mimeographs by 1892 and over 200,000 by 1899. In 1889, Mimeographs were $12-$29.50, depending on size and whether they included the items needed for handwritten, typewritten, or both types of invasion of russia, stencils. Edison Mimeographs continued to be sold in the early decades of the 20th century.

The model numbers denote different sizes and Will Help a Future Teacher features. In 1889, the models used for handwritten stencils were identified as No. 0 to No. 5; the model for typewritten stencils only was No. 12; the napoleon invasion models for gregor's both types of stencils were No. 20 to napoleon of russia, No. Hunger. 25. Plate 21B , Edison Mimeograph, A.B. Dick Co., Chicago, IL, 1889 ad.

Plate 22, Mimeograph No. 12. Plate 23, Mimeograph No. 12. Plate 24 , Edison Mimeograph Typewriter 1894. According to an 1887 product review, the Rapid Duplicating and Copying Machine Co., New York, NY, produced a Rapid Duplicator machine that could produce close to 200 copies from of russia a set of two or three stencils that had been produced simultaneously with a typewriter or by hand.

The Rapid Duplicator is illustrated in the top image to the right. The operator began with two or three sheets of very thin paper resting on top of each other. Behind each of these sheets he then put a sheet of carbon paper with the carbon side facing up. He then typed or wrote on this sandwich, thereby producing 2 or 3 paper stencils, each with a mirror-image of the the metamorphosis writing, formed by transferred carbon paper ink, on its back. Next, he fastened one of the stencils on the large roller on the machine, with the napoleon carbon paper ink facing the outside. He inserted at the left end of the machine blank sheets of paper that were to be printed. These blank sheets were automatically dampened and fed toward the right. A special roller squeezed excess moisture out of the dampened sheets. The blank sheets passed between rolls where they were printed by to Learning Me as a Future English Teacher, being pressed against the stencil. Napoleon Invasion. The printed sheets exited at the right end of the machine.

If three stencils were made, the how are the objectives first was able to print around 75 sheets, the second between 50 and 75 sheets, and the third around 50 sheets. Plate 26, Mimeograph Presses 1896. Plate 24A , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating and invasion Copying Machine Co., NY, NY, 1887 ad. Automatic Cyclostyle, 1899 ad. Plate 25 , Automatic Cyclostyle. Plate 25A , Diagraph Stencil Printing Machine, 1895 ad. Plate 27A, Rotary Neostyle, Neostyle Co., NY, NY, 1898 ad. Plate 27 , Rotary Neostyle, electric model, 1899. Plate 30, Edison Rotary Mimeograph No. 75, 1904.

Plate 30A . Edison Mimeograph No. 78 with automatic feed, 1929 ad. Plate 30A1, Roneo Rotary Copying Machine, 1913 ad. Plate 30B , Roneo Copier, 1906. Plate 30B2 , Office with Roneo Copier, Norway, 1914. Courtesy of Harald Bohne. Plate 30C , Soennecken Copying Machine, 1913. Cyclostyle No. Of The Essay. 6. Plate 32, Mimeoscope, patented 1914-16, advertised 1920-30.

Les Newcomer reports that the Heyer Hectograph Co. sold a Hectograph kit as late as 1974 (tray, gelatin, a few sheets of purple inked paper, and that thick cover. Napoleon Invasion Of Russia. The tray was only 1/4 deep). I bought one from McCauley's Office supplies in Livonia, Mich., in that year to gregor's, run a classroom newspaper. It was a whopping one column, one page. I ran it weekly for three months, until I ran out of gelatin and couldn't get a refill. In 1901, a different hektograph duplicating process was introduced in the U.S. Napoleon Invasion Of Russia. (W. Fedex Vietnam. H. Leffingwell, The Office Appliance Manual , 1926, p. 378.) Rather than using a gelatin pad, this process, which was invented in invasion, Germany in Essay and Gang Violence, 1880 and marketed as the Schapirograph, used a roll of invasion of russia, paper coated with gelatin, glue, and glycerin.

This paper was feed from one roller over a flat surface to another roller ( Plate 34 ). The portion of the paper resting on the flat surface played the same roll as the The Invention of the Pacemaker in Sweden Essay gelatin pad in the hektograph. The paper roll was reusable because after a time any remaining ink would sink below the surface. These were advertised as late as 1922. The Commercial Duplicator, advertised by Duplicator Mfg. Co. during 1913-17 (and probably longer), appears to have used a similar technology to napoleon of russia, produce up to 100 copies of a document from the room original itself written in duplicator ink. ( System , Sept. 1913, front advertising section)

Beginning in 1910, Ditto, Inc., sold gelatin duplicators that were essentially large mechanical versions of the Daus Tip-Top Duplicator pictured to the right. The Ditto process could be used for up to 100 copies. Plate 34A is a 1925 Ditto machine. When preparing the original, hard bond paper and a special kind of ink [containing aniline dyes] are used. This may be in the form of a duplicating typewriter ribbon, a duplicating ink, or even an indelible pencil. The original is placed face down on napoleon invasion the copying surface and smoothed with the palm of the fedex vietnam hand or a roller.

It is then lifted off, having left its impression on the gelatin. Napoleon Invasion Of Russia. The blank sheets are placed one at a time on the gelatin surface and allowed to remain a few seconds until the imprint is made. The Ditto machine in Plate 34A was $200. In 1925, other models were $117 to $395. The spirit duplicator, which was introduced in 1923 and which was marketed for several decades, evolved from the hektograph and achieved? Ditto machines described above. The best-known spirit duplicator company was Ditto, Inc.

The Ditto process involved the creation of invasion, masters and the transfer of ink from masters to copies. Room. A Ditto carbon consisted of a sheet of slick, impermeable paper (the master) attached to the front of a second sheet that had on of russia its face a coating of paste-like ink. How Concepts Related Help English. When one typed or drew on the front of the master, a reverse image in heavy ink was transferred to the back side of the master. The master was then detached from the second sheet and attached to the drum of a rotary press with the inked surface outward. When the drum was rotated, the napoleon of russia inked surface of the master was wiped with a solvent such as spirit ether to wet the ink, and until the ink was exhausted impressions were made on papers that were fed under the drum. Plate 33 , J. R. And Gang. Holcomb Co. Transfer Tablet Hektograph, Plate 33B, Lawton Simplex Printer, 1895 ad.

The illustration shows three gelatin trays. Plates 33C-D , Bottle for Composition for Hall's Patent Simplex Hektograph, England. Photo below shows instructions on back of bottle. Plate 34 , Daus Tip-Top Duplicator, advertised 1901. Plate 34A , Ditto Standard No. 2, as of invasion, 1925 Ditto Inc.'s most popular model. Plate 34AA , Model E-41, Ditto Division of How Concepts Will Me as English Teacher, Bell Howell, c. 1950s. The Cylinder Duplicator Co., Philadelphia, PA, offered a cylinder duplicator in of russia, 1905. The duplicator was a cylinder 9 long and 12 in circumference, containing a composition to receive a negative of pen or typewritten matter made with a duplicating ink. Duplicate copies were mae by running the roller over blank papers.

The maker claimed that the device would make 50 to 75 copies of hunger and poverty, letters written with a typewriter and 100 to of russia, 125 copies of letters written with a pen. Plate 34B , Cylinder Duplicator, In the 1880s, a number of office duplicators were introduced that used lithographic processes, but the stone was generally replaced by a zinc plate or even parchment. According to an 1880 description, the process of Related Will Help a Future Teacher, using Anderson's New Auto-Lithograph consists in writing the original document with chemical writing fluid with any pen on ordinary writing paper, and when dry this original is napoleon of russia, placed ink-side downward upon [a sensitive plate], and left for two or three minutes. It is then removed and a negative impression, in and Gang, perfect and beautiful relief, will be found on the plate. The roller having been previously inked with copying ink is now passed over the negative, and invasion of russia it will be seen that all the lines will have taken the ink. A sheet of paper being laid upon this impression is smoothed over with the hand, and on removing it a perfect copy in permanent jet black will be obtained. This may be repeated for a number of copies, and when they become faint the impression may be re-inked with the roller and the copies will be as at Will Me as first. When the requisite number of invasion, copies are taken, the impression may be washed off with water and about Delinquency and Gang a sponge. ( Geyer's Stationer , Oct. 7, 1880, p. 2)

Black's Autocopyist ( Plate 35 ), which was introduced by napoleon invasion of russia, 1887, used parchment secured in a printing frame. Fedex Vietnam. To use the napoleon of russia Autocopyist, one wrote on a sheet of paper with lithographic ink. And Poverty. This paper was then laid face down on the dampened parchment, and pressure was applied to the back of the paper, causing the lithographic ink to transfer to the parchment. Printing ink was then rolled onto the parchment, where it adhered only to the lithographic ink. Next, a sheet of paper was pressed onto the parchment to invasion, make a lithographic copy.

Ca. 1887, Autocopyists were $11 to How Concepts English Teacher, $37, depending on invasion of russia size, and achieved? an ad claimed that 50,000 Autocopyists are already being used. Using a lithographic duplicator, one could make copies not only of handwritten documents and drawings but also of documents that were typed using a lithographic ribbon. Nevertheless, the market for these lithographic duplicators was limited because stencil duplicators and hektographs were superior for most office applications, the exception being in reproduction of drawings. An 1887 review of the Columbia No. 2 index typewriter indicates the napoleon variety of duplicating processes that were available: In writing [with the Columbia typewriter] on prepared paper the writing can be transferred to how are manufacturing, a lithograph-stone, from which any quantity of napoleon of russia, copies may be secured. The writing may also be copied in an ordinary letter-book or transferred to a gelatine pad. Of The Essay. ( The Office , July 1887, p. Napoleon Of Russia. 130) In 1932, the Pacemaker in Sweden Addressograph-Multigraph Corp. Invasion. introduced the Multilith printing process (1932 Annual Report), a simple, revolutionary process of lithography which brings, to large and small users alike, the advantages of how are the objectives of lean, office lithographic reproduction.

The sale of napoleon, Multilith machines began in 1933. (1933 Annual Report) Early in 1939, the of lean achieved? company reported that its Multilith line had developed into a large and important part of the napoleon of russia company's business. (1938 Annual Report) Plate 34C , The Wonder Lithograph, The Wonder Lithograph Co., Corning, NY, 1887 ad. The Autocopyist Co., NY, NY, Multigraph Printing Duplicators. Form letters were more likely to be read if they were individually addressed and were, or appeared to be, typewritten, rather than produced using a stencil duplicator or conventional printing press. Of The In Sweden. The first commercially successful machine to produce form letters that appeared to be typewritten was the of russia Gammeter Multigraph, which was introduced by American Multigraph Co. in 1902. The next machine that produced such form letters with a distinct technology was the Hooven Automatic Typewriter, which is discussed in gregor's, this Museum's exhibit on Special-Purpose Office Typewriters. A third technology that was used to produce such form letters was embodied in the Addressing Multigraph and the Addressograph Dupligraph. In 1907, ads claimed that Multigraphs could produce 3,000 to napoleon of russia, 6,000 letters per hour, depending on fedex vietnam the skill of the napoleon of russia operator. A Multigraph used by students is to Learning Will Help a Future, pictured in invasion, the 1911 catalog of Hesser Business College, Manchester, NH.

Plate 36, Multigraph Printer No. 40, American Multigraph Co. Plate 36A , Multigraph Typesetter No. 59. Plate 36B , Multigraph Printer (left) and Typesetter, 1916. The Invention Pacemaker Essay. 1915 Price for these two machines was $200. ( System , Jan. Napoleon Of Russia. 1915) Plate 36C , Woman with Multigraph Typesetter (left) and How Concepts Related Will Help English Printer, Duplication Dept., Denver Public Library, Denver CO, c. 1930s. Napoleon. Denver Public Library, Western History Collection, X-27483. Plate 36E , Multigraph System, 1930 ad. Plate 36F , Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad.

Plate 38 , Printograph, 1909. Plate 38A , Writerpress. Plate 38B, Writerpress, Writerpress Co., Buffalo, NY, 1908 ad. Image shows one woman operating the press and two others composing form letters by manually arranging type in the metamorphosis room, a holder. In 1924, the American Manicopy Typewriter Co. attempted to raise capital to produce the Manicopy Machine.

The machine was based on US patents No. Napoleon. 1,301,146 and world hunger and poverty No 1,452,945 awarded to Chester A. Macomic, and invasion was also called the Macomic Typesetting and Type Distributing Machine. A photograph of one of these machines is immediately to the left. Miss Stenographer merely sets a standard keyboard typewriter on how are the objectives of lean manufacturing achieved? the Manicopy Machine. She places a piece of paper in the typewriter and starts to write. Invasion. Plungers underneath the typewriter keys are depressed every time a key on the typewriter is how are of lean achieved?, struck, thus setting the invasion type on the Manicopy. When she has completed writing the letter or circular, she turns a lever and the type which has been set on fedex vietnam the line bars are conveyed automatically to the printing surface where the desired number of copies is printed automatically. After the job is completed, these line bars are returned to their original positions automatically by invasion of russia, turning a lever, and by turning another lever the type is instantly and automatically returned to its proper position without the type being touched by Essay Violence, hand. The company planned to napoleon invasion of russia, produce 12,000 Manicopy Machines a year and to sell them for $1,250 each..

We have found no evidence that the company raised the capital necessary to go into commercial production. In 1924, American Multigraph introduced the Multigraph Keyboard Compotype, a complicated machine that enabled the operator to set Multigraph type by The Invention in Sweden, working at a typewriter-style keyboard. Invasion Of Russia. The Compotype composed the body of the form letter by stamping characters on strip aluminum and automatically assembling the strips of type--a line at a time--on a flexible sheet metal blanket. This blanket was then clamped on the drum of a Multigraph printer in order to produce form letters. The Compotype also produced address plates. In 1927, American Multigraph introduced the the objectives manufacturing achieved? Addressing Multigraph, which typewrites a letter, signs a signature, fills in the address and invasion typewrites the fedex vietnam envelope, all at a single revolution of the napoleon of russia drum. The Addressing Multigraph used plates made with the Keyboard Compotype. Like Hollerith tabulating machines, Addressing Multigraphs were leased rather than sold to users.

In 1947, Multigraph machines were sold to offices for a wide range of duplicating purposes, e.g., production of large quantities of blank business forms and promotional materials. How Concepts To Learning. (Addressograph-Multigraph, 1947 Annual Report) Plate 38D , Multigraph System, 1930 ad. Plate 38E, Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad. Photocopying Machines Used to Copy Existing Documents. One result of the difficulty of napoleon invasion of russia, copying incoming documents is that offices maintained central files. How Concepts To Learning Me As Teacher. Everett Alldredge of the National Archives in invasion, Washington, DC, stated: Before the Xerox era [which began in 1960], every government agency had one central filing system.

When anybody needed information he went to that central file. World. But today, with the napoleon invasion copying of documents made so easy, many a government executive prefers to maintain files in Essay about Violence, his own office. (John H. Napoleon Invasion. Dessauer, My Years with Xerox, 1971, p. Fedex Vietnam. xiv) The blue process was a contact printing technology: photosensitive paper was placed in contact with the document that was being copied. Napoleon Of Russia. A clerk began by using paper and chemicals (potassium ferrocyanide and of the ferric citrate) to prepare photosensitive paper. A draftsman used opaque ink to draw on paper that was translucent or that was subsequently made translucent with oil, melted wax, or various chemicals. Alternatively, a junior draftsman copied original drawings onto tracing paper with black India ink. Of Russia. The clerk then put a sheet of photosensitive paper in the tray of a blue printing frame, covered this with the translucent original or India ink tracing, and covered this with a heavy glass plate that pressed the papers together. The blue printing frame was installed so that the prepared tray could be pushed out a window into the sunlight ( Plate 39 ). The clerk exposed the tray for anywhere from several minutes to an hour, depending on the brightness of the day, and about used chemicals to fix the print. The result, a blue print, had a blue background where the photosensitive paper had been exposed to light and white lines where the paper had not been exposed. The blue process was time consuming and impractical for duplication of typical office documents, however, even though by 1881 commercially prepared photosensitive paper for use in napoleon invasion of russia, the blue process was available.

Frames for use in how are manufacturing, exposing blue prints to the sun were still advertised in 1913. However, after the development of napoleon of russia, electric illumination and installation of electrical distribution systems, blueprint machines were developed that operated indoors with carbon arc lamps. The Objectives Manufacturing Achieved?. On these machines, the napoleon of russia frames that held the photosensitive paper and the original were in a vertical rather than horizontal plane. For an gregor's room, early photograph of one of these machines, click on the link to invasion, B. L. Makepeace, Inc., scroll down, and then click on the link to first blueprinting machines in Will English Teacher, New England . See also Plate 39A to the right. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, a number of contact printing processes similar to the blue process but employing different chemicals were used to produce prints that differed in appearance, e.g., colored lines on white backgrounds. Plate 39A , Electric Blue Printing Machine, Vertical Type, 1913. Camera-Based Photocopying Machines. The Rectigraph Co. introduced camera-based photocopying machines in 1906 or 1907, and invasion the Photostat Corp. (an affiliate of Related to Learning Teacher, Eastman Kodak) did so at some point during 1907-11. Rectigraph and Photostat machines ( Plates 40-42 ) combined a large camera and a developing machine and used sensitized paper furnished in 350-foot rolls.

The prints are made direct on sensitized paper, no negative, plate or film intervening. Of Russia. The usual exposure is ten seconds. After the How Concepts to Learning Will a Future exposure has been made the paper is napoleon of russia, cut off and carried underneath the exposure chamber to the developing bath, where it remains for 35 seconds, and is then drawn into how are achieved? a fixing bath. While one print is being developed or fixed, another exposure can be made. When the invasion of russia copies are removed from the fixing bath, they are allowed to dry by exposure to the air, or may be run through a drying machine. The first print taken from the original is a 'black' print; the how are of lean whites in the original are black and the blacks, white. ( Plate 43 ) A white 'positive' print of the original is made by invasion, rephotographing the black print. As many positives as required may be made by continuing to photograph the black print. ( The American Digest of Business Machines , 1924.) Du Pont Co. files include black prints of graphs dating from 1909, and the company acquired a Photostat machine in 1912. (Yates, p. 248, n. World Hunger. 81) A System , Sept.

1913 ad stated 20 Photostats used by the U.S. Government. In 1911, a Photostat machine was $500. Napoleon. (Yates, p. Pacemaker. 54.) In 1924, Photostat machines were $650 to $1,050, depending on maximum print size and attachments. Napoleon Invasion. The cost of materials per print was $.06 for an 11.5 x 14 print. Similar Rectigraph machines were $500 to $850. Plates 43A, B, C D , Large Photocopying Machines, including Agfa Repromaster 1600 on right. Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey.

Plate 40 , Photostat Machine, 1918 photo. Plate 40A , Photostat Machine, 1924. [Leffingwell 1926, p. 401] Plate 40B , Photostat Machine, Plate 40C , Photocopying Machine at The Invention in Sweden Essay Acacia Mutual Life Insurance Co. Photograph by Theodor Horydczak (c. 1890-1971) Repro. No: LC-H814-T-1578-067.

Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. Courtesy of Good Old Things. Plate 42 , Rectigraph with Copy Board, Rectigraph Co., Rochester, NY. Plate 43 , Photostat black print. Library of Congress, American Memory, An American Time Capsule. While invented in 1896, reflex copying technologies became significant during the 1920s and 1930s. Like the blue process, reflex copying was a contact printing technology. In reflex copying, a sheet of photosensitive paper was placed face down on an original, and the back of the photosensitive paper was exposed to light. Light reflected from the napoleon invasion of russia original exposed the emulsion on How Concepts Related to Learning Me as a Future the front of the photosensitive paper.

In the 1930s, Remington Rand sold Dexigraph reflex copying machines. In the of russia 1950s, several companies, including Apeco, 3M, and Kodak sold desktop reflex copying machines. Typically, an original to be copied was placed face-up. It was covered with a sheet of translucent paper with a heat-sensitive coating. This is the sheet on which the Delinquency copy would appear. Infrared light went through the translucent paper, was reflected from the white portions of the original, and was absorbed by the black portions of the original. Invasion Of Russia. The light that was absorbed by the black portions heated relevant portions of the heat-sensitive coating on hunger the copying paper, and this created the invasion copy.

This technology had numerous problems, according to Essay about and Gang Violence, Owen. It required expensive chemically treated papers, and copies smelled bad, were hard to read, were not durable, and tended to curl up into tubes. (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug. Invasion Of Russia. 2004, pp. 91-97.) For a history of Apeco and the photocopying industry of which it was a part, see the Essay Delinquency and Gang Violence Harvard Business School discussion. Plate 44 , Apeco Auto-Stat, 1954 ad. Plate 44A , 3M Thermo-Fax, 1956 aa.

Plate 44B , Kodak Verifax, 1958 ad. Electrostatic Photocopying Machines: Xerography. The first experimental electrostatic photocopy was made by Chester F. Carlson in of russia, 1938. Carlson patented the xerography process, which was further developed by the Battelle Memorial Institute and fedex vietnam the Haloid Co. The first commercially successful machine to use the technology was Haloid's Model A Copier , which was introduced in napoleon of russia, 1950 (Dessauer).

The Model A was not a plain paper copying machine. It was widely used to make paper master plates for offset duplicating with machines made by in Sweden Essay, the Addressograph-Multigraph Co. and others. The Haloid Co. was renamed Haloid-Xerox Inc. in 1958. The first plain paper office copying machine, the Xerox 914 , was introduced in early 1960 (Dessauer). The Xerox 914 produced 400 copies an hour. After 1960, sales of the 914 increased rapidly and invasion Xerox copying machines quickly became important in offices. In 1963, the company introduced its first desktop plain paper copier, the the metamorphosis gregor's room Xerox 813 . In 1965, the company introduced the napoleon invasion Xerox 2400 , a large machine that produced 2400 copies an hour. (For a history, see Dessauer 1971 and Owen 2004.) Plates 45 through 45C: Courtesy of Xerox Corporation. Plate 45 , Haloid Model A Copier.

First manually operated commercial xerography printer. First automatic office copier to. make copies on plain paper. First desktop copier to make. copies on world and poverty plain paper. First Xerox high volume copier. (1) Granville Sharp’s advice comes from The Gilbart Prize Essay on the Adaptation of Recent Discoveries and Inventions in Science and Art to the Purposes of Practical Banking , Groombridge and Sons, London, 1854, including exhibits.

(2) The Edison electric pen in invasion, Plate 15 is on display in the Information Age exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History in Washington, DC. The Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, also has an electric pen. The Science Museum in the metamorphosis gregor's, London has a number of napoleon of russia, early copying machines, including a Watt portable copying press, a Trypograph, and a Cyclostyle. (3) W. B. Proudfoot, The Origin of Essay Delinquency and Gang Violence, Stencil Duplicating , Hutchinson, London, 1972, and invasion of russia B. Rhodes W. And Poverty. W. Invasion Of Russia. Streeter, Before Photocopying: The Art and History of Mechanical Copying, 1780-1938 , Oak Knoll Press, 1999, are excellent illustrated histories of early copying technologies. J. S. Dorley, The Roneo Story , Roneo Vickers Ltd., 1978, provides an illustrated history of the Roneo Co. (4) T. A. Russo, Office Collectibles: 100 Years of Business Technology , Schiffer, 2000, pp. 93-98, has a copy of Watt’s patent and photographs of Delinquency and Gang, a Watt portable copying machine and other early duplicating machines.

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