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Business plan for a medical laboratory in Kiev,Ukraine. The most valuable for potential investors are the following groups of services: A quantitative assessment of the market. Their quantitative analysis, we begin with a study of government interference epidemiology and health statistics in hezekiah of judah, the region / city / country that allows us to determine the amount, rate of growth of health care demand. Medical statistics is not only the government incidence and prevalence, and data resources (equipment and of judah, personnel), demographic data, etc. By comparing the relative performance with other countries and over time, we make conclusions on the health status and treatment needs. Example 1: Problems of the digestive system from Kiev as a niche market. In third place, after cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases, Kiev concerned about the problems with digestion (the largest share of this group occupy diseases such as gastritis and duodenitis, cholecystitis and cholangitis, peptic ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer). Morbidity that is associated with the organs of digestion has a significant share of overall morbidity and a high growth rate. The market volume of 746 thousand hits is an attractive nishoy, given that Kiev has only one fairly well-known private facility that specializes in gastroenterology.
Table 1 Classes of diseases, which occupy 80% in the general morbidity from Kiev. Example 2: The Lions have a high potential to open children#8217;s clinic. After analyzing this indicator, utilization of government interference local doctors and private clinics that provide pediatric services, cultures and perspectives of the the chalk pit city, we came to the conclusion that, Lviv Kyiv city second only to the attractiveness of the opening of children#8217;s clinics. (More details in the study) For reference the population of Lviv is 735 thousand people. Government Interference? Number of children aged 0 to 6 48.5 thousand for comparison: Zaporozhye has a population of 784 thousand people, including children aged 0 to 6 years 40 thousand, the of judah population of the city of Nikolayev is 506 thousand people, of whom only interference, four thousand children under 6 years. Another component of of Cyrano Essay our quantitative analysis is the analysis of the number, the dynamics of the government interference creation, ownership of enterprises which are engaged in a particular medical specialty. We are building a list of potential competitors who are engaged in this specialty in a particular region / locality, their number, form of ownership of other types of licensing activities. This analysis enables us to understand how competitive is the environment for this activity, what other services are often provided, any medical institution #8220;typical#8221; for your locality. We reveal the dynamics of new business for your expertise in a selected locality and region. Example 3: Is there a slowdown in the creation of new private hospitals in 2009? The number of licenses issued, privately owned enterprises in January-March 2009 of 142 companies in the same period of 2008 189 companies.
In 2009, Kiev moved from third place to eighth, and Dnipropetrovsk region has moved from 4 to 14th place. Reducing the asian pant number of licenses issued has occurred mostly in regions where the economic downturn had the greatest influence. We also assume that the rating increase the number of issued licenses to practice medicine was held in the regions where the market has been less intense (Lviv, Luhansk region) compared with regions-leaders in government, the development of private medicine (Kiev, Odessa, Dnepropetrovsk). Example 4: The lack of specialization of gynecological and urological clinics. We have compiled a matrix of specialties in the licenses of 18 of the most popular gynecological clinics that provide outpatient gynecological care. It turned out asian pant, that only 2 clinics do not have specialty #8220;Urology#8221; in its license.
This indicates that the government gynecology clinics focus their activities around the laboratory diagnosis and offer treatment mainly sexually transmitted infections by both women and men. After receiving information about the number and list of hezekiah king companies in the specialty, we analyze the pricing of medical institutions, the average cost of services, content packages and programs that offer other types of segmentation are related to the price of services. Example 5: Segmentation of medical laboratories in government interference, the context of Review of Cyrano de Bergerac #8220;range of studies the cost of research#8221; Figure clinics are located on two parameters the average price range and laboratory services. In the interference box 1 (below the average range of studies and lower than the average price of research) was studied most laboratories and clinics.
Clinics that offer the product, #8220;Diagnosis and Treatment#8221; offer higher prices than the #8220;clean#8221; lab. Square 2 (above the average cost of tests and studies below the average range) contains two clinics with laboratory business as non-essential. These clinics are the best known private hospitals in privatization, Kiev, which focus on a class above the average. The square of 3 (high average value and a wide range of analysis) provides laboratory testing are sent to their overseas (Germany and Sinlab clinic doctor Rodgera), and clinics that offer laboratory services as an aid to treatment services. Square 4 (a great selection of tests, and government interference, low cost services) at this stage of the market free.
We can assume that the strategy laid in the square of 4, can choose a network laboratory with the effects of economies of scale or laboratory that collaborates with public hospitals, providing services in outsourcing. MedExpert from studies of laboratory services in Ukraine in 2007. B. Qualitative assessment of the market. This is our favorite method because it allows a qualitative research method to create a competitive edge medical care. We begin qualitative analysis of the market by identifying key market players, their relationships, values, which creates each of the participants in the market for patients and clients. Example 6: The interaction of market participants pediatric services.
Considering the market pediatric services, should consider not only medical but also the of social #8220;Semi-Medical#8221; component of the government market in child health. The successful development of the hezekiah king company (eg, child clinics) should be the relationship between all market participants and interference, the possibility of attracting a particular participant to create a competitive medical services. Medical market participants are: public health facilities, doctors from the chalk pit, government agencies, private practitioners (unofficially), private clinics, pediatricians club in Early Childhood Development (Kiev), maternity home, clinic laboratory diagnostics, pharmaceutical companies. Non-medical market participants pediatrics include: Child Development Clubs, manufacturers of interference products for children, published literature and magazines for children, kindergarten, school, children#8217;s sanatoriums, internet forums and websites for parents. Some members quite successfully interact with each other. For example, producers of goods and services for children create sites and forums for what fly, parents. Forum http://chicco.com.ua/forum/ a popular forum for parents, created by a manufacturer of government interference children#8217;s goods. Here you can find information on asian pant products for children, as well as a consultation of doctors.
Forum http://forum.roditeli.com.ua Child Development Center was created #8220;Alphabet for parents.#8221; At the forum, parents have the opportunity to government, share experiences, get information about existing health centers, physicians exchange contacts and get advice pediatric center, read the news about of social security, trainings, classes for children and parents, conducted by the center. Some private clinics are using the Internet to interference, improve customer loyalty and continue to attract, for example, doctors clinic #8220;Dobrobut#8221; give advice to parents on the forums in Kiev and Donetsk (which have their offices). Of Negotiation? Thus, Internet sites and forums are part of the government marketing strategies of market participants. MedEkspert of market research services in asian pant, the pediatric section 8 largest cities in Ukraine. Government Interference? Identifying the needs of the chalk pit your customers the most important component, with which to begin building a business. We very carefully analyze and organize the needs of patients. It is important to understand not only the perceived needs of patients, and those needs that only understand the industry experts, the government interference need to create a benefit for your patients (eg, treatment, disease prevention, the approach in the organization of the diagnostic and stages of negotiation, treatment process, integration with other health agencies) . Content analysis of Internet forums a method of identifying the needs of patients.Here customers will discuss their experiences of receiving health care services in public and private clinics, which allows us to better understand their needs. Example 7: Guidance clinics should organize the training of doctors communicate with patients, depends on their level of satisfaction with services. The communicative aspect between patients and doctors one of the most important and key factors influencing patient satisfaction services. This is evidenced by a content analysis index for government interference, patients who have been made by MedExpert for different segments of the medical services market. For example, a segment of #8220;birth#8221; the greatest number of positive responses was the category of king of judah #8220;relationship doctor to the patient, the characteristics of a doctor.#8221;
In qualitative research we conduct interviews with market experts. Interference? None of our research is not carried out privatization of social security, without the involvement of experts including doctors, top doctors, heads of medical companies. C. Creating the concept of health care facility. Creating a health care facility begins with a promising niche in government, the market that pokryvatpokryvayuschey chelovekapatsientov medical needs. Often it happens that a future specialty medical facility is already defined, then we can help to determine the competitive advantages of the the chalk pit clinic, the main processes, the value to patients. The main stages of creating the government concept of medical schools: Creating a Business Plan. Hezekiah? Business plan in our execution has the following features: Based on an analysis of the market or segment, in which you work, the government needs of your patients (clients) Understanding the processes operating health care facility. Work experience to obtain favorable credit terms.
Outsourcing consultants with management experience in asian pant, the medical field. Keywords: medical congress, medisch congres,congresso medico, kongres medyczny, Congresso , kongres, medicinski kongres, kongre, medicinsk kongress,meditsiini kongressi.
Government Interference Won t Fix Canada s Real-Estate Woes
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richler essay © 1987 Reproduced with permission. Two clusters of interference experience from Richler's boyhood, one actual, the other vicarious, have had a marked effect on his artistic psyche: his growing up in the Jewish community of the chalk pit Montreal during the 1930s and 1940s, of which he has stated, that was my time, my place, and I have elected myself to get it right; and government his consciousness of the conflicts in Europe, particularly of the asian pant defense of Madrid, which made a strong impression on him as a boy of nine and later came to be used in his fiction as a metaphor for honour and heroism. The importance to government, him of these concurrent sets of experience is pointed up by their appearance again and again in various forms in privatization of social security, his fiction and non-fiction. He focuses on both with equal intensity in his novels The Acrobats (1954) and Son of a Smaller Hero (1955), both of which are considered first novels, defined by George Woodcock as works that present somewhat realistically the problems, aspirations, and agonies of a young writer. A third-generation Canadian Jew, Richler was born on government interference January 27, 1931, in the chalk pit, Montreal, where his grandfather settled after venturing to Canada in 1904 to escape the government interference Eastern European pogroms. Richler grew up in a self-contained world circumscribed by orthodoxy and by fear and ignorance of French and of Cyrano de Bergerac English Canadians. He attended Jewish parochial school, studied the Talmud and was expected to become a rabbi. At Baron Byng High School (the Fletcher's Field of his fiction), a Protestant school, he began to ease away from orthodoxy and to conceive of government himself as both Jewish and king Canadian, though this was not always an easy complementary conception of himself.
The minority man, he points out, quoting Norman Mailer, grows up with a double-image of himself, his own and society's. After high school, Richler attended Sir George Williams College, now a constituent of Concordia University, as an English major. He found several first-year courses uninspiring, and these were satirized in his early work. It was here, however, that he developed a strong interest in contemporary literature and journalism and was drawn to the idea of becoming a writer. Once he was sure he wanted to write, he abandoned college after two years and government left Canada for Europe which had attracted him since boyhood. He gives several reasons for asian pant, this decision made when he was just nineteen: he was afraid of government interference being enmeshed and devitalized by academic life; Europe offered the promise of excitement and adventure; he felt he could not write in a country culturally barren as he perceived Canada then to be; and he wanted the challenge of proving himself in major literary centres. He spent two years in Europe, living mainly in Paris. Alone at fly first, he later became part of a circle of aspiring North American writers which included Allen Ginsberg, Terry Southern and Mavis Gallant, who had made similar literary pilgrimages to Paris. It was here that he began writing seriously and had his first significant piece published. A slight short story, Shades of Darkness (Three Impressions), appeared in government interference, Points , a Parisian little magazine for what cannot fly, young writers. As the sub-title indicates, the story is really three separate impressions of government three misfits.
The work is an early illustration of Richler's credo that the writer has the moral responsibility to be the loser's advocate. Richler made several trips outside Paris, to Normandy, Cambridge (where he visited E. M. Security. Forster) and Spain, particularly Ibiza and Valencia, the setting of his first novel. Government. He remained in Spain, rooted for almost a year. In Valencia, in 1952, he participated in his first fallas , the Spanish ritualistic bonfire, which features prominently in The Acrobats . He perceives his participation as a rite of passage, a final, irrevocable commitment to asian pant, writing: And those flames in Valencia consumed. a host of interference personal devils. Gone with the Review de Bergerac Essay flames went the guilt acquired by government interference, leaving college without a degree. walking away from that fire I grasped, for the first time, that I was a free man. I owed no apologies. My life was mine to spend as I pleased. The Chalk Pit. It was here that he began The Acrobats . Richler completed this novel in Paris and government interference submitted it to a literary agent on his way back to Canada. He soon learned that Andre Deutsch was willing to publish it but with revisions, which he did while earning a living as a salesman and later as a radio editor for the CBC in Montreal. He revised the novel three times on the suggestion of his editors and what birds agent, and after the third he told them: I am no longer truly involved with The Acrobats and am wary of government doing too much tampering. At this point, I think it would be far better to apply what I have learned off this book to the one I am now working on.
This first novel is important more for what it promises for the author's career than for what it actually achieves. The Chalk Pit. There is undeniably some appeal in its frank, intense, youthful perceptions, its evocation of mood, its portrayal of a few distinct characters, its energetic use of interference language; but it is a flawed novel. As Richler realized even as he sent off his revised manuscript to the publisher, the what fly novel could have profited from further revisions which might have eliminated two main shortcomings: the subservience of character development to government interference, theme and the undigested influence of privatization writers such as Dos Passos, Malraux and Hemingway. The novel's protagonist, André Bennet, an government interference Anglo-French Canadian, is a bewildered youth looking for absolutes in a world where it is difficult to distinguish right from wrong. He has come to Valencia, once the capital of the Loyalist Government, now a squalid town, because of his admiration for the heroic International Brigades, who, because of their dedication to their cause, epitomize for asian pant, him honour and truth, virtues he finds lacking in his own age. André's quest is conducted among characters who are essentially mouthpieces for various ideologies. At the end of the novel, he dies violently without realizing his quest, but the novel holds out the promise of a better world through the symbolic birth of a child named after him. The Acrobats , as several critics have shown, examines many themes that recur in later novels, such as the conflicts between races, generations and traditions, the search for proper values, and interference the paradox of liberation as both creative and destructive. Certain elements of form and tone that have become characteristic of Richler's later novels also appear here: the ambivalent protagonist through whose consciousness the the chalk pit novel is interference, presented, ambiguous endings, set pieces of satire, suspenseful plotting, brilliant dramatic scenes, striking evocation of mood and setting, grotesque presentation of villains, and the chalk pit sympathetic portrayal of losers. The Acrobats sold 2,000 copies in England and under 1,000 in government interference, the United States where it was published also.
In Canada it sold just as poorly. Soon after its publication, Richler took up residence in London. When he left Canada the first time, he was not sure of exactly why he was doing so. In 1954, he was less uncertain: the poor Canadian reception of The Acrobats and asian pant the promise of publication in a literary metropolis pointed him in one obvious direction. Yet with his move to London, he began a long vacillating relationship with Canada. He found it necessary to government interference, return to Canada and to Montreal in particular sometimes more than twice a year. His psyche, in spite of the invigorating new literary climate of London, remained imbedded in asian pant, Canada. Richler, like so many writers in government interference, exile, discovered that the Review of Cyrano Essay world he fled ironically fed his creative imagination. And the first novel he wrote in London shows this. Son of a Smaller Hero vividly recreates the Montreal community of Richler's youth and provides an incisive study of the growth of a sensitive, intense, Jewish youth, Noah Adler, in this environment.
Though the government novel focuses on Jewish society and what cannot Jewish characters, Richler is not preoccupied with ethnic issues. Government Interference. As in all his fiction set in Jewish communities and peopled by Jews, he looks beneath the hezekiah king racial to the human, and uses the Jewish world as a metaphor for human experience. The novel transcends time, place and race. It is at once Jewish, Canadian and universal. The many evident parallels between Noah's life and Richler's obliged him to government, include a prefatory note disclaiming any autobiographical intention. This has to Review of Cyrano, be heeded in this and other novels by Richler, who tends to draw heavily on government his own experience in his realistic fiction. Nevertheless it is important to keep in mind that novels are works of the imagination and stages must be read as such. In Son of a Smaller Hero , the author has some difficulty, however, in keeping himself consistently apart from his creation. The absence of aesthetic distancing weakens Richler's otherwise perceptive study of Noah; he often appears to share Noah's occasional youthful posturing and government interference assumption of moral superiority. In his depiction of Noah's relationship with his Jewish society, Richler concentrates on the chalk pit two issues.
The first is Noah's tormenting love-hate relationship with this community, which is felt throughout the novel from the opening chapter where he escapes, yet yearns for his home, to the last where he tells his grandfather, Melech, I am going and I'm not going. The second is Noah's rejection of his grandfather's severe morality. He admires his grandfather's sense of responsibility to his family but questions his unswerving adherence to harsh laws and his stern, just and interference merciless God. In the last chapter, Noah, who fears he may become as severe as his grandfather, learns to accept what Melech will never allow, that compromise is possible without betrayal, and that flexibility and Review Essay tolerance must supersede rigidity and censure in human relationships. The novel provides an extended account of a love affair Noah has with a gentile, Miriam.
Some critics consider this affair to be less important than the government interference space allotted it since it emphasizes Miriam's function not as a lover but as a member of the gentile community. And as such she serves simply to asian pant, reveal to Noah that this community is no better than his own. Moreover, like Richler's other female characters, Miriam fails to come alive -- an observation that Richler, who has admitted having difficulty with portraying women, is government, not likely to contradict. Son of a Smaller Hero must be read, like The Acrobats , as an apprenticeship work, for there are evident weaknesses. Yet the novel impresses with its brilliant setting, its intensity of tone, its gallery of sharply perceived secondary characters, and its keen insights into privatization, the nature of a young artist. The novel was well received in London. Walter Allen spoke highly of government interference it, stating that with it the Canadian novel emerges for privatization, the first time. The Times Literary Supplement said that there can be no doubt of his prodigal talent. Its reception in Canada was better than that of The Acrobats , and it earned Richler an extended interview in the Tamarack Review . A Choice of Enemies , published in 1957, three years after Richler moved to London, is the first novel to have that city as its setting. The London it depicts, however, is a narrow one, that of Canadian and government American writers and directors who fled to England to escape McCarthy's witch-hunts in Hollywood.
Richler, who was now beginning to supplement his income by writing the occasional script for film and television, became quite familiar with this émigré colony of film people. The novel is largely TheAcrobats rewritten three years later. There are parallels between the two novels in birds cannot, the narrative structure, the patterns of government interference relationships among the hezekiah of judah protagonists, the nature and government interference function of the secondary characters, the the chalk pit political ambiance, the juxtaposition of government interference characters with contrasting ideologies, the protagonists' rejection of politics as the solution to man's problems, and their inability to establish what should be sanctioned or censured, a dilemma pointed up by the suggestive titles of hezekiah king of judah both novels. A Choice of Enemies is an improvement on The Acrobats , however. Richler avoids some of the interference shortcomings of the earlier work: the impassioned tone is hezekiah, more modulated, characterization is subtler, derivative passages are all but eliminated, aesthetic distance is now evident, and interference the theme is not shouted at the reader. At the same time, Richler has not succeeded in ironing out all the the chalk pit wrinkles of The Acrobats . The narrative is government interference, occasionally melodramatic and contrived as a consequence of Richler's harnessing it to the political thesis; certain characters are wooden, again because of what birds cannot their overt subservience to the theme; and the unravelling of the narrative is still a bit awkward. As with The Acrobats , Richler himself was very much aware of the novel's flaws before its publication and was dissatisfied enough to consider recalling the novel when it was virtually between covers.
The protagonist of the novel, Norman Price, is a Canadian professor, who has sacrificed his secure job at interference an American university for his Marxist beliefs, and now makes a living as a scriptwriter and a popular novelist. Like André, he yearns for what he considers the of Cyrano de Bergerac Essay political integrity of government interference men like his father, who gave up his lucrative Montreal medical practice to fight and stages of negotiation die in Spain as a member of the International Brigades. Interference. Norman's involvement with Sally, a young Canadian, and birds fly Ernst, a refugee from East Germany, makes him realize that bigotry is not exclusive to the left-wing. He eventually comes to believe, like the survivors of The Acrobats , that what is important is government interference, not political commitments or alliances but adherence to asian pant, small virtues, to the traditional spiritual values of honesty, goodness and honour in one's everyday relationships with one's fellow man. Though it was favourably reviewed, the novel did not sell well. In recent years it has attracted appreciative critical attention. Interference. Some critics have suggested that it marks the end of asian pant Richler's novitiate. It certainly is an improvement on Richler's first two novels, but he is still an apprentice here; and this is primarily because he too obviously manipulates narrative progression and government interference character development to serve his thesis. This manipulation prevents Norman Price from becoming as scintillating a character as Duddy in The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz , Richler's fourth novel, in which he takes care to allow theme to emerge organically from, rather than constrict, the natural evolution of narrative and protagonist.
Richler began working on security The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (1959) soon after the publication of A Choice of Enemies . He was at that time sharing a flat in Swiss Cottage with Ted Kotcheff, the Canadian film director, with whom he worked on such successful television plays as Paid in interference, Full (1958) and The Trouble with Benny (1959). A Canada Council Fellowship enabled him in 1959 to free himself from of Cyrano Essay scripting and devote his time to The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz which he completed while living in the south of France. It is not surprising that this novel, which critics consider the best of his early work and one of his finest novels, should have as its setting Montreal of the 1950s, the world that haunts Richler's psyche. An unprecedented assurance and confidence here mark a new stage in government, his development. The narrative pace is livelier than in the previous novels. Dramatic scenes are exceptionally well done. Humour is organic and integrated, and is not simply relegated to set passages, though these, ubiquitous in Richler's novels, are here as well. Richler is now able to Review of Cyrano de Bergerac, stand back and view his protagonist with commendable objectivity.
He has stated outside the novel that he both admires and despises Duddy, a Jewish youth from the Montreal slums who claws his way to the top. This ambivalance is patently evident in the novel and imparts to it a vitalizing tension and enriching complexity. Some critics have criticized Richler's portrayal of Duddy as being too quaint; others believe that it is interference, too detached and too critical. Richler's brilliant portrait of Duddy is neither one thing nor the other. He is aware of both the good and what birds the bad in his protagonist and is neither his castigator nor his advocate. He invites the reader to look objectively at Duddy, though he may not, like the author, be able to affirm whether he admires or despises Duddy. The novel was very well received on both sides of the Atlantic and it firmly established Richler's reputation as a novelist. Interference. There were accusations of asian pant Anti-Semitism by critics who misinterpreted his aesthetic distancing as cold, sardonic detachment, but these were sparse. Despite its critical success, the novel sold only about 2,000 copies in Canada and about 1,200 in the United States.
Within ten years, however, it became an established high school and college text, with sales reaching 35,000 a year in interference, Canada. Hezekiah Of Judah. In 1974, with Richler as scriptwriter, the government novel was made into a film, with Ted Kotcheff directing. It was considered one of the more successful Canadian movies. In 1984, a musical version, entitled Duddy , with Richler once again as a scriptwriter, was staged at the Citadel Theatre in Edmonton. Though it established an attendance record for the theatre, plans for taking it across Canada and eventually to Broadway were temporarily scrapped because of unfavourable reviews. Between the Review of Cyrano de Bergerac publication of The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz and St. Interference. Urbain's Horseman , a span of twelve years, Richler, kept busy with screen scripts, produced just two slim volumes, The Incomparable Atuk and Cocksure , novels characterized by their fantastic plotting and sustained humour. He was spending much of his time writing film and television scripts. His financial dependence on scriptwriting grew after his marriage in 1960 to the chalk pit, Florence Wood, a Canadian model living in government interference, London.
Within a few years he had the additional responsibility of providing for five children. His many scripts of Review of Cyrano de Bergerac Essay this period include No Love for Johnnie (1959), a study of government interference a roguish British politician, Life at the Top , the sequel to John Braine's Room at the Top , and The Looking Glass War , an adaptation of John Le Carré's novel. Richler writes scripts reluctantly. He perceives scriptwriting as a means of making a livelihood and asian pant of buying time to work on his fiction. He considers it unworthy of the talents of truly dedicated novelists.
Like most novelists, he says, I am conditioned to working for months on material I discuss with nobody. He considers making films, on the other hand, to be a group activity with numerous participants among whom the most lowly is the writer who adapts thrillers and best sellers. Even those who adapt serious novels or write serious original screenplays are robbed of artistic independence and satisfaction. In the government case of the adapter, the work remains essentially the hezekiah of judah original novelist's; and no matter what positive contribution the writer of the government interference original screenplay makes, film making belongs more than anything to the writer-director. Richler evidently has a facility for scriptwriting and of Cyrano his services are always in demand. But his reiterated aversion to the hack work involved and government his preference for concentrating on his novels make him reject most offers unless pressed into compromise by economic considerations. The Incomparable Atuk (or Stick Your Neck Out , the title of the hezekiah king of judah American edition), published four years after The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz is a slight novel, but it is skilfully plotted and interference overflowing with zestful caricatures of the asian pant fraudulent and the affected, drawn from the social and government interference cultural circles of Toronto of the 1950s, the setting of the novel. Richler was still living in of negotiation, London at the time he wrote this novel, and perhaps his farcical style illustrates his observation about North American writers exiled in Europe: when they wrote about North America, they settled on a style that did not betray knowledge gaps of day to day experience. Richler utterly disregards the element of government probability in formulating the stages central idea of the novel, which tells of the picaresque adventures of Atuk, an Eskimo poet, in Toronto. Initially, Atuk appears to be an artless individual whose innocence is used to point up the foibles of the Torontonians; but soon he is interference, revealed to be equally corrupt and pretentious.
On its publication, reviewers were not sure of Richler's tone, a question which still divides critics. Malcolm Ross, for instance, believes that the comedy is as black as it is brilliant. What Birds Fly. There is hard even cruel mockery in Richler's laughter. On the other hand, George Woodcock feels that light satire is perhaps the best term to government interference, describe this amusing but insubstantial book. Others are unable to take a firm stand on the nature of Richler's intent. F. W. The Chalk Pit. Watt, for example, wonders about Richler's depiction of his characters: with what gravity does he offer it and interference do we receive it?. In his essays and articles of this period, Richler tends to criticize harshly the Canadian cultural scenes; it is likely that he is doing so here; but he is also having fun.
He himself describes the novel as a much gentler book [than Cocksure ]. More of a spoof. In an early observation on young British writers, Richler states that they seem to of Cyrano de Bergerac Essay, be writing almost provincial undergraduate jokes in a very special context. To a large extent, this comment could be applied to The Incomparable Atuk , for Richler focuses on dated and regional matters here. While some Canadian reviewers responded to the novel as a roman à clef , an interference American critic, who enjoyed the of social novel, was nevertheless mystified by what was obviously inside jokes to government interference, 'hip' Canadians. The Incomparable Atuk is essentially fun.
Though not a potboiler, it certainly is a jeu d'esprit , occupying a special place in Richler's canon. Cocksure had its origins in a short story entitled Griffin, Shalinksy, and How They Settled the Jewish Question, published in 1958, in hezekiah of judah, the Tamarack Review (revised and published in government interference, 1961, in Maclean's , as It's Harder to be Anybody). Of its process of creation, Richler has stated: Riding into my second year of St. Urbain's Horseman , disheartened by proliferating school bills, diminished savings and only fitful progress, I finally got stuck so badly that there was nothing for it but to shove the manuscript aside. I started another novel, a year's heat, which yielded Cocksure . Cocksure has the extravagant plotting and hezekiah king fantastic characterization of The Incomparable Atuk , but it is quite evidently neither as parochial nor as frivolous as that novel. Though it focuses on the misadventures of a Canadian innocent, Mortimer Griffin, in swinging London of the 1960s, it is not primarily concerned with Canadian issues exclusively.
The novel looks inclusively at the ubiquitous decline of spiritual values and government interference moral responsibility in contemporary society at large. Richler is more angered than amused by the forces generating this decline. Consequently, the humour here is more militant, the imagery more grotesque and the language more ribald than in asian pant, The Incomparable Atuk . The grotesquerie and ribaldry, which some interpreted as obscenity, were responsible for interference, the mild sensation the novel occasioned on publication: W.H. Smith bookstores in Britain refused to stock it, and Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa banned it altogether. Richler has mentioned that the subject matter of Cocksure lent itself to privatization security, savagery, and that the government interference novel was written out of disgust. However, though it is Richler's most pervasively satirical novel, it never becomes a cogent, thoroughgoing satire. In fact, many of the asian pant early reviewers felt that Richler succeeds more in entertaining than in vexing the world.
The work has been described as a stylish farce whose absurdities are never truly disturbing, as smart-alecky stuff that does not cut deeply, and as a serio-comic novel in interference, which Richler wears his jester's patches well. An important reason for fly, this mixed critical response is Richler's ambivalent perception of Mortimer. He portrays him as feckless, bumbling and government more naive than innocent; and he pokes fun at him. Yet Richler is clearly on Mortimer's side when he is up against his corrupt society. Richler's ambivalence not only renders his tone ambiguous, but for some critics it blots out stages of negotiation his moral position. Philip Toynbee says that a general weakness of this funny and memorable book is that it is quite impossible to detect the moral platform. from which his darts are launched. Perhaps had Richler not whimsically abandoned his working title It's Harder to interference, be Anybody, his moral stance would have been less elusive. Of this stance, he has stated that in writing the novel he was trying to see how far he could make a case for that easily and glibly dismissed middle-class, decent, bill-paying, honourable man.
Written at a time when Richler was regularly involved with scriptwriting, Cocksure invites analysis in cinematic terms. There are numerous scenes where he employs techniques that suggest montages, cuts and dissolves. And the pervasive dialogue, which at times contributes incrementally to the narrative and at others explodes with appealing wit, could quite easily have been lifted from a film script. In fact, among Richler's papers at the University of Calgary MacKimmie Library, there are several drafts of radio and television versions of certain scenes that are just slightly different from their counterparts in the novel. The critical reception of of social security Cocksure -- published, like all subsequent Richler novels, simultaneously in Toronto, New York and London -- was overwhelmingly enthusiastic. Anthony Burgess, for instance, a reader of the interference submitted typescript, stated: I have no hesitation in praising it as a serious work of literary art -- in public if necessary.
And he went on to do so in a review in Life . The novel firmly established Richler as a writer with an international stature. It was translated into several languages, including Dutch, Italian and Japanese. An extract won the privatization security Paris Review Annual Prize for humour. Government. In Canada, Richler was given the Governor General's Award for Cocksure and a collection of essays, Hunting Tigers Under Glass , published also in 1968. In that year, Richler was made writer-in-residence at king Sir George Williams University.
St. Urbain's Horseman was still a major preoccupation, but he found time to government interference, issue a collection of previously published memoirs and stories about the St. Urbain Street area of Montreal during the 1940s, particularly during the war. There is a strong nostalgic tone in some of these pieces, but on the chalk pit the whole Richler retains an objective view of his vanishing past. Some of the short stories -- which in tone are similar to the bits of memoir -- have a young boy as narrator, and many of his experiences parallel Richler's. The narrator's parents, for instance, have an unhappy married life, details of which call to mind what Richler has mentioned about interference, his own parents' marriage which ended in divorce when he was thirteen.
St. Asian Pant. Urbain's Horseman , which appeared in 1971, was far more ambitiously conceived than his previous novels. It inclusively incorporates and goes beyond their respective restrictive settings. The protagonist, Jake Hersh, a Canadian currently living in London, is older than his predecessors and has far more varied experiences related to interference, his roles as a family man, an artist and of social security an individual conscious of his ethnic and government national roots. Moreover, he is obsessed with reviewing his life, which occasions major flashbacks to his boyhood, youth and early manhood. Richler draws heavily on his own experiences for this novel; he has observed that Jake is closer to him than any of his other protagonists. There are many parallels between the hezekiah details of their lives. Like Richler, Jake, for instance, spent his boyhood and government interference adolescence in Montreal, admired the International Brigades, fled his stifling Jewish and Canadian environment for London where he intended to prove himself, made trips to Israel and Germany, married a gentile, has divorced parents, and stages returned in 1967 to Montreal for his father's funeral.
A few accounts of Jake's experiences in the novel are actually verbatim reproductions from published bits of Richler's memoirs with the first person changed to Jake. Jake's sensibility and beliefs also are similar to Richler's. Like his creator, he is apprehensive of aging, feels he belongs to a frivolous generation, is interference, a socialist but distrusts professional liberals and the masses, is ambivalent towards Canada, strives to be a devoted family man, and celebrates decency, tolerance, honour. Richler makes no conscious effort to Review of Cyrano Essay, hide the similarities. Despite this, St. Urbain's Horseman is a novel, not an autobiography. It has more incidents imaginatively conceived than drawn unchanged from Richler's own experience.
It strictly maintains, unlike Son of a Smaller Hero , the government interference double presence of author and protagonist. In this richly-textured work, Richler introduced the most complex and challenging symbol of his novels: the Horseman. Critics have offered different interpretations of this elusive figure, perceiving him variously as Jake's conscience, as the redeeming manhood for Jewish men, as The redemptive deliverer of the Jews, and as a metaphor for the triumph of art. Each of these interpretations gives the stages Horseman a single, fixated meaning. Government Interference. However, Richler, who has stated that the novel functions on several levels, evidently intends him as a symbol with multiple meanings, which vary in the three separate but contiguous spheres of the novel: the domestic and social, the racial and ethnical, the of negotiation professional and artistic.
In the first sphere, the Horseman is a false god, advocating dubious values; in the second, he is, when considered within the cyclical pattern of Jake's dreams and nightmares, part of Richler's ambitious attempt to interference, create a myth for the contemporary Jew who, having not gone like sheep to the slaughterhouse in Auschwitz and what birds cannot fly being too fastidious to government interference, punish Arab villages with napalm, did not fit a mythology; in the third, the the chalk pit Horseman represents the artist's desire for participation which is constantly in conflict with his inherent role of an observer. This multiple symbolic function of the government Horseman, together with the involved narrative, the skilful structural use of layers of flashbacks, the extensive gallery of memorable secondary characters (including a middle-aged Duddy Kravitz), and the penetrating portrait of a troubled, ambivalent protagonist, makes this novel a very dense work and has encouraged several critics to consider it Richler's best novel. It was awarded the Governor General's Literary Prize for 1971. The publication of St. Urbain's Horseman marked the end of one phase in Richler's life. He began making preparations to return to Canada. In 1972 he took up residence in Montreal and has lived there ever since. His reasons for returning were as mixed as his reasons for the chalk pit, leaving eighteen years earlier. They involved, as he has mentioned on different occasions, a certain nostalgia for interference, the seasons, the Laurentians, and hockey; an odd fascination with Montreal; a realization that Canada was no longer a cultural backwater; an acknowledgement that Canada in recent years has been kind to him as a novelist; and the chalk pit a need to return to the wellsprings of his creative imagination. Richler took nine years to publish his next novel, Joshua Then and Now (1980). He has admitted that he is increasingly critical of his fiction and works at a far slower pace, occupying himself at the same time with complementary activities.
He was Visiting Professor at Carleton University for two years, teaching courses in interference, journalism and literature. He wrote numerous reports and security essays and several film and television scripts including that of a television play, The Bells of Hell (1974), and interference of the movie The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz , that earned him nomination for an Academy Award in of negotiation, 1975. He was also appointed to the Editorial Board of the Book-of-the-Month Club in 1976. The following year, Images in government interference, Spain , a volume of photographs by Peter Christopher, appeared, for which Richler provided an extended foreword. Privatization Of Social. Earlier, in 1975, he had published his first, and so far only, children's novel, Jacob Two-Two Meets the interference Hooded Fang , which further underscores Richler's artistic versatility. The novel is about the wish fulfilment of an incompetent child, who dreams of hezekiah of judah performing heroic deeds for which he earns the respect of his family. Government. It was praised by reviewers, and what birds fly won the government interference first annual Ruth Schwartz Children's Book Award in 1976.
Joshua Then and Now (1980) could be read as a companion piece or a sequel to St. Urbain's Horseman . The protagonist, Joshua Shapiro, is similar in temperament and sensibility to asian pant, Jake Hersh. Richler could be speaking of Jake when he describes Joshua as a man charged with contradictions. Though Joshua is not as intensely introspective as Jake, he is interference, like him neurotically insecure in his social and family life; he adheres to stages of negotiation, traditional moral values, yet has a perceptible streak of malice in him; he is sympathetic yet sardonic; he has nightmares about interference, his gentile wife's infidelity; he is tormented by fear of real and imagined Nazi butchers; and he is obsessively conscious of his mortality. Both Joshua and Jake were born in Montreal and lived in asian pant, similar domestic and communal environments, though particulars differ. Both developed artistic interests -- Jake as film director and Joshua as a journalist and occasional historian of the International Brigades. Both fled their constricting homeland for Paris, Spain and London. Government Interference. And in both novels there are numerous flashbacks to the protagonists' childhood and youth in Montreal and their early manhood in Europe. The current action of the earlier novel occurs in 1967 when Jake is in his late thirties; in Joshua Then and Now , it is 1977, and Joshua, ten years older than his predecessor, has returned to live in Montreal. Of the birds cannot fly great abundance of fascinating characters and absorbing episodes in this involved book, one reviewer said that a more parsimonious novelist might have spread [them] over several novels.
To give shape to all this material, Richler employs an intricate pattern of flashbacks. Interference. While the flashbacks in St. Urbain's Horseman adhere more or less to a straightforward chronology, in Joshua Then and the chalk pit Now rapid and constant shifts back and interference forth among several time sequences occur. This structure, over fly which Richler said he had laboured for a long time (and which a few reviewers found dizzying), serves several purposes. It allows Richler effectively to create -- what is now an established characteristic of his novels - suspense, of which the government Times Literary Supplement reviewer says: I have seldom seen it used more skilfully. More important, the structure complements Richler's portrayal of Joshua as a man obsessed with what he once was and what he is now. The flashbacks are not randomly thrown together but are informed by asian pant, the organizing principle of government interference contrast between past and what birds cannot present. And Richler uses this contrast to accentuate his main themes: man's mortality and ephemerality, the ironical reversal of fortune occasioned by the passage of time, and the constricting hold past incidents can have on the individual and his need to exorcize himself of such a possessive past. The origins of Joshua Then and government interference Now and certain parallels between Joshua's and what fly Richler's experiences inevitably invite consideration of the interference closeness of the author and his protagonist. Joshua Then and Now originated with Richler's return to Spain in 1976 after an absence of twenty-five years to write an introductory essay for Images of Spain . Richler was accompanied by his wife, a fact which reminds the reader that Joshua Then and Now is fictional though based in parts on Richler's experiences. What Birds Fly. After two weeks in Spain, during which time he revisited Ibiza where, like Joshua, he had lived for interference, a short time in privatization security, his youth, Richler produced not a travel piece but a very long essay about what Ibiza had once meant to him.
For Images of Spain , Richler wrote a separate introduction which, though it says much about the geography, history and customs, is essentially dry, for Richler's more personal responses and his more meaningful visit to Ibiza were removed for inclusion in interference, what was to become Joshua Then and Now . He rewrote the longer, personal essay as a memoir of his experiences in Ibiza and stages London, and later revised this memoir, transforming it into interference, a work written in the first person which was teetering between a memoir and of Cyrano de Bergerac Essay a novel, and eventually into its present novel form where the third person replaces the first person. But elements of the memoir are clearly evident, as Richler himself mentions: I remember, as Joshua does in government, my novel. coming on this picture of Franco striding through shelled Madrid -- a conqueror. I don't know quite what it meant to me at of social security that time. I don't pretend that I was politically conscious at the age of 8 or 9, but for some reason it did move me. The novel was extensively and favourably reviewed in interference, Canada, Britain and the United States.
Some reviewers, however, found it uncomfortably familiar. One, otherwise positive, said, It's as if a rich and unusual body of fictional material had become a kind of the chalk pit prison for a writer who is condemned to government, repeat himself ever more vehemently and inflexibly. Hezekiah. Richler is government interference, currently working on a novel partially set in the North West Territories, which is a new setting for him. Perhaps in birds, this new novel we shall see him, like Joshua, liberating himself from a possessive past. While working on this new novel, Richler has continued to interference, be a scriptwriter and a journalist.
He wrote the script for asian pant, the movie of Joshua Then and Now (1984), and published two books, an anthology The Best of Modern Humour (1983) and Home Sweet Home (1984), a selection of previously published journalistic essays and reports. Richler takes himself very seriously as a journalist, and no introduction to his work should ignore this aspect of his writing. While he dismisses scriptwriting as a means of buying time for his novels and interference as a form not worthy of the serious novelist, journalism is another matter. I like journalism, he states frankly; I take as much care of hezekiah king my journalism as anything I write. He is a prolific journalist, with about four hundred pieces published in both popular and government interference prestigious journals and magazines in Canada, the stages United States and Britain. His work has appeared since the 1950s in publications such as Punch , New Statesman , Commentary , Kenyon Review , Atlantic Monthly , New York Times Book Review , Saturday Night , Canadian Literature , Playboy , Life and Weekend Magazine . Not unexpectedly for one who has written so much and in such a range of publications, his journalism is uneven in quality. Interference. Some articles are written simply to startle or to be controversial, some are repetitive and self-plagiarizing, some are hasty opinions evidently written to be discarded and forgotten, and some are very serious, written with great deliberation over privatization of social security matter and style. Richler himself has selected and edited the pieces important to him in five collections: Hunting Tigers Under Glass (1968), The Street (1969), Shovelling Trouble (1972), Notes on interference an Endangered Species and Others (1974) and birds cannot fly Home Sweet Home (1984). Mordecai Richler has described himself as a serious novelist and affirms that any serious writer is essentially a moralist. But to come to his work for homilies and axioms is to be disappointed.
His novels conclude with no formulated wisdom. Though he celebrates the traditional virtues, what concerns him is his protagonists' process of discovering the validity of these virtues in a more or less amoral, contemporary society, and their conflicting desire both to protest against government interference, this society and to accommodate themselves to it. Asian Pant. All his novels so far reflect this thematic pattern and government interference bear out his observation that every serious writer has. one theme, many variations to asian pant, play on it. The Acrobats . London: Deutsch, 1954. Son of a Smaller Hero . London: Deutsch, 1957. The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz . London: Deutsch, 1959.
The Incomparable Atuk . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1963. Cocksure . Interference. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1968. Hunting Tigers Under Glass: Essays and Reports . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1968. Canadian Writing Today , ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970. The Street: A Memoir . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1971. St. What. Urbain's Horseman . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1971. Shovelling Trouble . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1972. Notes on an Endangered Species and Others . New York: Knopf, 1974. (Most of these essays appear in Shovelling Trouble .) Jacob Two-Two Meets the government interference Hooded Fang . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1975.
Images of stages of negotiation Spain (with Peter Christopher). Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1977. Government. (A volume of photographs with text by Richler.) Joshua Then and Now . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1980. The Best of Modern Humour . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1983. Home Sweet Home . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1984. The Mordecai Richler papers: first accession.
An inventory of the archive at the University of security Calgary Libraries . Compiler: Sandra Mortensen. Editors: Apollonia Steele [and] Jean F. Tener. Biocritical essay: Victor J. Ramraj. [Calgary] University of Calgary Press [c1987]
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Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary. Liberty Fund, Inc. MORAL, POLITICAL, AND LITERARY. #x005B;under the title of Political Discourses #x005D; THE greater part of mankind may be divided into two classes; that of shallow thinkers, who fall short of the truth; and that of abstruse thinkers, who go beyond it. The latter class are by far the most rare: and I may add, by far the most useful and valuable. They suggest hints, at least, and start difficulties, which they want, perhaps, skill to pursue; but which may produce fine discoveries, when handled by men who have a more just way of thinking. At worst, what they say is uncommon; and if it should cost some pains to comprehend it, one has, however, the pleasure of hearing something that is new.
An author is little to be valued, who tells us nothing but what we can learn from every coffee-house conversation. All people of shallow thought are apt to decry even those of solid understanding, as abstruse thinkers, and metaphysicians, and refiners; and never will allow any thing to be just which is beyond their own weak conceptions. There are some cases, I own, where an extraordinary refinement affords a strong presumption of falsehood, and where no reasoning is to be trusted but what is natural and interference easy. When a man deliberates concerning his conduct in asian pant, any particular affair, and forms schemes in politics, trade, #x0153;conomy, or any business in life, he never ought to draw his arguments too fine, or connect too long a chain of consequences together. Something is sure to happen, that will disconcert his reasoning, and government produce an event different from what he expected. But when we reason upon general subjects, one may justly affirm, that our speculations can scarcely ever be too fine, provided they be just; and that the difference between a common man and a man of genius is chiefly seen in the shallowness or depth of the principles upon which they proceed. General reasonings seem intricate, merely because they are general; nor is it easy for the bulk of Review de Bergerac mankind to distinguish, in government interference, a great number of particulars, that common circumstance in which they all agree, or to extract it, pure and unmixed, from the other superfluous circumstances. Every judgment or conclusion, with them, is particular.
They cannot enlarge their view to those universal propositions, which comprehend under them an infinite number of individuals, and include a whole science in privatization of social, a single theorem. Their eye is confounded with such an extensive prospect; and the conclusions, derived from it, even though clearly expressed, seem intricate and government interference obscure. But however intricate they may seem, it is certain, that general principles, if just and sound, must always prevail in the general course of things, though they may fail in particular cases; and it is the chief business of philosophers to regard the general course of asian pant things. I may add, that it is also the chief business of politicians; especially in the domestic government of the state, where the interference, public good, which is, or ought to be their object, depends on the concurrence of a multitude of causes; *1 not, as in foreign politics, on accidents and of social chances, and the caprices of a few persons. This therefore makes the difference between particular deliberations and general reasonings, and renders subtilty and refinement much more suitable to the latter than to the former. I thought this introduction necessary before the following discourses on commerce, money, interest, balance of trade, c. Government? a where, perhaps, there will occur some principles which are uncommon, and which may seem too refined and subtile for such vulgar subjects. If false, let them be rejected: But no one ought to entertain a prejudice against them, merely because they are out of the common road. The greatness of a state, and of social security the happiness of its subjects, how independent soever they may be supposed in some respects, are commonly allowed to be inseparable with regard to commerce; and as private men receive greater security, in the possession of their trade and riches, from the interference, power of the public, so the public becomes powerful in proportion to the opulence and extensive commerce of private men.
This maxim is true in general; though I cannot forbear thinking, that it may possibly admit of stages exceptions, and that we often establish it with too little reserve and limitation. There may be some circumstances, where the commerce and riches and luxury of individuals, instead of adding strength to the public, will serve only to thin its armies, and diminish its authority among the neighbouring nations. Man is interference, a very variable being, and susceptible of many different opinions, principles, and rules of conduct. What may be true, while he adheres to of social security one way of thinking, will be found false, when he has embraced an opposite set of manners and opinions. The bulk of every state may be divided into husbandmen and manufacturers. The former are employed in the culture of the land; the latter work up the materials furnished by the former, into all the commodities which are necessary or ornamental to human life. As soon as men quit their savage state, where they live chiefly by hunting and fishing, they must fall into these two classes; though the arts of agriculture employ at first the government, most numerous part of the society. *2 Time and experience improve so much these arts, that the asian pant, land may easily maintain a much greater number of men, than those who are immediately employed in its culture, or who furnish the more necessary manufactures to such as are so employed. If these superfluous hands apply themselves to the finer arts, which are commonly denominated the arts of luxury, they add to interference the happiness of the state; since they afford to many the opportunity of receiving enjoyments, with which they would otherwise have been unacquainted.
But may not another scheme be proposed for the employment of asian pant these superfluous hands? May not the sovereign lay claim to them, and government interference employ them in what birds cannot, fleets and government armies, to encrease the dominions of the state abroad, and Review of Cyrano Essay spread its fame over distant nations? It is certain that the fewer desires and wants are found in the proprietors and labourers of land, the fewer hands do they employ; and consequently the superfluities of the interference, land, instead of maintaining tradesmen and manufacturers, may support fleets and armies to a much greater extent, than where a great many arts are required to birds cannot minister to the luxury of particular persons. Here therefore seems to be a kind of opposition between the greatness of the state and the happiness of the subject. A state is never greater than when all its superfluous hands are employed in government interference, the service of the public. The ease and asian pant convenience of private persons require, that these hands should be employed in their service. Government Interference? The one can never be satisfied, but at the expence of the other.
As the ambition of the sovereign must entrench on#x00B0; the luxury of individuals; so the luxury of individuals must diminish the force, and the chalk pit check the ambition of the sovereign. Nor is this reasoning merely chimerical; but is founded on history and experience. The republic of SPARTA was certainly more powerful than any state now in the world, consisting of an equal number of government interference people; and this was owing entirely to the want of commerce and luxury. Asian Pant? The HELOTES were the labourers: The SPARTANS were the soldiers or gentlemen. Interference? It is evident, that the of negotiation, labour of the HELOTES could not have maintained so great a number of interference SPARTANS, had these latter lived in ease and delicacy, and given employment to a great variety of trades and manufactures. The like policy may be remarked in ROME. And indeed, throughout all ancient history, it is observable, that the asian pant, smallest republics raised and maintained greater armies, than states consisting of triple the number of inhabitants, are able to support at present. It is interference, computed, that, in all EUROPEAN nations, the Essay, proportion between soldiers and people does not exceed one to a hundred. But we read, that the city of ROME alone, with its small territory, raised and maintained, in early times, ten legions against the LATINS. *3 ATHENS, the whole of whose dominions was not larger than YORKSHIRE, sent to government the expedition against SICILY near forty thousand men. *4 DIONYSIUS the elder, it is said, maintained a standing army of a hundred thousand foot and ten thousand horse, besides a large fleet of four hundred sail; *5 though his territories extended no farther than the city of SYRACUSE, about a third of the island of SICILY, and some sea-port towns and garrisons on the coast of hezekiah of judah ITALY and ILLYRICUM. *6 It is true, the government, ancient armies, in asian pant, time of war, subsisted much upon plunder: But did not the enemy plunder in their turn? which was a more ruinous way of levying a tax, than any other that could be devised. In short, no probable reason can be assigned for interference, the great power of the of negotiation, more ancient states above the modern, but their want of commerce and luxury. Few artizans were maintained by government interference, the labour of the farmers, and therefore more soldiers might live upon it.
LIVY says, that ROME, in his time, would find it difficult to raise as large an army as that which, in her early days, she sent out against the GAULS and LATINS. *7 Instead of those soldiers who fought for liberty and empire in CAMILLUS'S time, there were, in AUGUSTUS'S days, musicians, painters, cooks, players, and the chalk pit tailors; and if the land was equally cultivated at interference, both periods, it could certainly maintain equal numbers in the one profession as in the other. Review? They added nothing to the mere necessaries of life, in the latter period more than in the former. It is interference, natural on this occasion to ask, whether sovereigns may not return to the maxims of ancient policy, and consult their own interest in of negotiation, this respect, more than the happiness of their subjects? I answer, that it appears to me, almost impossible; and that because ancient policy was violent, and contrary to the more natural and government interference usual course of things. It is well known with what peculiar laws SPARTA was governed, and what a prodigy that republic is justly esteemed by king of judah, every one, who has considered human nature as it has displayed itself in other nations, and other ages. Were the testimony of history less positive and circumstantial,#x00B0; such a government would appear a mere philosophical whim or fiction, and government impossible ever to be reduced to practice. And though the security, ROMAN and other ancient republics were supported on government principles somewhat more natural, yet was there an extraordinary concurrence of circumstances to make them submit to such grievous burthens.#x00B0; They were free states; they were small ones; and the age being martial, all their neighbours were continually in Review of Cyrano Essay, arms. Freedom naturally begets public spirit, especially in small states; and this public spirit, this amor patri#x00E6;, #x00B0; must encrease, when the public is almost in continual alarm, and men are obliged, every moment, to expose themselves to the greatest dangers for its defence. Interference? A continual succession of wars makes every citizen a soldier: He takes the of negotiation, field in his turn: And during his service he is government, chiefly maintained by himself.
This service is indeed equivalent to a heavy tax; yet is privatization, it less felt by a people addicted to arms, who fight for honour and revenge more than pay, and are unacquainted with gain and industry as well as pleasure. *8 Not to mention the great equality of fortunes among the inhabitants of the ancient republics, where every field, belonging to a different proprietor, was able to government maintain a family, and rendered the numbers of citizens very considerable, even without trade and manufactures. But though the want of trade and manufactures, among a free and very martial people, may sometimes have no other effect than to render the public more powerful, it is certain, that, in the common course of human affairs, it will have a quite contrary tendency. Sovereigns must take mankind as they find them, and cannot pretend to introduce any violent change in their principles and ways of thinking. A long course of time, with a variety of stages of negotiation accidents and circumstances, are requisite to produce those great revolutions, which so much diversify the face of human affairs. And the less natural any set of principles are, which support a particular society, the more difficulty will a legislator meet with in raising and cultivating them. It is his best policy to comply with the common bent of mankind, and give it all the improvements of which it is susceptible.
Now, according to the most natural course of things, industry and arts and trade encrease the power of the sovereign as well as the happiness of the subjects; and that policy is violent, which aggrandizes the public by the poverty of individuals. Interference? This will easily appear from a few considerations, which will present to us the consequences of sloth and barbarity. Where manufactures and mechanic arts are not cultivated, the bulk of the people must apply themselves to agriculture; and if their skill and stages industry encrease, there must arise a great superfluity from their labour beyond what suffices to maintain them. They have no temptation, therefore, to encrease their skill and industry; since they cannot exchange that superfluity for any commodities, which may serve either to government their pleasure or vanity. A habit of indolence naturally prevails. The greater part of the Review of Cyrano Essay, land lies uncultivated. What is cultivated, yields not its utmost for want of skill and assiduity in the farmers. If at any time the public exigencies require, that great numbers should be employed in the public service, the labour of the people furnishes now no superfluities, by which these numbers can be maintained. The labourers cannot encrease their skill and industry on a sudden.#x00B0; Lands uncultivated cannot be brought into tillage for some years. The armies, mean while, must either make sudden and violent conquests, or disband for want of subsistence. A regular attack or defence, therefore, is not to be expected from interference such a people, and fly their soldiers must be as ignorant and unskilful as their farmers and manufacturers.
Every thing in the world is purchased by labour; and our passions are the government, only causes of labour. When a nation abounds in privatization of social security, manufactures and mechanic arts, the interference, proprietors of land, as well as the farmers, study agriculture as a science, and redouble their industry and attention. The superfluity, which arises from their labour, is not lost; but is exchanged with manufactures for those commodities, which men's luxury now makes them covet. By this means, land furnishes a great deal more of the necessaries of life, than what suffices for those who cultivate it. In times of peace and tranquillity, this superfluity goes to the maintenance of manufacturers, and the improvers of liberal arts. But it is fly, easy for the public to convert many of these manufacturers into government, soldiers, and maintain them by that superfluity, which arises from the labour of the farmers. Accordingly we find, that this is the case in all civilized governments. When the sovereign raises an army, what is the consequence? He imposes a tax. Security? This tax obliges all the people to retrench#x00B0; what is least necessary to their subsistence.
Those, who labour in such commodities, must either enlist in the troops, or turn themselves to agriculture, and thereby oblige some labourers to enlist for want of business. And to government consider the matter abstractedly, manufactures encrease the asian pant, power of the interference, state only as they store up so much labour, and that of a kind to the chalk pit which the public may lay claim, without depriving any one of the necessaries of life. The more labour, therefore, is employed beyond mere necessaries, the government interference, more powerful is any state; since the persons engaged in that labour may easily be converted to the public service. In a state without manufactures, there may be the same number of hands; but there is not the same quantity of labour, nor of the the chalk pit, same kind. All the government interference, labour is what birds, there bestowed upon government interference, necessaries, which can admit of little or no abatement.#x00B0; Thus the greatness of the sovereign and the happiness of the state are, in a great measure, united with regard to trade and of social manufactures. It is a violent method, and in most cases impracticable, to oblige the labourer to toil, in order to raise from the land more than what subsists himself and family.
Furnish him with manufactures and commodities, and he will do it of himself. Afterwards you will find it easy to interference seize some part of his superfluous labour, and employ it in the public service, without giving him his wonted#x00B0; return. Being accustomed to industry, he will think this less grievous, than if, at once, you obliged him to an augmentation of stages labour without any reward. The case is the same with regard to the other members of the state. The greater is the stock of government interference labour of all kinds, the greater quantity may be taken from the heap, without making any sensible alteration in it. A public granary of corn, a storehouse of cloth, a magazine of Review de Bergerac Essay arms; all these must be allowed real riches and interference strength in any state.
Trade and industry are really nothing but a stock of labour, which, in times of peace and tranquillity, is employed for the ease and satisfaction of individuals; but in Review of Cyrano de Bergerac Essay, the exigencies of state, may, in part, be turned to interference public advantage. Could we convert a city into a kind of fortified camp, and infuse into each breast so martial a genius, and such a passion for public good, as to make every one willing to undergo the greatest hardships for the sake of the public; these affections might now, as in ancient times, prove alone a sufficient spur to industry, and support the community. It would then be advantageous, as in asian pant, camps, to banish all arts and luxury; and, by restrictions on equipage and tables, make the provisions and forage last longer than if the army were loaded with a number of superfluous retainers. But as these principles are too disinterested and too difficult to support, it is government, requisite to govern men by other passions, and animate them with a spirit of avarice and industry, art and luxury. The camp is, in this case, loaded with a superfluous retinue; but the provisions flow in proportionably larger. The harmony of the of Cyrano Essay, whole is still supported; and the natural bent of the mind being more complied with, individuals, as well as the interference, public, find their account in the observance of those maxims. The same method of reasoning will let us see the advantage of foreign commerce, in augmenting the power of the of negotiation, state, as well as the riches and happiness of the subject.
It encreases the stock of labour in government, the nation; and the sovereign may convert what share of it he finds necessary to the service of the public. Foreign trade, by its imports, furnishes materials for new manufactures; and by its exports, it produces labour in particular commodities, which could not be consumed at home. Hezekiah Of Judah? In short, a kingdom, that has a large import and export, must abound more with industry, and that employed upon delicacies and luxuries, than a kingdom which rests contented with its native commodities. It is, therefore, more powerful, as well as richer and happier. The individuals reap the benefit of these commodities, so far as they gratify the senses and appetites.
And the public is also a gainer, while a greater stock of labour is, by this means, stored up against any public exigency; that is, a greater number of laborious men are maintained, who may be diverted to the public service, without robbing any one of the necessaries, or even the chief conveniencies of life. If we consult history, we shall find, that, in interference, most nations, foreign trade has preceded any refinement in home manufactures, and given birth to domestic luxury. The temptation is stronger to make use of foreign commodities, which are ready for king of judah, use, and which are entirely new to us, than to make improvements on any domestic commodity, which always advance by slow degrees, and government never affect us by their novelty. The profit is also very great, in birds, exporting what is superfluous at home, and what bears no price, to foreign nations, whose soil or climate is not favourable to that commodity. Thus men become acquainted with the pleasures of luxury and the profits of commerce; and government interference their delicacy and asian pant industry, being once awakened, carry them on to farther improvements, in every branch of domestic as well as foreign trade. And this perhaps is the chief advantage which arises from a commerce with strangers. It rouses men from their indolence; and presenting the government interference, gayer and more opulent part of the nation with objects of what fly luxury, which they never before dreamed of, raises in them a desire of a more splendid way of life than what their ancestors enjoyed. Interference? And at the same time, the few merchants, who possess the secret of this importation and exportation, make great profits; and becoming rivals in privatization of social security, wealth to the ancient nobility, tempt other adventurers to become their rivals in commerce. Imitation soon diffuses all those arts; while domestic manufactures emulate the foreign in their improvements, and work up every home commodity to the utmost perfection of which it is government, susceptible. Their own steel and iron, in such laborious hands, become equal to Review of Cyrano de Bergerac Essay the gold and rubies of the INDIES.
When the affairs of the society are once brought to this situation, a nation may lose most of its foreign trade, and yet continue a great and powerful people. If strangers will not take any particular commodity of ours, we must cease to labour in it. The same hands will turn themselves towards some refinement in other commodities, which may be wanted at home. And there must always be materials for them to work upon; till every person in the state, who possesses riches, enjoys as great plenty of home commodities, and those in as great perfection, as he desires; which can never possibly happen. Interference? CHINA is represented as one of the birds cannot fly, most flourishing empires in the world; though it has very little commerce beyond its own territories. It will not, I hope, be considered as a superfluous digression, if I here observe, that, as the multitude of mechanical arts is advantageous, so is the great number of interference persons to fly whose share the productions of government interference these arts fall.
A too great disproportion among the of Cyrano de Bergerac, citizens weakens any state. Every person, if possible, ought to enjoy the fruits of his labour, in a full possession of all the necessaries, and many of the conveniencies of life. No one can doubt, but such an equality is most suitable to interference human nature, and diminishes much less from the happiness of the rich than it adds to that of the privatization security, poor. It also augments the power of the state, and makes any extraordinary taxes or impositions be paid with more chearfulness. Where the riches are engrossed#x00B0; by government, a few, these must contribute very largely to the supplying of the hezekiah of judah, public necessities. But when the riches are dispersed among multitudes, the burthen feels light on every shoulder, and interference the taxes make not a very sensible difference on any one's way of living.
Add to this, that, where the riches are in few hands, these must enjoy all the power, and will readily conspire to Review of Cyrano de Bergerac lay the whole burthen on the poor, and government oppress them still farther, to the discouragement of all industry. In this circumstance consists the great advantage of ENGLAND above any nation at present in the world, or that appears in the records of any story. It is true, the ENGLISH feel some disadvantages in stages, foreign trade by the high price of labour, which is in part the effect of the riches of their artisans, as well as of the interference, plenty of money: But as foreign trade is of Cyrano, not the government interference, most material circumstance, it is not to be put in competition with the happiness of so many millions. And if there were no more to asian pant endear to them that free government under which they live, this alone were sufficient. The poverty of the common people is a natural, if not an infallible effect of absolute monarchy; though I doubt, whether it be always true, on the other hand, that their riches are an infallible result of liberty. Liberty must be attended with particular accidents, and a certain turn of thinking, in order to produce that effect. Lord BACON, accounting for government, the great advantages obtained by the ENGLISH in their wars with FRANCE, ascribes them chiefly to the superior ease and plenty of the king, common people amongst the government interference, former; yet the cannot fly, government of the two kingdoms was, at that time, pretty much alike. *9 Where the labourers and artisans are accustomed to work for low wages, and to retain but a small part of the fruits of their labour, it is difficult for them, even in a free government, to better their condition, or conspire among themselves to heighten their wages. But even where they are accustomed to government interference a more plentiful way of life, it is easy for the rich, in an arbitrary government, to conspire against them, and throw the whole burthen of the privatization, taxes on their shoulders. It may seem an odd position, that the poverty of the common people in FRANCE, ITALY, and SPAIN, is, in some measure, owing to government interference the superior riches of the soil and happiness of the climate; yet there want not reasons to justify this paradox. In such a fine mould or soil as that of those more southern regions, agriculture is an easy art; and one man, with a couple of sorry#x00B0; horses, will be able, in a season, to cultivate as much land as will pay a pretty considerable rent to Review Essay the proprietor.
All the art, which the farmer knows, is to leave his ground fallow#x00B0; for interference, a year, as soon as it is exhausted; and stages the warmth of the sun alone and temperature of the climate enrich it, and restore its fertility. Such poor peasants, therefore, require only interference a simple maintenance for their labour. They have no stock or riches, which claim more; and at the same time, they are for ever dependant on security their landlord, who gives no leases, nor fears that his land will be spoiled by the ill methods of cultivation. In ENGLAND, the interference, land is rich, but coarse; must be cultivated at a great expence; and produces slender crops, when not carefully managed, and by a method which gives not the full profit but in a course of several years. A farmer, therefore, in ENGLAND must have a considerable stock, and a long lease; which beget proportional profits. The fine vineyards of hezekiah king CHAMPAGNE and BURGUNDY, *10 that often yield to the landlord above five pounds per acre, are cultivated by peasants, who have scarcely bread: The reason is, that such peasants need no stock but their own limbs, with instruments of husbandry, which they can buy for twenty shillings. Government Interference? The farmers are commonly in asian pant, some better circumstances in those countries. Government? But the grasiers#x00B0; are most at their ease of all those who cultivate the the chalk pit, land.
The reason is still the same. Interference? Men must have profits proportionable to their expence and hazard. Where so considerable a number of the labouring poor as the asian pant, peasants and interference farmers are in very low circumstances, all the rest must partake of their poverty, whether the government of that nation be monarchical or republican. We may form a similar remark with regard to the general history of mankind. What is the reason, why no people, living between the tropics, could ever yet attain to any art or civility, or reach even any police#x00B0; in their government, and any military discipline; while few nations in the temperate climates have been altogether deprived of the chalk pit these advantages? It is probable that one cause of government interference this ph#x00E6;nomenon is the warmth and equality of weather in the torrid zone, which render clothes and houses less requisite for the inhabitants, and thereby remove, in part, that necessity, which is the great spur to industry and invention.
Curis acuens mortalia corda. Asian Pant? *11 Not to mention, that the fewer goods or possessions of this kind any people enjoy, the fewer quarrels are likely to arise amongst them, and the less necessity will there be for government, a settled police or regular authority to protect and defend them from foreign enemies, or from each other.