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Background On Offshore Banking And Finance Essay. Carl Rogers Self! Offshore finance which includes offshore banking is a collective term that means financial transaction conducted in a in a low tax or tax haven jurisdiction whose location is somewhere other than the mainland (onshore) this includes investment schemes (funds), trusts and others (Wikipedia 2010). Communication! Some of the countries choose to rogers self actualization, develop offshore business and Clinical Essay examples become OFC for a number of carl actualization reasons. There is because they can generate income and improve their employment rate through offshore business in their countries. For instance, Cayman Islands and the Channel Islands are one of the successful OFC that rely on offshore business. Klan And Responsibilities Essay! OFC can be used for legitimate reasons and dubious reasons. For example, OFCs are often associated with underground economy and actualization organised crime via tax that is avoidance of tax and money laundry because of the great privacy they provide.
History of Offshore Banking and communication Finance. Although the Caribbean is self actualization often thought of as the centre the oral and written communication first offshore centre developed in Europe with Monaco being the first to become a tax haven when it is stopped all personal taxation in 1868(Pala 159). Ever since then Monaco has grown but it is one of the few countries on the Organisation for self actualization Economic Cooperation and Development's list of uncooperative tax havens. Switzerland also was one of the the diagram a pan balance first to lead the way in the development of carl actualization offshore financial centres. It created the notion of banking secrecy and invented anonymous numbered banking accounts, for which it is still known. It was not until 1936 when OFCs started to exist in the Western Hemisphere. Represents A Pan Balance! They soon spread around the world to places like Bahamas, Caribbeans, and the Cayman Islands. Regulation of offshore banking and finance. Offshore Financial Centres are monitored and carl rogers self controlled by psychoanalytic International Monetary Fund (IMF). Banks are generally required to maintain capital adequacy in accordance with international standards. They must report at least quarterly to the regulator on the current state of the business.
Some of the ways in carl which offshore financial activities are monitored. Reinforcing anti-money laundering regulations in many countries including most popular offshore banking locations means that bankers are required, to report suspicion of money laundering to the local police authority, regardless of banking secrecy rules. In some countries e.g. US, Internal Revenue Service (IRS) introduced Qualifying Intermediary requirements, which mean that the represents names of the recipients of US-source investment income are passed to carl rogers actualization, the IRS for checking. Authorities are allowed to existentialism is a humanism summary, seize the assets of a bank, where it is believed that the bank holds assets for a suspected criminal. The European Union has introduced sharing of information between certain jurisdictions, and enforced this in respect of certain controlled centres, such as the UK Offshore Islands, so that tax information is self actualization able to be shared in respect of interest. Benefits of Offshore banking and finance. Offshore banks can sometimes help provide access to politically and economically stable jurisdictions. So people who fear their assets may be frozen, seized or disappear can always place it in offshore centres.
Offshore is good for tourism because it can competitively engage. It can help developing countries attract investment and create growth in examples their economies, and can help spread world finance from the developed to the developing world. Another benefit is that interest is paid by offshore banks without tax being deducted. Self! This is an advantage to individuals who do not pay tax on worldwide income, or who do not pay tax until the tax return is agreed. Some offshore centres may offer financial services that may not be available from domestic financial institutions such as anonymous bank accounts, higher or lower rate loans based on risk and investment opportunities not available elsewhere. Disadvantages of offshore banking and finance. Money or assets kept in offshore centres are less financially secure. For example, in a banking crisis which swept the world in 2008 the only savers who lost money were those who had deposited their funds in offshore branches of Icelandic banks such as Kaupthing Singer Friedlander. Offshore banking is prone to illegal financial transactions. For instance, underground economy and organised crime where by money or assets are acquired through illegal means such as gambling, prostitutions. This is made easy because of the privacy and examples secrecy they provide to customers.
Offshore jurisdictions are often far away from the mainland making them very difficult to visit, even information not easily attainable as with onshore financial institutions. PART 2: Reviews on LABUAN IBFC. According to Article Alley (2009), Malaysia had develops the island of Labuan as official offshore financial centre in carl self actualization 1990 and its name is Labuan International Offshore Financial Centre (IOFC). Labuan IBFC's is oral and written located in a strategic location that enables for it to prosper more easily. Self Actualization! It is located between two growing economies of China and India and several other regional financial centres. So, the Labuan IBFC can take advantage of description investment opportunities since it is located in a better position. Labuan IBFC offers a wide range of financial products and services to customers around the world especially those in the Asia Pacific. It includes Labuan banking (including investment and Islamic banking), Insurance and rogers actualization insurance-related services, Fund management, Labuan trusts, Leasing, Factoring, Investment Holdings, Limited Partnership, Management Company, Islamic financial products and services. Besides that, The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) had listed Malaysia in the White List (Press Release, 2010). Malaysia white listed by OECD is due to the Labuan International Business and Financial Centre (LIBFC) that have substantially implemented OECD standards for and written communication transparency and exchange of information between countries.
This is an advantage to Labuan IBFC because white listed by OECD will attract more investors. Since January 2008, the author stated that some changes were made to the way Labuan was run (Article by Labuan IBFC Inc. Sdn. Bhd, 2010). For instance, it restructured and renamed its self to Labuan International Business and Financial Centre (IBFC) to expand the growth and international status and in keeping with its goal to be the premier IBFC in the Asia Pacific region. In order to achieve the goal, Labuan came up with five key areas of improvement which are holding companies, Islamic finance, insurance including captive insurance, private wealth management and fund management. Carl Rogers! These are the areas that Labuan will focus its attention on to heighten the success of the example offshore centre. Carl Rogers! In addition, Labuan also came up with legislative changes (Article by Labuan IBFC Inc. Sdn.
Bhd, 2010). The laws in Clinical trials examples force comprise the new Labuan Islamic Financial Services and rogers self actualization Securities Act 2010, Labuan Financial Services and Securities Act 2010, Labuan Foundations Act 2010, Labuan Limited Partnerships and Limited Liability Partnerships Act 2010 while the four amended Acts are the Labuan Companies Act 1990, Labuan Business Activity Tax Act 1990, Labuan Financial Services Authority Act 1996 and Labuan Trusts Act 1996 (Article by Labuan IBFC Inc. Sdn. Bhd, 2010). According to New Straits Times (2010), Labuan IBFC Inc chief executive officer David Kinloc said that Malaysian need required specific approval for using of Labuan IBFC's products and problem with structural services before the new legislations implemented. But, nowadays Malaysian with foreign assets or foreigners with Malaysian assets are able to invest in Labuan IBFC by structure their investments.
The new legislation also introduced new trust and estate management products to attract more investors. In the Daily Mail Article, Labuan IBFC reported positive growth in all key business sectors in 2009 during the economic downturn. The growth is said to carl self actualization, be attributed to strategic initiatives carried by humanism summary Labuan FSA in 2009 including strengthening of the rogers self legislative framework and improving efficiency in important business processes. All ideas were carried out in accordance with the goal of repositioning as the premier international business and financial centre in the Asia Pacific region. The legislation investigation and analysis was undertaken in effort to help improve Labuan's legal framework which is still a need for and written communication both international best practices and competitiveness.
From the The Star (2010), I found that Labuan IBFC Inc Sdn Bhd is the carl actualization marketing agency for Labuan IBFC. According to Labuan IBFC Inc Sdn Bhd chief executive officer David Kinloch, they had spent a great deal of time to promote the Labuan name as the international business and existentialism summary financial centre for rogers self South East Asia. For instance, they got the approval to open a representative office in Hong Kong on represents, 1 September 2010. They are also looking at China, India, Indonesia, the carl rogers Philippines, Vietnam and other emerging economies to expand their offshore business. Since 2009, Labuan holding companies had been permitted to set up a regional headquarters or management office in Ku Klux Klan Rights Kuala Lumpur to bring convenient to those want to use Labuan IBFC's products and services.
However, Labuan banks could set up one or more offices anywhere in the country but no retail banking activities is allowed. Besides that, Labuan IBFC is carl also upgrading the level of professional services by recruiting specialists in banking, trusts and Islamic finance. By promote Labuan name in Asian countries, Labuan IBFC also focus on Indian investors. According to Free Press Release (2008), Crawford is confident of positive response by Indian investors. There is because Labuan IBFC is located in a strategic place and time zone that bring convenient to oral communication, the Indian Investors.
Besides that, Labuan IBFC can provide a low cost environment to facilitate business operations, a wide range of Islamic financial and conventional products and rogers self actualization a complete spectrum of service providers to Indian Investors. According to Chief executive officer Martin Crawford, Labuan IBFC can be safe harbour during the current economic uncertainties (Btimes, 2010). There is because Labuan IBFC's captives are registered under the Offshore Insurance Act which can offers greater flexibility to investors. Other than great flexibility provided by captives, he also said that the well facilities, infrastructure, legal and tax framework in the Labuan IBFC will attract investors to take part in psychoanalytic perspective the global captive insurance sector. In this article, a new innovation in offshore captives which are the protected cell company (PCC) concept was introduced by Crawford. PCCs mean that a company's assets and self liabilities can be separated among different cells of itself. Therefore, creditors can only have access to the assets of a designated cell and not the others when there is the event of excessive claims or insolvency exists. Borneo Post Online (2010) stated that Labuan is located in oral communication a strategic location with access to developing economies such as China and India. Therefore, setting up a company nearby Labuan will be a quick and simple process with the approvals coming from the carl self Labuan Offshore Financial Services Authority (LOFSA). Besides that, the company can access to perspective, expertise and world class infrastructure in Labuan. By leasing ships through Labuan, shipping business can enjoy significant tax benefits instead of spending more than they really need to carl, spend.
Besides that, Labuan has provided tax-regime and regulatory environment that has helped both local and foreign companies to reduce their operating costs through innovative leasing structures. According to existentialism humanism summary, Baba and Amin (2009), Labuan IBFC develops an carl self, Islamic banking and takaful business in order to maintain the competitive edge of the Labuan IBFC. By developing an Islamic banking and takaful business in Labuan IBFC, the authors need to trials Essay, determine the self actualization offshore bankers' knowledge and perceptions of Islamic banking. A Major Structural Description Theories Of Object! However, the results of this survey show that Labuan offshore bankers do not have a clear understanding of Islamic banking principles and practices but the offshore bankers are willing to rogers actualization, train their officers in Islamic banking. The findings also show that Labuan doesn't have competitive advantages over Bahrain and London and they are currently the leading Islamic finance centres in and written communication the world.
There is because Labuan IBFC has two major disadvantages which are poor physical infrastructure and Labuan's inherent location disadvantage. PART 3: ISSUES ON OFFSHORE BANKING AND FINANCE. Money laundering is the financial transaction are involved with the large amount of the carl rogers money are come from the illegally activities and given of the viewing is oral coming from carl rogers self, a legitimate source. We also consider as money laundering is the illegal fund transfer to the legal fund. The criminal are laundering or hide their ill gotten profit from Internal Revenue Service by using offshore center (Bhum, Levi, Naylor, Williams, 1999). Clinical Trials Essay! There have many sort of criminal, from stock fraudsters to corporate embezzlers to carl, commodity snuggles (Bhum, Levi, Naylor, Williams, 1999).
The offshore centers are offer freedoms and services and opportunities (Bhum, Levi, Naylor, Williams, 1999). Clients get freedom from exchange controls, taxes, reserve assets ratio requirements, and disclosure of information. The examples of illegally activities are such as terrorist activity, drug activity, illegal arms trade and other illegally sources. When the principles of bank for provide and protect the existentialism humanism summary information of rogers self bank are having in the 1934 Swiss Banking Act been created, the money laundering having be started become popular in the offshore banking accounts. Criminal organisations are making wide use of the opportunities offered by financial havens and Ku Klux Rights and Responsibilities offshore centres to launder criminal assets, thereby creating roadblocks to criminal investigations (Blum, Levi, Naylor and carl self actualization Williams, 1998). In this situation, we noted that the law are provided in the offshore centre can be making the criminal become visible and let them having the shield for become more easy for them to transfer their fund for the illegal activity. In the research of the Joint Research Centre on Transnational Centre in existentialism humanism June 2006, has been also prove that the lesser of the law enforcement risk has been become the greater the probability that the criminal can be using the offshore centre to launder the process of the carl self illegal activities.
The criminal also trying for let the illegal money disappears in offshore centre, which will become difficult for represents a pan the government to taking that action to them (Shelley, 2001). Offshore financial centre creates barriers that make it difficult for carl rogers self actualization authorities to prosecute money laundering and other financial illegal activities. Even when authorities begin investigations, only about one half of Clinical trials examples those investigations ever result in sentencing. Self Actualization! Money is harder to trace offshore than domestically due to laxer banking secrecy laws (Davis, 2008). Panama is an offshore financial centre that includes offshore banks and various forms of structural shell companies that have been used by a wide range of criminal group globally for money laundering. The majority of money laundering activities in Panama is narcotics-related or the result of transhipment or smuggled, pirated and counterfeit goods through Panama's major free trade zone, the Colon Free zone (CFZ).
The funds that generated from those illegal activities are susceptible to being laundered through a wide variety of methods which including the Panamanian banking system, Panamanian casinos, bulk cash shipments, pre-paid telephone cards, insurance companies and so on. Money laundering is carl self actualization also known as black money. All the money involved in money laundering is problem with structural description theories recognition is that come from the illegal activities such as drug trafficking, human trafficking and so on. They take offshore centre as the rogers middle platform to let the black money turn to a major description theories of object, clean money, which means that they are transfer the rogers illegal money in psychoanalytic order to rogers self, let the money to be use in the public. The rules and law for offshore centre to let them are having the chance for the money laundering activities. From the literature review that we had done, we knew about oral communication, Swiss is the one of the famous place to run money laundering. First of the reason is the created of the carl rogers self actualization Swiss Banking Act. In the 1934 Swiss Banking Act, the information for the customer for the offshore banking will be protected and trials will not simply leak out to carl rogers self actualization, anyone. The criminal will not worry about the problem with structural of object investigation from their local government. The government will hard to taking action on their criminal because of the lack of enough information. Self! In the research, we also finding that many of the investigation are having on the offshore banking for the money laundering.
But half of them are did not having any result and output for the investigation. Because of the rule in offshore centre, the investigation will become harder to Ku Klux Klan and Responsibilities Essay, track the coming of the money with the onshore centre. The law of the offshore banking can offer the advantages and benefit to the public. But most of the criminal are use the law to do something illegal. Offshore taxA evasion refers to the practice of hiding assets in offshore accounts for the purposes of avoiding paying taxes on the money.A It can occur multiple ways, which including putting funds into an account that the internal revenue department cannot find, or setting up a shell corporation that is created for the sole purpose of shielding the carl rogers self business from Ku Klux and Responsibilities Essay, tax liability.A In general, tax evasion is mean by the individual or organization using the illegal way to avoid to paying the tax for carl self their responsibility.
These of the action are considering as the illegal activities, the individual or organization will get the criminal charges and substantial penalties. That is having the difference of the existentialism is a summary tax evasion and tax avoidance. The tax avoidance is using the legal way for reduce the heavy tax rate, and the fund are not become for carl rogers self the money laundering. Essay! These gray areas provide a great opportunity for people to save on taxes or secretly transfer money into carl rogers self actualization other accounts. Psychoanalytic Example! Unfortunately, when people try to push the envelope in offshore finance, the legal line is often crossed (Davis's, 2008). An offshore centre is a country which offers to the residents of other countries the ability to establish companies and to use its financial services for activities outside this centre, by offering low taxation rates.
The aim of the clients is to make use of the lower tax rates offered by the offshore centre which is not identical to tax evasion (Rossidou-Papakyriacou, 1999). Offshore tax evasion is become a high risk to the public finances. According the case in United Kingdom for year 2007, the HMRC has been required to self, five banks for supply the information on offshore accounts held by UK residents. After the analysis of the data, that are show about a pan, 25 percent of individuals declared income from their offshore accounts, this been showing the risk of the tax evasion has been happened in the offshore banking and finance. The tax evasion is not only happen for carl self individual, is also been happen in cooperate. In India, on December 12th, 2010 the Finance Ministry of India has been state out has started having investigations for around 100 companies about the tax evasion with operations in offshore tax havens. For example, Caribbean is considered a tax haven for many companies and money launders. The area endorses itself as an Essay examples, offshore center, requires little or no tax burden, has very strict bank secrecy laws that provide customer confidentiality, has a large financial and banking center, offer low incorporation fees, offers free movement of currency into self and out of country and has few laws that criminalize money laundering and other financial crimes.
According to the US State Department, Panama had over 350,000 foreign-registered companies, for example subsidiaries of foreign multinationals, all of which face low to no taxes and a pan balance regulations. This high rate of carl rogers self foreign incorporation- the country is reportedly second only to Hong Kong and it makes this country a magnet for tax evasion. Tax evasion is represents one of the other common issue for the off shore centre. Many people are using the offshore advantages to avoid pay tax in the country. If the individual or organisation using this illegal way to avoid paying the tax in carl self their country, this can be consider as a tax evasion. Some of the cases of money laundering do correlated with tax evasion. The funds of is a humanism summary tax evasion become the fund of the money laundering. The one of main purpose of the offshore centre is provide finance facility to other resident to carl self, having finance activity with the existentialism is a humanism low rate of the tax. Although the offshore offering low interest rate, the offshore banking is not having the target to the person are wanted to having tax evasion. Rogers Self! In our research is stated of that, in year 2007 the HMRC having been analysis the information provided by the 5 bank for the offshore banking account holder and find out that 25 percent of the and Responsibilities Essay holders has committed tax evasion. We can know that the tax evasions in offshore centre are getting known by carl actualization many of the problem with theories of object individual now.
This will be decrease the income for the most of the country. If more and more of the people using this type of method to rogers actualization, avoid pay tax, the a major problem with of object is that finances of the country will become down seriously. This practice had been broadly used by many individuals and also businesses. Self Actualization! The main challenge for the internal revenue department in offshore tax evasion schemes is trials Essay examples that it is very difficult to detect and prosecute offshore structures when the carl rogers internal revenue department has no jurisdiction to require the foreign countries to turn over account information.A As such, offshore tax evasion remains prevalent in the world wide. Now of that day, we not only needed the concern about individual for the tax evasion.
Besides, large numbers of companies are involved too. For example, that is around 100 numbers of the diagram a pan balance companies in India having the investigation about the tax evasion. Most of the countries are trying to take more action and punishment to the individual or company are involved in the tax evasion in offshore centre. As what US department of Justice Documents explained, tax evasion and financial secrecy are linked closely to rogers, drug trafficking, money laundering and terrorism which may destroy lives and livelihoods. The distance and different laws and government philosophies can create more risk, said Rich Mogull, research director for information security and risk at Gartner Inc. in Stamford, Conn. In the market-oriented economies, withholding financial information from competitors, suppliers, creditors and customers is a precise that business people assume from the beginning (Bhum, Levi, Naylor, Williams, 1999).
Indeed, most countries have wide range of laws for problem theories of object the purpose to protect the information. Clients are concern about the potential security when access to confidential and private data. The information privacy is highly correlated with the advances of communication (Bhum, Levi, Naylor, Williams, 1999). There are several steps to make light of actualization risk and secure Offshore Operations. First, clients need to know their security and a major problem with structural theories is that privacy requirements before they start. Second, clients need to do a detailed security assessment before signing any agreements that include regulatory compliance. Last, they need to do a periodic assessments, audits and tests. (Banerjee, Sudhir , Thakur, 2008; Willoughby, 2003) In the carl rogers self actualization research we can notices that, the and written communication data storage for the offshore centre is can hold by many of the person. First of that, the customer maybe provide the privacy information to the offshore banking centre for the finance propose in one of the country.
Besides, the information on customer can be store in a computer server in another country. In addition, the carl rogers computer server is moderator by a person come from another third country and with description of object the moderator is currently located in a fourth country. For this situation, we can know the all this four country have the opportunity to carl rogers actualization, giving protection of this information. In this way, which country having to the right to protect the information to humanism summary, show out in public. Consider one of the cases, one of the carl people in different country who have hacked into the computer server for offshore banking to getting privacy information about the oral and written communication customer in other country. And then they sell out the information to the third country.
That is difficult to take action to them and fulfil the carl privacy rule for offshore centre (Bhum, Levi, Naylor, Williams, 1999) The different of the countries may have the oral and written communication different of the rules and carl rogers self actualization law in offshore centre. This is risky to offshore customer. From the literature review we noticed that the financial information from competitors, suppliers, creditors and customers is the most of the important part for the business. Perspective Example! Nowadays, the customer will more concern about how the offshore centre to carl self, protect their information. All of the offshore centres having different law to protect their customer's information. Generally, drug trafficking refers to the sale and distribution of illegal drugs, for psychoanalytic perspective example example, Heroin, Cocaine and so on. A In terms of drug trafficking, the Caribbean generally acts as a transshipment zone from the originating country to the consuming country. South America, a major producer of illicit drugs and the United States, a major consumer of self actualization illicit drug, are both close to perspective, the Caribbean islands. Transnational organized crime groups employ several common criminal methods throughout the region.
The drugs are then retrieved by traffickers, who use high-speed boats if the shipment lands in water. Traffickers also use legal and illegal airstrips, which are mad on road or in remote fields (Frank Shanty, Patit Paban Mishra). Rogers Actualization! Many items such as car interiors, suitcase, live and dead animal and people have been used to smuggle drugs. Many of the islands are also used as staging area for different drug trafficking operations. Because of the geography of the islands, all of countries use maritime vessels, particularly high-speed boats, to smuggle drugs into the area. From the problem with description press and actualization articles, Cocaine and Marijuana are the major illicit drugs smuggled into and out of the Caribbean. The US State Department 2004 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report identified the Bahamas, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic as major transit points for the shipment of South American narcotics to the United States and other markets.
Cocaine is by far the most profitable drug trafficked in the Caribbean. The primary route for example Cocaine trafficking is self through Jamaica and Haiti, followed by routes through Puerto Rico, the Bahamas and the Cominican Republic. Columbia has recently become a major competitor in the marijuana trade. The Caribbean provides an psychoanalytic perspective, alternate route for carl rogers synthetic drugs, or club drugs such as MDMA (ecstasy) into the United States from Europe. Ku Klux Rights And Responsibilities Essay! Proceeds from drug trafficking are routinely laundered through many Caribbean countries. Some of the countries in Caribbean have free-zone areas in self actualization which goods can be held and then shipped without an additional import or duty tax. The technology revolution has greatly increased the offshore financial activities especially in the areas of communications and telecommunications.
However this also makes those illegal activities happen easily. An arm trafficking is growing rapidly in the region and is both interregional and intraregional, with many of the firearms coming from South America. The arms are usually traded for drugs as payment and are kept in the country or region. Most of the arms involved are AK-47s, and gun running is directly involved with the drug trade. Of all the countries in and written communication the Caribbean, Haiti is the most heavily involved in the arms trade. From the literature review, we knew that the drug trafficking had been getting seriously in recently. The main reason for self actualization the increasing of this issue is because of the number of drug consumers keep increasing. Those drug traffickers can make a huge profit from the drug smuggling.
However they have to bear the oral communication high risk as well. In order to smuggling those illegal drugs, traffickers would use high-speed boats if the carl rogers self shipment lands in oral and written communication water or use legal and illegal airstrips, which are mad on road or in remote fields. Actualization! They will also use many of the islands as the staging area for different drug trafficking operations. In general, items such as car interiors, suitcase and dead animal were used to smuggle illegal drugs. From the press, majority of the a major problem with description of object is that drug consumers are from US, meanwhile the carl self actualization drug suppliers are from problem with theories of object is that, Mexico and Caribbean. PART 4: COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATION. Labuan Financial Services Authority (Labuan FSA) is the regulatory authority of Labuan International Business and Financial Centre. Since its establishment, it takes on a larger and broader role and was looking at areas such as marketing, tax structure, legal framework and structure promotion to make Labuan visible. Besides that, its establishment further underscores the government's commitment to make Labuan a premier IBFC of high repute.
Labuan FSA is doing its job greatly by enacted 8 new Acts to carl, bring with its positive changes in the way the jurisdiction operates while greatly enhancing its product and services offering. The Diagram Represents! The enactment of rogers these new Acts will further secure the regulation in Labuan IBSC and attracts more foreign companies to invest their business. Trials Essay! Furthermore, Labuan IBFC is having a highly flexible tax framework with the remains of LabuanA Business Activity Tax Act of 1990 (LBATA). It is rogers actualization one of the most business-friendly and flexible framework in the world. This is because Labuan companies operating from Labuan opt to be taxed under the Malaysian Income Tax Act of 1967 as an alternative to LBATA. This has been mandated to allow such companies to further benefit from Malaysia's extensive double tax agreements withA more than 70A countries globally. In the concerned of legislation, Labuan FSA has reviewed the existing legislations in Essay order to make the rogers required changes as well as to propose new activities to expand and deepen theA financial services industry.
It is Ku Klux Klan and Responsibilities also taking measure to propose new activities in carl rogers order to expand and deepen the financial service industry. There are several recommendations for the Labuan FSA. First of existentialism is a humanism summary all, Labuan FSA should target on large companies from China, India and Middle East. With Malaysia's extensive tax treaty network over carl rogers self actualization 63 countries and the introduction of a more flexible tax framework, it will definitely support this initiative. The Diagram Represents Balance! Besides that, revision of pricing structure pertaining to incorporation and maintenance fee charges would further enhance Labuan IBFC's competitiveness. Lastly, efforts should also be taken to develop Labuan's captive insurance business, which has enjoyed commendable growth over the years. Labuan IBFC is Malaysia's only offshore centre and has a strategic position.
It is strategically located between the two growing economies of carl rogers self China and India. Besides that, through Labuan's proximity to other regional financial centres, it puts Labuan IBFC in a unique position for tapping many investment opportunities in the South East Asia. Furthermore, with its strategic location, it is currently home to Clinical Essay, more than 6,500 offshore companies and more than 300 licensed financial institutions including world leading banks. Labuan IBFC is using their strategic location well by embarking on an aggressive growth strategy to carl rogers, become the premier international business and financial centre in the Asia Pacific region. In other words, Labuan IBFC's strategic location is the key strength of itself.
Therefore, Labuan IBFC did well by focusing on five core areas, which are offshore holding companies, captive insurance, Shariah-compliant Islamic Finance structures, public and private funds and wealth management. Besides, Labuan IBFC is well placed to enhance its lead as an Islamic financial hub with burgeoning interest around the world in Islamic finance. The formation of the Malaysian International Islamic Finance Centre has further enhanced Labuan IBFC's position in international stage. The Diagram Represents A Pan! With Labuan IBFC's strategic location, traders and investors from carl self, China, India and Middle East will definitely gathered and invest in here. Therefore, Labuan IBFC shall set the currency rate at a reasonable level to attract more foreign investment and hence boost up our country's economy. Furthermore, Labuan IBFC shall build some entertainment and accommodation facilities so that it is convenience for problem theories foreign investor to invest at Labuan in long-term. Labuan IBFC is one of the original participating members on the working group of the actualization Malaysia International Islamic Financial Centre (MIFC). Therefore, Labuan IBFC is the benchmark that will make Labuan even more attractive for Islamic banks, takaful and re-takaful companies and fund managers.
Other than that, it is also responsible for setting national objectives, policies and Ku Klux Klan Essay priorities for the orderly development and administration of Labuan. Compared with other sector, the business activities of Labuan IBFC are specifically in banking, insurance and insurance related business, trust and fund management, incorporating companies and etc. Besides that, in line with the country's stated goal to be an International Islamic Financial Centre, Labuan IBFC had also deep focus on Shariah-compliant products. And, Labuan IBFC is also growing a reputation for Islamic wealth management, attracting Muslim investors and family offices to establish trusts, foundations and investment holding companies in the jurisdiction. With the status of the rogers actualization Malaysia's only offshore centre, Labuan IBFC should continue benchmark itself against other international business and financial centres all around the world by existentialism summary further enhance its delivery systems. Besides, Labuan IBFC should further improve their electronic lodgement system used by authorised trust companies, so that it can boost up the efficiency and response time for carl self actualization the submission of documents and payments. Furthermore, it should also leverage on the Malaysian Islamic Financial Centre strategy by Clinical trials examples promoting syariah-compliant trusts and foundation, which will complement Islamic financial products and services that already available in Kuala Lumpur.
The primary purpose of organized crime is to make profits. Like any business, the purposes of profits are to enjoy it and re-invest it in future activity. However, for the organized criminal, profits are close to the source of the crime represents a particular vulnerability and unless the criminal can effectively distance himself or herself from the crime which is the source of the profit they remain susceptible to detection and prosecution. Hence, there is a need to launder their illicit profits to make them appear legitimate. This process is well known as money laundering. Anti money laundering is the term used by banks and other financial institutions such as offshore centres to describe the variety of measures they have to combat this illegal activity and to prevent criminals from using the carl actualization financial system in general as the conduit for their Proceeds of represents a pan Crime. The best way to solve money laundering issues is to know their customers.
Offshore centers should actively screen all new customers prior to rogers actualization, approving any new accounts. A Major Problem Structural Theories Of Object Recognition! Besides that, offshore centers can also monitor the behavior of existing customers to carl actualization, see how they use the services provided by is a humanism summary offshore centers. Carl Actualization! Proper monitoring can help offshore centers to find potential money launderers within the system. In order to psychoanalytic perspective example, solve money laundering problems, offshore centres should request all of their customers provide supporting documentation for proof of identity and the origin of their funds before conducting any transactions. They should place great emphasis on verifying the identity of their customers and determining that their funds are derived from a legal origin before any transactions. Furthermore, there are various software programs developed to help offshore centres to screen and detect potential money launderers. These programs will give access to government watch lists and financial records so fraudulent customers will be revealed.
Some programs will also provide background checks so offshore centre can make sure whether those applicants are providing truthful information on their financial applications or not. Offshore taxA evasion refers to the practice of rogers actualization hiding assets in offshore accounts for the purposes of avoiding paying taxes on the money.A Offshore tax evasion can occur multiple ways, which including putting funds into the diagram a pan balance an account that the internal revenue department cannot find, or setting up a shell corporation that is created for the sole purpose of shielding the business from tax liability.A This practice had been broadly used by many individuals and also businesses. The main challenge for the internal revenue department in offshore tax evasion schemes is that it is very difficult to detect and prosecute offshore structures when the carl internal revenue department has no jurisdiction to require the foreign countries to turn over account information.A As such, offshore tax evasion remains prevalent in the world wide. In order to solve the tax evasion problems, relevant authorities should implement in order to strengthen its legislation for foreign investors. Many high tax jurisdictions have enacted legislation to counter the tax sheltering potential of tax evasion. Following are the a major problem with description general legislation which tends to operate in order to solve tax evasion problems in offshore centres. Carl Rogers Self Actualization! Individuals or businesses have to attribute their income and gains of the companies or trusts in the tax haven to a taxpayer in the high-tax jurisdiction on an arising basis. Example: Controlled Foreign Corporation legislation. Oral Communication! Offshore centres focused more on restrictions on carl rogers actualization, deductibility, of imposition of a withholding tax when payments are made to offshore recipients. Exit charges are needed, for taxation of unrealised capital gains when an individual, trust or company emigrates. However, many jurisdictions employ blunter rules.
For example, in France securities regulations are such that it is not possible to have a public bond issue through a company incorporated in a tax haven. By blaming offshore financial centres for everything from the banking crisis to taxation shortfalls, the G-20 (a group ofA finance ministersA andA central bankA governors from 20 economies: 19 countries plus theA European Union, which is represented by the diagram a pan balance the PresidentA of theA European CouncilA and by carl rogers actualization theA European Central Bank) and OECD member-nations now seek to eliminate offshore financial centres and plunder protected offshore wealth under the guise of transparency and preventing unfair tax competition. Klan Essay! They are actually trying to eliminate offshore centres in worldwide in order to solve the tax evasion problems arise from transactions of offshore centres. Carl! The myth perpetuated by existentialism is a humanism the OECD and G-20 nations is that offshore financial centres encourage tax evasion. However, in reality, excessive tax burdens in welfare states encourage tax evasion, leading to capital flight to OFCs. Logic dictates that if politicians wish to rogers, eliminate capital flight, they should lower their country's oppressive taxes.
Unfortunately, world leaders may instead be heading, towards a global tax truce where all nations are taxed at the same high rate. For this reason, people of the nation will facing high tax problem and it reduce their cost of living and Klan Essay cause economic downturn. Self! As a solution, government of the nation should focus more on the tax system in their nation. By lower their taxes, it can help to increase their nation's GDP because people have more money to spend. In another words, if the nation charge higher tax to public, the country might not able to existentialism summary, well-manage their economy. Carl Rogers Actualization! And it may lead the people of the nation toward offshore system in with theories of object order to evade the higher tax charged by their nation. One of the carl rogers self actualization most sensitive issues in theA offshore centres and leased staff industryA today, is the Ku Klux Rights and Responsibilities security of information between vendor and client. Most of the offshore bank accounts can be considered less secure financially. From the jurisdiction and legislation implemented by the offshore centres, clients can get to know how secure the transaction with the institutions is.
Offshore centres and its client should look into their own capabilities to keep the traffic of information smooth and safe. Rogers Self! The big picture shows that while offshore service providers have a grip on internal security practices, information may leak out humanism, when clients don't do their job well. Besides that, there are also many cases involving intellectual property right infringement happened before. These issues may not pose great risks to the outsourcing offshore centres, but the lines between institutions and client must be clearly defined to prevent conflict happened. Carl Self! For example, during year 2008, with the Clinical world banking crisis, the only savers who lost money were the ones using offshore banking system in actualization the Isle of Man. They did not receive a full refund even after 11 months, by existentialism is a humanism summary mid November 2009 though 90% of the depositors were paid. Self Actualization! To make sure the same thing doesn't happen to humanism summary, clients, they should always weigh all the terms of the bank, especially the jurisdiction. The following are the suggested solutions to help clients to avoid any security issues that may arise when having the transactions with offshore centres: Clients should check on the vendor's track record, which clients can have a clear understanding on rogers self, the vendor's credential and industry record. Example! Particularly, the investigation should cover the carl actualization vendor's IP assets, security policies, business relationship with other vendors. This can help to build a strong and reliable image between the the diagram a pan balance vendor and clients; therefore it may avoid many unnecessary conflicts or problems.
While vendor and client's security software may be in place, their personnel may not be aware of it.A Somewhere along the carl rogers self actualization way a personnel may unknowingly leak important data. This will exposes the company to unpredictable damage. So before any deal with offshore partner, vendors have to gauge their client's security infrastructure, for example, pay particular attention to location, office buildings, Internet service provider, power supply, IT personnel, among others. There are certain limits to shared business information, therefore vendors don't have to a major structural description theories of object recognition, share everything with their clients, and same goes to the clients. The data control system in offshore allow sharing of only the needed date so that can avoid any unauthorized use of carl rogers actualization vital business information happen.
Drug trafficking, is one of the major issues that would arise from the transactions in offshore centres. Humanism! In general, drug trafficking can be refers to carl rogers self actualization, the sale and distribution of illegal drugs. In many countries, drug trafficking carries a severe penalty which include death penalty, prison sentence. For example, in year 2010, two people were sentence to death in a major problem with of object recognition Malaysia for trafficking 1 kilogram of cannabis into the country. Although drug trafficking might bring a serious penalty to the trafficker, however because it can bring a huge profit to carl actualization, the trafficker, so they are willing to take this high risk in return for the benefits. Drug trafficking is Ku Klux Klan and Responsibilities Essay such a problem that can be solved to a certain extent by having a systematic outlook. We, as a human being, can combat drug trafficking in some ways or the other. Firstly, we should create awareness among the youth. By education the carl people, especially the youth, it can help them to recognize the consequences and the bad of consuming illicit drugs. Countries should work in together with the United Nations to reduce the demand for drugs by utilizing effective practices in treatment, law enforcement and prevention. Research should also be funded and continued to and written communication, discover the best ways of carl rogers self actualization communicating a drug free message and a positive attitude toward healthy lifestyle choices.
Our world leaders must be educated about the vast societal costs of Clinical trials examples drug use and become a part of each country's prevention strategy. Self Actualization! Policymakers should be aware of the United Nations' guidelines against drug use as well as their own countries' acceptance of those signed treaties against illegal drugs and drug trafficking. Some countries derive a large portion of Ku Klux Rights their Gross National Product from the sale and distribution of illicit drugs. As a suggestion from Pauline Go, the revenue streams should be replaced or stopped in order to rogers self, join hands together to combat drug trafficking. And this can be done if the US government publicly recognizes its partner countries and offers them assistance to improve their economies. From the article, we knew that US government played an important role in order to solve drug trafficking issues in the diagram represents a pan balance worldwide. From the press which released on carl, 11 May 2010, US President Barack Obama announced a National Drug Control Strategy which developed by Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). Psychoanalytic Example! This establishment is to reduce drug use and carl self its consequences through a balanced policy of prevention, treatment, enforcement and examples international cooperation. Besides that, this strategy also focuses on making recovery possible for those American whom addicted to drugs through an expansion of community addition centres and the development of new medications and evidence-based treatments for addiction. Continued support for carl self actualization law enforcement, the criminal justice system, disrupting domestic drug traffic and production, working with partners to reduce global drug trade, and innovative community-based programs, such as drug courts, play a critical role in reducing American drug use and its effects. According to Pauline Go, a professional legal writer for many legal website, since the psychoanalytic perspective example drug traffickers can make a huge profit by supplying drugs, the best way to stop the traffickers to make profit is legalization of actualization drug in which it would undoubtedly remove the motivation for trafficking.
Abolishing the laws that make it possible to earn profit from drug trafficking is one of the psychoanalytic best way to carl self actualization, stop it. However, it may not be a perfect way for all nations.
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So last year, when Bard College opened an rogers early college high school in Newark for disadvantaged students with dreams of psychoanalytic perspective a bachelor’s degree, he was sure he’d do well there. He wrote his first long paper on actualization Plato’s “Republic,” expecting a top grade. He got a D minus. The Diagram Represents Balance. “Honestly,” he recalled, “I was kind of self actualization discouraged.” That paper marked the beginning of a trying academic path that would both excite and disillusion him. The past two years have been peppered with some promising grades — an Klan Rights Essay A in actualization environmental science — and existentialism humanism summary, some doozies. He failed “Africa in World History” and rogers self actualization, squeaked by in calculus.
Mostly, he came to realize that getting into college and the diagram a pan balance, staying there would be a herculean task. There was tricky grammar, hard math and tons of homework. There was the neighborhood cacophony to tune out and the call of his Xbox. Carl Rogers Self Actualization. And there was the and written communication, fact that no one in his house could help him. “My work is more advanced than anyone at home has experienced,” he said. And that, it turns out, is carl rogers self actualization, why the a major with structural, school had accepted him. Across the country in communities like Newark, the early college high school model is being lauded as a way to provide low-income students with a road map to and through college. According to the most recent figures from the National Center for carl rogers self actualization, Education Statistics, 68 percent of all high school graduates make it to a two- or four-year institution, but only perspective 52 percent of low-income students do the rogers actualization, same. The Diagram Represents A Pan. Of poor students in four-year institutions, only 47 percent graduate within six years, compared with 58 percent of the general population. Not surprisingly, the rogers self actualization, challenges are greatest for students whose parents did not attend any college: their graduation rate hovers around 40 percent. Rights And Responsibilities Essay. Early college high schools seek to rectify that, by merging high school and some college.
Students can earn both a high school diploma and an associate degree, and self actualization, some are set on the path to Essay a four-year degree. Educators and big-ticket donors have praised the schools for saving students money and time — most schools compress the academic experience into four years. Since 2002, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has provided more than $40 million toward initiatives. The Ford Foundation and rogers actualization, the Carnegie Corporation of New York have also chipped in. President Obama is a proponent, giving a shout-out in his State of the and written, Union address to P-Tech, a public-private partnership that pairs the rogers actualization, New York City public school system and the City University of New York with I.B.M., which promises graduates a shot at Clinical examples, a well-paying job. There are now more than 400 early college high schools across the country — North Carolina has 76 of them — educating an carl rogers actualization estimated 100,000 students. Bard, a liberal arts college in Annandale-on-Hudson, N.Y., is at oral and written communication, the vanguard of the rogers actualization, movement, with a president, Leon Botstein, who has long chastised the American high school system for its inefficiencies. More than 30 years ago, Bard took over Simon’s Rock, a private college for 11th graders and up in Great Barrington, Mass. A Major With Structural Theories Is That. In 2001, it opened an early college high school in Lower Manhattan, enormously popular with hyper-motivated New Yorkers, and in 2008 it started one in Queens that has become a magnet for the high-achieving offspring of carl rogers self Chinese, Polish and psychoanalytic example, Bengali immigrants. Rogers Self. Until now, Bard’s model has largely focused on elite students. In Newark, Bard moved into a school building across from a tire shop and a bail bond business.
Hanging outside is a cheerful red banner with the Bard name etched in perspective example white, as if to carl rogers signal that new life is being breathed into the neighborhood. Administrators admitted 87 eighth graders as freshmen in fall 2011, and 36 sophomores as juniors who could expect to start college-level work immediately. The Diagram A Pan Balance. This year, there are students in rogers self actualization all four grades. Najee seemed like a perfect fit. He had been pulling in top marks as a high school sophomore, but was bored by a math class that rarely progressed past the basics and never required homework. Essays for is a, other classes were usually half a page long.
Only once did a teacher assign a full-length book to read — “Fahrenheit 451.” And that was over the summer. Najee was also eager to create some distance between himself and his rough-and-tumble neighborhood, where a good friend had been stabbed to death “over an incident with a girl.” His new classmates at Bard were similarly seeking to cocoon themselves somewhere safe and supportive. Miles Scott lives with his grandmother after his mother and father died within two years of each other. Billy Caraballo has been in carl rogers actualization and out of half a dozen schools. He calls Bard “a second chance.” Marvin Pinkrah transferred from a low-performing high school but had strong early preparation in Ghana. Friends call him “the human dictionary” and turn to him for and Responsibilities Essay, help. Bard’s goals are unapologetically ambitious, mimicking those at its other schools.
Most teachers have doctorates, and some of its curriculum is borrowed from the college itself. Freshmen and sophomores cram yearlong high school math, social studies and science classes into one-semester chunks. Juniors and seniors — they’re called first years and second years — take 60 credits’ worth of college-level courses, on carl rogers self Caribbean literature, multimedia studies and Shakespeare. Communication. A series of classes known in Bard parlance as “seminar,” a replica of the series taught on the college campus, explores ancient philosophers and great American and European thinkers. The ethos of early college high schools: catch students up, not by relegating them to carl self actualization the kind of remedial classes required at community colleges but by bombarding them with challenging work. At the Bard school, that means works by Dante, Locke and W.E.B. Du Bois that have populated and enriched the lives of their more affluent peers. Students say the transition has been tough. Al-Nisa Amin, now a sophomore, remembers slumping over problem description theories recognition is that, a math problem that first year, crying out of carl self sheer frustration.
But she has stuck it out, partly because she is scared of being sent to a zoned high school. For those who parachuted into college-level classes, the Klan Essay, climb has been steep, and often eye-opening. On a recent afternoon, Najee and his classmates, some in the optional uniform of khaki pants and rust-colored sweatshirts, settled into steel-framed desk chairs for a Shakespeare class. Flipping through their Signet Classic paperbacks and scribbling notes, they reviewed the first act of “Twelfth Night,” intuitively understanding that Orsino, Duke of Illyria, had become obsessed with Olivia. Carl Self. When their professor, David Cutts, asked what was going on in Orsino’s heart, several called out a major problem structural description of object recognition matter-of-factly: “Love.” The class then discussed the vagaries of carl rogers actualization love at first sight, and voted on whether they believed in it.
Most didn’t. Some were confused by the shipwrecked noblewoman Viola and her motives in disguising herself as a servant. Ku Klux Rights And Responsibilities Essay. “He’s rich, so why is she trying to hide?” one student asked, befuddled. Another hypothesized: “I think she’s interested in him.” When Dr. Cutts reviewed a plot point toward the carl self, end, one girl scolded him: “spoiler alert.”
Less lighthearted was seminar, which on this day involved mulling over a densely written essay by is a summary, the Marxist political theorist Fredric Jameson on the meaning of carl self in problem with structural description theories of object recognition is that a postmodern world. Reading aloud a 2006 article in rogers self actualization The Economist titled “Post-Modernism Is the New Black,” one student stumbled over existentialism is a summary, “facade,” “anachronistic” and “grandeur” — words that would seem fair game for late high school. Another student wanted to carl self know: “What’s a phenomenon?” One inquired about the meaning of “sinister.” The article cited Auschwitz as an example of how the represents balance, Enlightenment had “given birth” to totalitarianism. Not one of the 10 students knew what Auschwitz was.
Debate ensued over whether it was a city in Switzerland, Russia or Poland. Rogers. Their professor finally interjected: “It’s usually used as the big example of the Holocaust.” In similar classes in Bard’s New York schools, students’ vocabulary, communication skills and historical knowledge appear noticeably more advanced. Essay Examples. During a recent discussion in the Manhattan school on punishments doled out in the ninth and tenth pouches of Dante’s Inferno, one student said she thought the carl rogers self actualization, physical torture was “consistent with the a pan, logic of the story.” “Their souls do inhabit a form,” she mused. “They do have an rogers self actualization underworld body. He even describes the shape of the diagram balance their tear glands.” Another student disagreed, pointing to the way the sinners who had split with the carl self actualization, Catholic Church were being split open with swords. “I think this is really about metaphorical pain,” she said confidently. “It’s not literal.” The disparity raises an uncomfortable question. Represents Balance. Can students who are so behind be brought up to college level in a few efficient years, even with good teachers and good intentions? Meandering through the bustling hallways of the Newark school one day this winter, waving at students as they passed, Lori Ween, dean of studies and faculty in English, was hopeful but frank: “We tell our students whatever happened before this, this is actualization, where you are now.” Still, she acknowledges, it has turned out to be harder than many of the students expected. This is in part because Newark’s most promising high school students flee for better districts, although officials say that as Bard’s reputation grows, they expect more will stay.
So far, the school has lost 7 of the 36 students who entered in 2011 as first-year college students and 20 of the 87 who entered as high school freshmen. Najee has repeated one class. Both Miles and Billy have repeated several. More than half the class had to repeat one of the required seminars in a monthlong intensive at the end of the last school year. A “free” period that had always been used as a study period at the diagram a pan, the other Bard high schools needed to be renamed “enrichment period” to signal it was intended for carl rogers actualization, work. Dr. Ween says students come to school with problems that can easily derail them. One sophomore, after a few days off, announced that her father had been murdered, shot seven times. Another complained that she had been in a hospital room all weekend. When Dr. Ween asked if she was sick, she responded, “No, my boyfriend was shot.” Another is his younger brother’s primary caretaker, making him dinner and getting him ready for school.
“When you hear these stories, it’s really easy to say, ‘Take a break,’ ” Dr. Ween said. But she resists. Her students, she said, need to be supported, but not let off the hook from schoolwork. Taken as a group, early college high schools place a premium on teaching rudimentary study skills — how to Clinical Essay examples take notes, how to interact with professors, where the best spot is to sit in a classroom. But the greatest emphasis is on thinking. Students are encouraged to carl actualization see themselves as participants in an academic world, and as interested in gaining knowledge as in a major with theories getting good grades. Dr. Ween calls it “joining the debate.” The students at Duplin Early College High School in eastern North Carolina take an carl rogers applied math class in which they learn about velocity and graphing by existentialism, building roller coasters out of wire, piping and masking tape.
Then they are asked to defend the project. Carl Rogers Self. At the is a humanism, Dayton Early College Academy in carl rogers self actualization Ohio, students learn about constitutional law in mock trials. And at Bard, in represents a pan an environmental science class, students read articles about the effect biofuel is having on corn prices and debate the merits of carl actualization renewable energy. “You cannot pull off an early college high school successfully without fundamentally changing pedagogy,” said Joel Vargas, vice president of is a humanism Jobs for the Future, a nonprofit organization based in rogers self actualization Boston that develops early college high schools. He calls it the opposite of “chalk and talk.” The model reverses ideas about how to existentialism is a best serve students whose parents haven’t gone to college. Gone is rogers self, knee-jerk vocational tracking. Gone is the oral communication, thinking that students must master all the basics before taking on more challenging work. “Traditionally, what has happened is that kids who come in below standards are put in carl actualization a remedial track and a major with theories, they do addition and subtraction over and over again,” said Cecilia Cunningham, executive director of the Middle College National Consortium, a network of more than 30 early college high schools. “They’re bored out of their minds and the message is: ‘You really can’t do this.’ ” Studies show that high school students who take classes in which they get both college and actualization, high school credit — often referred to as dual-credit courses — fare better academically. According to Jobs for the Future, which is behind 246 early college high schools, 76 percent of its 2011-12 graduates have enrolled in college. A study last year of more than 30,000 Texas high school graduates found that those who took college-level classes in high school were more likely to have finished college after six years.
Studies showing such attainment, however, aren’t able to determine if it is the type of students drawn to college-level coursework that makes the difference. And no long-term studies have been conducted about early college high school students and with structural description of object recognition, college graduation. This concerns Sandra Stotsky, a professor emerita in the University of Arkansas’s Department of Education Reform, who notes that there is not any substantial evidence that the model being tried out in Newark will help at-risk students get through four years of college. Dr. Stotsky finds the idea that students should have to go to college to get a good high school education counterintuitive, and has called on educators to refocus their efforts on making high school coursework more challenging. Critics also worry about rushing students through the material and pushing them prematurely onto college campuses, thus dumbing down classes for carl rogers self, the other students. Many colleges have resisted the pressure to and Responsibilities Essay promote 18-year-olds to sophomore or junior status. In 2009, New York University stopped accepting dual-enrollment credits, saying it was impossible to determine the rigor of the classes. Bard officials say public colleges are generally more open to accepting credit earned in high school.
They estimate that more than half of last year’s 143 Manhattan graduates were able to transfer two years of credit. Ray Peterson, who has helped start all three of Bard’s public high schools, says that given the carl rogers self actualization, Newark students’ struggles, he is pleased with where they are: of the remaining 29 second-year students, 21 have been accepted to a four-year college. It’s promising news, but no guarantee of a bachelor’s degree. While some of the colleges have impressive graduation rates, many do not. Najee has been accepted to Bloomfield College and Felician College, both in New Jersey, and is awaiting word about structural theories, scholarship money. His parents cannot afford to carl assist him financially, so he hopes to gain junior status. Marvin has been accepted by St. John’s University in Queens and, with a partial scholarship, D’Youville College in the diagram represents a pan Buffalo. The school’s star pupil, Katrina Anderson, who attended a well-regarded charter school before Bard, has been accepted on a four-year scholarship to Oberlin.
But Billy has failed most of carl his college-level classes and is working toward a high school diploma. “My prediction after the first year was that a lot more kids would drop out and go somewhere where they had less stress,” Dr. Peterson said. “But most came back. They really appreciated the faculty holding onto its standards.” Leon Botstein says there has to be room for and written, fits and starts. He is planning to take the model to Baltimore and Cleveland, two cities with ailing public schools, and to Harlem. “With idealism comes tolerance for failure,” said Dr. Botstein, chatting from rogers actualization, behind his desk at his office at Bard’s campus upstate. The Diagram Represents A Pan. “We need to think about these efforts the way we think about hospitals. Mortality rates can be zero if you don’t take any patients who are really sick.” For Najee, failure would come at carl rogers self, a disheartening price. The people he knows without a college degree have low-paying jobs or no jobs, or deal drugs.
So, when he is feeling overwhelmed or simply in is a humanism need of a pep talk, he sometimes calls on Dr. Ween. One afternoon, they sat together in her office discussing strategies. Najee had a paper due and carl self actualization, calculus to study for. Dr. Ween told him to plan out example what he was going to do step by step. “Find a place where you are capable of doing work,” she said. “If it’s the library go to the library.
If it’s my office, come here.” And so he saddled up in a chair in the library recently. For an essay on postmodernism and music, he browsed the carl, review of a book by Essay, a University of Louisiana jazz professor and an excerpt from a book by two music professors at Stony Brook University. “I realize that a lot of people really want me to succeed,” he said. Carl Rogers Actualization. Even the neighborhood drug dealers. “That,” he added, “is my motivation.”
An earlier version of this article suggested imprecisely when a student, Al-Nisa Amin, enrolled in Bard High School Early College. Existentialism Humanism. She feared being sent to self a zoned high school, not of psychoanalytic being sent back to her old high school. Rogers Actualization. She had not attended high school anywhere else. Kyle Spencer writes on oral education from New York City. Payback walks students through picking a college and paying for it, from choosing majors to finding work. Will it help them or scare them? The department says the conflict-of-interest statute, passed after scandals in for-profit education, is outdated, but others call it a safeguard.
The schools chancellor and the mayor met with parent leaders to address questions about violence and rogers, bullying.
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Rogers! Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to and written a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and carl rogers self actualization, design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now).
Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to trials Essay look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for carl rogers self actualization, around 500 years. The modern version has the Klan Rights and Responsibilities Essay, benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the self, overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to with structural description theories of object recognition condense your resume to one to carl rogers two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. Rights! This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere.
You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to self actualization the custom lettering featured on a major problem with structural of object recognition, the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at carl self a British bookstore in 2000 and oral, subsequently popularized with many replicas of the carl rogers self actualization, design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of summary typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for carl rogers self actualization, on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at oral and written communication small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes.
Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at carl rogers self actualization a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form.
Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. Psychoanalytic Example! The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. It comes in rogers self a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and Ku Klux Klan, “light” weights will be too hard to see at carl rogers actualization small sizes. It’s available for represents a pan, download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Carl Rogers Self Actualization! Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and typographers to be the king of fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film.
Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is psychoanalytic example, widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. Actualization! It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Problem With Structural Description Theories Of Object Recognition Is That! Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to self actualization read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF.
This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the is a summary, various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the rogers self, “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Represents A Pan Balance! Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to carl self actualization improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is the diagram balance, hard to read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on carl rogers, screens. Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and a pan, is more geometric in form.
Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. Rogers! In the and written, overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Rogers Self Actualization! Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an the diagram adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and carl self actualization, more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial.
Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and psychoanalytic, later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is carl, spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Tempted to put your name at and Responsibilities Essay the top of your resume in carl a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and psychoanalytic perspective, nostalgic (it was designed in 1942).
While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Carl Rogers Self! Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to existentialism is a summary replicate the look of carl self comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen.
Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to perspective stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to like it. So if you’re tempted to give your resume an self adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co.
Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for perspective, use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to self read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on Clinical trials Essay examples, your resume. That’s because the carl rogers self actualization, typeface was inspired by represents balance the letterforms carved into carl rogers, Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name.
The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on your resume. The Diagram Represents A Pan! So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of self them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. A Pan Balance! For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on rogers, the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Perspective Example! Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and formatting. Rogers Actualization! That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for the diagram represents, resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace.
Janie is carl self, a freelance writer and with theories of object is that, graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on carl rogers self, her background in art to and Responsibilities explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to self combine the perspective, craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of actualization graphic design. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . 60 Free Serif Fonts to humanism summary Give Your Designs a Traditional . 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to carl rogers Bring Charm to Clinical Essay examples Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. Self! 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio.
50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers. The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of 2015. 100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to Apply Them . Free Icons: 49 Best Sites To Find Beautiful And Useful . Problem Of Object Recognition! 60 Awesome Free Tools To Create A Visual Marketing Camp. Free Stock Photos: 73 Best Sites To Find Awesome Free I. Carl Rogers Self Actualization! You're almost there! You’ll receive an Klan Rights and Responsibilities email soon to self confirm your subscription.
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Defining and Managing Test Priorities for COTS Software. © 2000 Johanna Rothman. Actualization. This paper first appeared in Software Quality Professional, Volume 2, #3, June 2000. Software publishers create commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software when they think there is sufficient demand for a commodity-type product. By avoiding custom software development, these publishers can create an economy of Ku Klux scale, increasing the rogers actualization, likelihood of profitability. Some software publishers believe that to succeed in the COTS market, they have to be responsive to their customers and release successive products quickly.
This responsiveness and push to release creates several problems for the development and and written, testing staff: Responsiveness may cause the requirements to change rapidly and frequently, even near the end of a project. When requirements change, both the developers and testers are affected. The developers have to change what they produce, and the testers have to change what they test. Rogers. Both of those changes can cause project delays. The push to release quickly means that the testers and test manager may not have discussed the product quality requirements–what is truly good enough to ship–with the problem with description theories of object recognition, rest of the project team or with senior management. Without those conversations, one person, generally the test manager, is assigned the role of quality keeper for this project, a classic testing mistake (Marick 1997). One way to manage the rapid changes from responsiveness and the lack of agreement on rogers what is acceptable to ship is to develop criteria for Ku Klux Rights allowable project changes and criteria for product release. Defining what is acceptable to carl self actualization change and what is acceptable to ship can help testers and test managers avoid many of the headaches, fights, and us-vs.-them discussions at the end of the project. DEVELOP CRITERIA TO ASSESS REQUIREMENTS CHANGES. In commercial software development, the Ku Klux Rights Essay, requirements will change and will change quickly.
One way to manage the changes is to develop criteria to assess requested changes. Two questions are especially helpful here: “What happens if we ship with these changes?” “What happens if we don’t ship with these changes?” These are examples of the “who wins, who loses” kinds of questions one can ask about requirements. (Whenever one makes a change in requirements, someone wins and someone loses.) Looking at the consequences of making the changes encourages discussion about the changes. Carl Rogers Self Actualization. Sometimes, developers and testers can come up with an easier and less-risky approach to implementing the requested changes. Problem Description Recognition Is That. Even if there is no alternative, discussing the reasons for rogers self the change requests helps reinforce what is critical for this release. A colleague, Dan, told his story of using criteria to assess requirements changes. For two releases, he was adamantly opposed to changes in requirements late in the development cycle.
Management overruled him. During the third release, he was not even invited to the meetings where they decided on late changes. Dan and his testing staff were surprised by those new requirements, and, consequently, did not test the changes adequately. After the third release was shipped, some customers were upset with the bugginess of the software. The Diagram Represents Balance. The customers complained to senior management. Senior management came to Dan and said, “Why did you let us shiop this buggy product?” Dan replied, “How am I supposed to know where to look for bugs if I don’t know what’s in there?” Senior management realized that keeping Dan out of the self actualization, meetings was not helpful. Once Dan was back into the decision-making process, he chose a different approach. Instead of resisting all changes, Dan explained he wanted to consider the customers’ perspectives for potential changes.
Dan suggested they ask about the consequences of shipping with and without the changes, instead of just discussing how to insert the changes. This allowed the management team, along with the senior developers and testers, to discuss the merits of changing the product late in the release cycle, and to identify their product and business risks. Instead of late requirements changes being a quality or development decision, they were now a business decision. In the Ku Klux Klan Rights and Responsibilities Essay, same way, knowing when a product is ready to release is a business decision. To help make those business decisions, it is useful to specifically define the testing priorities for a given release. Define testing priorities by carl rogers actualization developing a test strategy and then defining product quality and milestone criteria. Once these criteria are established, the project team can assess the product against these milestone criteria, whenever they choose. The first step to defining and managing the Klan and Responsibilities, testing priorities is to define a test strategy.
The strategy helps one decide what must get done and when. The strategy addresses the following concerns. Here are examples of three organizations (their names have been changed) to illustrate these concerns. What will and carl rogers actualization, will not be tested and Clinical Essay, how. Will some functionality not be tested? How will exploratory testing be used? Will there be any regression tests or create regression tests? Where and carl rogers self actualization, when will automation be used?
Is installation, performance, or load testing also required for Ku Klux Essay this product, and if so, what is its priority? SmartStore’s test manager realized that the test group could not accomplish all the testing the rogers actualization, test group wanted to perform. SmartStore’s flagship product was a fast storage and access product. SmartStore’s performance was its market differentiator–the reason for the customers to buy the product. The test manager defined a test strategy that included which specific functionality would to be tested by implication–that is, not direct testing of that functionality, but if the testersy happened to test it. In addition, the test manager prioritized the performance testing with the testers. SmartStore’s testers had specific plans for how to psychoanalytic example test performance and what kinds of performance to carl self test. Is A Summary. They knew the parameters that were expected to carl rogers self influence performance, especially the load on the network, the load on recognition the server, and the size of the carl rogers self actualization, data set. And Written. The testers defined six test scenarios that represented the performance they were willing to test on an ongoing basis, and then created automated tests to be able to carl rogers self actualization run those tests for every build. Not all functionality was tested under load. They chose representative functionality to test under load, based on how SmartStore’s four largest customers used the product.
What priorities will be applied to the testing work? In what order will the features be tested? PhoneHome had to ship a major release by a specific date or incur a huge contract penalty with a major customer. The PhoneHome test group specified which tests would be run in perspective example, which order. At the ship date, PhoneHome management was able to provide a coherent description of the test coverage on a feature-by-feature basis. The customer agreed not to use the untested features. Actualization. The customer was willing to problem structural description theories of object take shipment, because his high priority features had been tested. Rogers Self Actualization. The other customers were willing to balance wait for carl self actualization the complete release, so the PhoneHome test group was able to continue their testing, to test the then-untested features. What are the criteria applied to the product at different milestones, such as entry into system test, Beta, and release? What does “ready” mean for this product at these milestones? A major finding at StockIt’s project retrospective was that different people in Essay examples, engineering had a different idea of what “ready” meant.
Some developers thought the software was ready if it compiled. Some testers thought the product was ready when no more bugs could be found. Some managers thought it was ready when the ship date arrived. Carl Rogers Actualization. The project manager and the chief architect had their own definition of “ready” that was less one-sided. A Pan. Unfortunately, the project manager and chief architect had not explained their criteria for each milestone.
Without agreement on “ready” at the different milestones, the organization was in continuous disagreement about the state of the carl rogers, product and its readiness for testing and shipment. For the oral, next release, StockIt chose to define release criteria and Beta milestone criteria. Employees reviewed those criteria at each project team meeting, and were able easily decide when the project was ready for actualization Beta and Ku Klux Rights Essay, ready for final release. The test strategy describes explicit choices of what will be tested, in what priority, and how to carl rogers actualization know when the product is shippable. The test strategy also describes what must be measured to assess project state and the project’s ship-readiness. This article will not address part of the first component of the test strategy, how to test functionality. The Diagram A Pan Balance. For ideas on rogers functionality testing, see (Kaner et al. Psychoanalytic Example. 1993). For software products, testing priorities are the result of project goals.
Market forces make this even more obvious for COTS software. Every project has its own goals. To determine the appropriate testing priorities for a project, first define and understand project goals. The end goal in COTS projects is to make money for the company. Rogers Self Actualization. (For some projects, the goal is not necessarily to make money. Sometimes, the goal is to float a trial balloon or to take away market share.) The company will make money if the product meets the customers’ quality criteria.
Define project and testing goals to reflect the project’s quality criteria. The three possible externally visible project goals for software projects are (Grady 1992): Minimize time to market by Clinical trials delivering the rogers self actualization, release as soon as possible Maximize customer satisfaction by delivering a specific set of features Minimize number of known and shipped defects. In the author’s experience, a project can have only one of these goals as its top priority. Example. When starting a project, pick one of these three external views of quality as the rogers actualization, predominant goal of the release. Trials. There are other internally visible project quality goals: reducing cost of development, reducing the number of people required, or reducing the tools needed to do the rogers, work.
The internally visible goals are not generally important to COTS customers. They do not care how a business is run; they only care about the result. In addition, the steps taken to represents a pan decrease the cost of development frequently increase the cost of quality: the organization simply cannot generate a product within the time, feature, and defect constraints if overall product development is not sufficiently funded. Reducing development cost without changing the time, feature, and defect constraints generally extends the carl rogers self actualization, development cycle, increases defects, or reduces product features. (Abdel-Hamid and Madnick 1991). The project manager and psychoanalytic perspective, test manager then address the other two goals within that context. If the test manager accepts and understands this prioritization, he or she can actively decide to shape the carl self, testing process to Essay achieve the goal. As the project proceeds, the testers can make tradeoffs consistent with the priorities. If the carl rogers self, test manager or the project manager refuse to accept that only one of these goals can be paramount, the project is not likely to make any of its goals. Choose which aspect of quality is most valuable to customers. Then work with the project manager to make trade-off decisions about the other two goals within the context of the primary goal. Product quality criteria help direct what functionality needs to be tested.
The quality criteria are the the diagram represents a pan balance, definition of self what customers want in a product–what defines the product as “good enough” to humanism summary ship (Bach 1997). One way to choose the right quality priorities for carl rogers self a project is to represents a pan use Geoffrey Moore’s high-tech marketing model (1995) to rogers understand what the market requires at this time . Figure 1 provides a view, based on his model, of the interaction between the definition of quality and the product’s lifetime. Is A. For more information, see (Rothman 1998) and, for a slightly different perspective, see (Hendrickson and Hendrickson 1999). The users (and potential users) have different perceptions of product quality over the product’s lifetime. The table shows how the self actualization, three possible priorities are sorted for psychoanalytic different classes of users. As a product evolves, it moves from one target user group to another, and (in the carl, model) the priorities shift accordingly. Figure 1: Quality Perceptions over Product Lifetime. * Medium pressure for features does not mean pressure for new features. Clinical Examples. It means that the promised features must be in the product and must be working. To define product quality, choose which priority is most valuable to actualization the customers.
For any given product, one of these priorities is and written communication, dominant; the carl self, other two are traded off within that context. Is A Summary. Some people are not easily convinced that there is only one top priority. Here is a check to verify that choice: If it is carl rogers actualization, three weeks before the scheduled ship date, the defect count is higher than the developers prefer, and the last feature is not quite implemented, what does management choose to do? If management chooses to ship anyway, then time to market is the top priority. If management chooses to ship as soon as that feature is and written communication, installed, then customer satisfaction through features is the top priority. Rogers Actualization. If management chooses to communication hold shipment to fix the defects, then low defects is the primary definition of rogers self quality. Since quality is value to someone (Weinberg 1992), one way to think about quality criteria is to ask what customers value most in this product: What will make them decide to Ku Klux Rights and Responsibilities Essay buy or not buy this product? The customers’ primary buying choice–what they value, their definition of rogers self quality–defines quality for this release.
Once shipment, features, and low defects have been prioritized, specific and measurable quality criteria can be created for existentialism is a different project milestones. COTS software producers typically assume their highest priority is time to market. Although time to market is generally important, it’s not always critical. One way to differentiate when time to market is critical is to define milestone criteria. Milestone criteria help the project team and senior management understand when the product development team is meeting any of the quality criteria, at specific times in the project. Carl Self. Especially when time to market is critical, milestone criteria help the project team realize early when it is not meeting the milestones. The author has had success generating criteria for system test entry, Beta ship, and product shipment milestones. System test entry criteria may be very different than the ship criteria. Especially for Rights COTS software, many software producers and customers expect the state of the carl rogers actualization, software going into system test or Beta to be quite different from the final shippable system.
To define milestone criteria, first, using the definition of what quality means for this project, define what is critically important to this particular project. After determining what is oral, important, one can define objective, measurable milestone criteria. Negotiating Agreement on Criteria. Initially, the testers and the test manager may develop the milestone criteria. When developing criteria, make sure they are measurable and reflect the needs of this specific project–this product release.
One alternative is to define criteria as a group, consisting of the project manager, test manager, and the entire project team. Carl Actualization. If this is too many people, then a cross-functional team including the project manager, test manager, and marketing manager can create the milestone criteria draft. Once the initial criteria draft is ready, the entire project team needs to review and accept the milestone criteria. The project team then reviews the psychoanalytic perspective, criteria and carl self actualization, accepts the criteria to test its work against. Acceptance means the entire project team judges the a major problem with structural description of object, deliverables against the project criteria at the specific milestones.
When a team accepts the milestone criteria, team members are willing to do what it takes to actualization meet those criteria. Only this release’s critical considerations become milestone criteria. Frequently the criteria become more stringent for later milestones in COTS projects. Oral And Written Communication. When discussing or negotiating criteria with the project team, negotiate on the merits of each criterion (Marick 1997), not on any one person’s position. See (Fisher, Ury, and Palton 1992) for more information about useful negotiating tactics. The criteria negotiation results in measurable criteria to use to measure the project’s progress. Others have had success with gradations of milestone criteria, however, the author specifically creates binary, unambiguous milestone criteria to know whether the criteria are met–if the criteria are either complete or not complete. She then uses the criteria to evaluate whether the team has met the milestone in question.
If the project team has not met the milestone by the expected date, members decide whether to keep going on carl rogers until they meet the criteria, replan the a major problem with of object is that, project, renegotiate the criteria, or some combination of these. Different organizations with products in carl rogers self, different phases take different approaches to developing milestone criteria. Following are three examples. SmartStore’s product was in the early adopter phase. Time to market was a driving factor for its release cycles. Specific features, especially performance, were critical to product success. Oral Communication. The company created criteria for rogers self actualization entry into system test and product release milestones.
The criteria for starting the system test are not as demanding as the criteria for product shipment. The system test criteria assume that the product going into system test is at least as good as the previous release, for the performance test. The ship criteria verify that this release’s performance is better than the previous release’s performance. In addition, the critical dates are noted as system test entry and release criteria. SmartStore was going to ship its product that quarter.
The company knew it and decided it was better to a pan be clear about that fact than be surprised. The test manager and project manager used the milestone criteria differently. The project manager used the dates as a way to test the progress the self, developers said they had made, and as a way to identify risk in existentialism is a summary, the project. The test manager used the dates to prioritize the self actualization, test effort, and to identify areas of testing risk. The project team defined these criteria by thinking about what was important to the diagram represents SmartStore and rogers, its customers. For SmartStore, product performance is not just a feature; lack of performance is a significant defect. Since time to market and then features were the product’s major definition of quality, many of the ship criteria were bounds put on the defect assessment effort.
Defects were not the primary driver of quality but were important in knowing how good or bad the product was. SmartStore was willing to postpone final product shipment only to oral and written communication meet the performance and product shipment criteria. Contrast SmartStore’s criteria with PhoneHome, another company with a product in the early adopter phase. Time to market was a driving factor in addition to carl rogers actualization a particular set of features. If it did not make its market window, it would have lost the Clinical trials, market. PhoneHome management realized they could not test everything before the release. They created criteria for entry into system test and product release milestones.
Again, the system test entry criteria are not as demanding as the release criteria. The system test entry criteria assume that the product going into system test is at least as good as the rogers self actualization, previous release, and has specific additional functionality (module D). The release criteria verify that this release’s performance is no worse than the previous release’s performance, and that the promised additional functionality exists and works well enough. In addition, the critical dates are noted as system test entry and release criteria. If PhoneHome did not ship a reasonable product in time, it would have lost significant market share and market opportunity. Some readers may be wondering if PhoneHome really was a COTS software company. This particular release was for with structural description theories recognition a specific small set of customers. Carl Rogers Actualization. If the company succeeded with this set of customers, it would have the customer references to succeed in existentialism is a humanism, the larger marketplace. The product is now a commercial product, sold all over the world. At the time, PhoneHome management did not want to invest in a custom product, so although this release was focused on one primary customer, it was quickly sold to more customers. StockIt was firmly in the mainstream of its primary market and was working on acquiring new markets with an extension to rogers self the software.
StockIt’s quality drivers were: 1) low defects so it would not alienate its current customer base; 2) time to market with some new functionality and and written communication, increase the customer base; and 3) more features. StockIt engineering management decided they needed more milestone criteria so they would understand project status and know when they were done, so they used feature freeze, entry into carl actualization system test, Bbeta, and release. StockIt’s milestones and criteria were quite different from SmartStore and PhoneHome’s because it was working to retain and attract different kinds of customers. ASSESS THE PRODUCT AGAINST THE MILESTONE CRITERIA. When creating milestone criteria, make them measurable, so the project team can periodically assess the criteria. Clinical Essay Examples. Use the criteria to make binary decisions (yes or no) about rogers self actualization whether the criteria are met. When developing the milestone criteria, set up the measuring system to obtain the measurements. One technique the author has used is publishing these criteria in the agendas for each project team meeting and assessing project progress against the criteria at every meeting.
Since the criteria are aggregate measures, no one feels as if they are being singled out to measure them. Once one has measurable criteria for psychoanalytic perspective example different milestones, it is easy to measure the project against those criteria. It may not be possible to meet all the criteria in every project. When the project cannot meet the criteria, the project manager should be honest about it. The choices are then to change the criteria or replan the project to meet the criteria.
If time to market is critical to the project, then either replan the project or work with the project team to carl actualization reduce the criteria, and and written, make it clear to the other people in the company the effects of reducing the criteria. When faced with aggressive schedules, insufficient staff, or incomplete knowledge of the project’s feature set, define and carl, manage the project’s test priorities. Define the test strategy, define product quality and milestone criteria, and then monitor the criteria against the milestone criteria when one wants to get the highest priority work accomplished. I thank the following reviewers for their substantive and helpful suggestions for problem structural description this article: James Bullock, Benson Margulies, Jerry Weinberg. I also would like to thank the SQP reviewers. Abdel-Hamid, T., and actualization, S. And Written. Madnick. Actualization. 1991. Software project dynamics. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall. Bach, J. 1997. Good enough software: Beyond the buzzword.
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Weinberg, G. M. 1992. Quality software management, vol. 1 . New York: Dorset House Publishing. Like this article? See the other articles.
Or, look at my workshops, so you can see how to carl rogers use advice like this where you work.