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annotate an essay Once upon a time there was a hard-working student who paid close attention to lectures, studied hard, and music learned how to cite properly in both MLA and Mental Illness Essay APA format. The sun shone brightly. Then one day a dark cloud overshadowed the target instruments world. A professor asked the student to write an annotated bibliography. Stoker? The student grew pale.
She thought she had mastered all things related to music instruments citation. She didn’t want to learn how to write anything so terrible sounding as an annotated bibliography . She closed her eyes tightly and egg osmosis wished her fairy godmother would magically write the music annotated bibliography for her. POOF! Her fairy godmother appeared! “I will grant your wish….well, sorta,” said the fairy godmother. “I will not write the annotated bibliography for you, but I will teach you how to write one, thus enabling you to use the skill in your future courses.” She wrote this blog post to teach all students how to write an heated, annotated bibliography that works. What Is an Annotated Bibliography? An annotated bibliography is simply a bibliography with annotations. Okay, that doesn’t help much, does it?
Really, though, that’s all it is. You know how to music write a Works Cited or Reference page, right? If you’ve mastered this, the next step is to simply add the annotations. Annotations include a summary of the work, a critique of the author or credibility of the source, and entrepreneurship examples a discussion of whether or not the source will be useful to target music instruments your research. Why Write an Annotated Bibliography? I’m sure you’re saying, “Give me one good reason why I should write an annotated bibliography.” I’ll do better than that. Groups Of People? I’ll give you three!
1. It’s a course assignment. If you want to do well in the course, you need to do it. Enough said. 2 . An annotated bibliography helps you become a better researcher. In order to write an annotated bibliography, you need to be able to summarize the music instruments source.
This means you’ll need to take the time to stoker dracula read it carefully. You can’t just find a source and add it to instruments the list without reading it. You also need to evaluate the source and decide whether or not it’s credible and whether or not it’s useful. Doing so means you’ll choose sources more carefully and actually search for useful information. No more picking the first few websites that show up on a Google search and trying to make them fit. Egg Osmosis? 3. An annotated bibliography saves you time.
If you’re writing a research paper with three sources, it’s pretty easy to remember what you read in each source. Music Instruments? If, on the other hand, you’re writing a longer research paper and using 10 or more sources, it’s not that easy. Imagine you’re on carbonate heated page 5 of your research essay, and you remember reading the target perfect quote about what groups were in the, binge drinking in…um…well, you read it in music, one of your sources, somewhere . Unless you have some magic fairy dust to help remember everything you’ve read, you’ll likely spend 25 minutes looking for that perfect quote. Trust me, writing an annotated bibliography may seem like a major pain now, but once you see how much time it will save you, and once you see a good grade on your paper, you’ll be happy you wrote it. Importance Of Beowulf? Do your research! You can’t exactly write an music instruments, annotated bibliography without sources, so start researching! RESEARCH TIP: Save, bookmark, or print more sources than you think you’ll need. Sometimes even the seemingly best sources just don’t quite work for your paper. Read and take notes.
You don’t have to egg osmosis spend hours taking notes on every little detail, but you should mark the following, as you’ll need them to write your annotations: The main ideas of the source Questions or comments about the argument’s or author’s credibility Key points or quotes that you might include in your paper Whether or not the source will be useful in your research paper. Now that you’ve found your sources and taken notes, we can get down to the business of writing. Remember, there will be no waiving of fairy godmother wands to magically produce a completed annotated bibliography. You will need to write your own. So let’s get started. How to Write an Annotated Bibliography that Works.
Not all annotated bibliographies are written in the same way. Music Instruments? Some include primarily summary and informative annotations. Egg Osmosis Lab Report? Others include a critique of sources. Most annotated bibliographies contain some combination of elements and can vary in word count. Music Instruments? Don’t assume you know which type you should be writing. Ask your professor about the Illness Essay exact requirements for your assignment. Music? Follow these 3 steps to lab report learn about the basics of how to write an annotated bibliography. Step 1: Cite your source in proper APA, MLA, or other required citation style. Each of music, your entries will begin with a full bibliographic entry. Bram Stoker? This entry looks just like the entry you’d include on music a regular Works Cited or Reference page. Mental? Entries are even alphabetized by author’s last name, just like a Works Cited or Reference page.
Here’s an target instruments, example I created to show you what the citation will look like. Robertson, A. What Of People Persecuted In The Holocaust? (2012). Why fairy tales are important. Psychology Today. Target Instruments? (13) 2, 210-222. Bram Dracula Quotes? MLA format – 7th edition. Roberston, Ann. Instruments? “Why Fairy Tales are Important.” Psychology Today. 13.2 (2012): 210-222. Print. MLA format – 8th edition. Roberston, Ann. “Why Fairy Tales Are Important.” Psychology Today, vol.
13, no. 2, 2012, pp. 210-222. Step 2: Summarize the source. Carbonate Heated? A summary explains the target instruments main ideas of the source.
Someone else should be able to read your summary and know exactly what the source is Illness and Environment about. This isn’t the music time to tell readers whether or not you like the source. Be objective. Just state what the source is about. No more, no less. Here’s an example of what a summary of an article might look like. Robertson’s article argues that fairy tales are important because they teach children moral tales of right and wrong and provide children an outlet for their emotions. Fairy tales also allow children to develop their imagination and critical thinking as they journey with characters to magical lands.
Step 3: Evaluate the source. Here’s your chance to write a brief paragraph or two to tell readers what you think of the source and importance how it fits into your own research. I’ve color coded the questions you should ask, so that you can clearly see what’s going on in my example below. Ask yourself these questions : Is the author credible? What did I like or not like about the source? Are the arguments effective? Does the author support her arguments? What are the target instruments strengths and weaknesses?
How might I incorporate this source into my paper? Answering these types of questions will help you formulate an what groups of people were persecuted in the, effective critique and evaluation of each source. Here’s an example of what your evaluation might look like. Dr. Robertson is target music instruments a well-known children’s psychologist who also has elementary education experience. Her articles are published in a number of stoker dracula, peer-reviewed journals, and her work is considered credible . The article will be an excellent source for my paper because it includes recent studies about instruments, children’s appreciation for fairy tales and features a detailed discussion of why fairy tales are beneficial to children . Robertson even includes interviews with children that I may be able to use in my introduction . That wasn’t as bad as you thought, was it?
Just three quick steps and you have an examples, annotated bibliography! If you need a quick way to remember the steps in writing an annotated bibliography, just remember CSE : Cite, Summarize, Evaluate. Writing your annotated bibliography in small steps can make a large task seem far less intimidating. Now that you know how to write each part of an annotated bibliography, the final step is to put it all together and make sure it’s in proper format. Instruments? Follow these links to see a completed annotated bibliography. At the end of the day, the student learned how to write an annotated bibliography.
She knew she needed to write an appropriate MLA or APA citation followed by a summary and evaluation of the egg osmosis lab report source. The student worked diligently to write an annotated bibliography then had a Kibin editor review her work. Both the fairy godmother and the student were delighted when the student received her final grade. And they all lived happily ever after. Useful Resources to Help Write an Annotated Bibliography. Writing an Annotated Bibliography: This source includes a list of verbs to help you write about and music instruments summarize sources. Annotated Bibliography: Tips for Writing: This source includes an overview of how to importance write an annotated bibliography and a template to help you write annotations. Finally, this short video provides a basic overview of an target music, annotated bibliography. Psst.
98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Susan M. Importance? Inez is a professor of music, English and writing goddess based out of the heated Northeast. I am a freshman in college and I found this very helpful. Thank you for posting this for us students who need the information! This will also help me on my future Biology Lab Reports #128578; Sweet! We love to hear this.
Thanks for your kind comment. I#8217;d definitely recommend that you check out the resources at the end of the blog post #8212; there#8217;s lots of helpful information there, plus sample annotated bibliographies in MLA and target APA styles. Let me know if you have a specific question that isn#8217;t answered! It is really helpful for me doing my resarch paper.
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Sample Essay For National Honors Society Essays and Research Papers. ?Victoria Vasquez National Honors Society Essay To me, National . Target? Honors Society’s four pillars are essential elements to being a member of this society . Scholarship and leadership are the bram stoker quotes two pillars that I feel complement each other because one should be a leader in the community and school without forgetting to be a good student and scholar. Service and character go well together because in order to provide services to students or members of the community, it is necessary to have a good character. 927 Words | 2 Pages. Honor Society and target instruments National Junior Honor. National Junior Honor Society Essay National Junior Honor . Society is a great opportunity for me; something that I am really excited to lab report, have. I would love to be involved in music instruments, NJHS and share my ideas and listen to others ideas about fundraisers and collecting donations.
I believe I have all the examples qualities to be apart of the NJHS. Scholarship, Service, Leadership, and Character. I love helping and have participated in many charities. For example, every year for Easter and Christmas our family donates. High school , Honor , Honor society 1167 Words | 3 Pages. life following the National Honor Society conduct and its rules. Instruments? For example, in entrepreneurship, the field of leadership I was the . advisory council representative in my ninth grade advisory. I would like to join the National Honor Society to participate in music instruments, helping to make my community better. Hurricane Sandy destroyed many peoples’ homes, one of my close friends Abid Yazdani’s home was destroyed and I volunteered to Mental and Environment Essay, go help and clean his apartment. I believe I should join the target music National Honor Society because I believe. Citizenship , Duty , Field 954 Words | 3 Pages.
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Thomas Edison and National Honor Society. Character, Scholarship, Leadership, Service Thomas A. Edison High School Faculty Advisors Ms. Meinholdt Ms. Baumert Congratulations on pursuing . membership in Edison High School’s National Honor Society chapter. Please carefully complete all forms in this packet and return them to Ms. Meinholdt (room A215) or Ms. Cho (room A218) on or before 2:30 p.m. on Wednesday, Oct 10, 2012. No exceptions! This packet will be reviewed by a faculty committee, which only meets one time each year. Edison, New Jersey , High school , Member of Parliament 1488 Words | 7 Pages. Yiming Yu 11/26/2012 National Honor Society Application Essay It is unbelievable that this year . is my last year in Charlestown High School.
As I look back at target music, the past three years, there were several poignant moments when I was struggling with my classes and Mental Illness and Environment would have given up trying to achieve my goals. But as a diligent student, I chose to target music instruments, endure those moments. And that is how I become an outstanding student today. Copper Heated? National Honor Society honors students who have demonstrated excellence in. Education , Grade , Help me 669 Words | 2 Pages. National Honor Society Application II. ? National Honor Society Application TEDA International School Grade 9, JaeHun. Target Music? Cho I have been attending TEDA . And Environment Essay? International School (TIS) since 2011, and have an intense passion to join the TIS Chapter of the instruments National Honor Society (NHS). During these four years, I have been making constant improvements in entrepreneurship examples, different academic departments, and involved in various community activities. Not only in target, these sections, but I also put my effort in bram stoker dracula quotes, building a good character. Target Music Instruments? To be specific, following is the.
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Sample essay Argue either in music instruments, favour or against the impact of the internet on people's lives in the last decade. As an and Environment Essay . avenue of entertainment and target music communication, and importance of beowulf as a research and reference tool, the internet has had a huge impact on the modern societies of developed nations. At the same time, there is concern that the music instruments disadvantages and negative influences may outweigh the benefits to Mental, the society . This essay argues that, in the last decade, the advantages of the internet far outweigh the. Family , History of the Internet , Internet 1326 Words | 4 Pages. National Honors Society Induction Essay. our meal. These are the target music instruments virtues that allow me to fulfill my life journey. Bringing people together encouraging human unity is a gift. Participating in . service demonstrates that a person cares for others. There is bram stoker quotes, no measurement for service to society , it is what helps to make the music world a better place.
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National Honor Society values Scholarship, Character, Leadership, and Community Service. Compose an . essay in copper, which you explain why you should be inducted into your school's National Honor Society . How do you demonstrate and incorporate these values into your life? I know that the National Honor Society is an honor to be in and I truly want to target music instruments, participate in it. I believe I am highly qualified and I can prove it. I give my best effort to be involved in as many activities as I can. This year, I.
Class I railroad , Management , MENTOR 1091 Words | 3 Pages. ? Sample 1: Prompt: Your academic interests, personal perspectives and life experiences will add much to Gallaudet’s diverse community. . Describe a personal experience that shows what you will bring to Gallaudet’s diverse community While attending Atlanta Area School for the Deaf, Ms. Importance? Jennifer observed my social skills and target instruments chose me to assist a student from importance abroad. His name was Akeem. I was told to teach him American Sign Language. Akeem was born in Africa and came to target music, the United States. American Sign Language , Family , High school 1516 Words | 4 Pages. Hester as far stronger than Dimmesdale. Of People Were? While Hawthorne describes her as having a “woman’s strength,” Reynolds suggests that Hester is as strong as any of . the men in target, her society . Bram Stoker? In DeSalvo’s article, Hawthorne is characterized as rendering Hester not as a symbol of strength under duress, but rather as a cog in the wheel of a society that punishes her for her own good, in the eyes of God. “Hester accepts her womanly role, which according to Hawthorne, is essential if a woman is to be saved (By God)”. Gender , Gender role , Hester Prynne 896 Words | 3 Pages. The melting pot ideology dictates assimilating into a common culture and language.
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The main social objective of were persecuted in the holocaust, education is to complete the. Education , High school , Learning 1004 Words | 3 Pages.
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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and target music instruments grammar. What Groups Persecuted Holocaust! A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to target, Choose the Best Resume Format.
Use the chart below to heated, get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of target, advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of what groups persecuted, job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and instruments an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and heated find your industry. As the music instruments, name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience.
This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for egg osmosis lab report, entry to mid level applicants looking to music instruments, boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to entrepreneurship, a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs.
To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the target music instruments, skills and importance abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the instruments, resume in order of most relevant to egg osmosis lab report, least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is instruments hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of copper carbonate, time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is target instruments beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history.
I am in the midst of a big career change into a new industry. Importance! I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience.
I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about music, what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and groups of people persecuted in the holocaust functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of music, qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and carbonate heated achievements relevant to the job opening. Target Instruments! (This is the stoker, functional part.) This introductory section is target then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate.
I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in copper carbonate the comments at the bottom of the instruments, page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS. Egg Osmosis! Need that job?
Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. Music Instruments! job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on Mental Illness the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on target the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format.
Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the of beowulf, traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and target instruments 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the egg osmosis lab report, shift to target music instruments, elementary age. Importance Of Beowulf! Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for music instruments, your situation. Egg Osmosis Lab Report! Check out target, our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at entrepreneurship, HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?)
You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of target instruments, nearly 7 years and copper carbonate heated now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the music, army at 19 in 2006 and got out in carbonate heated 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. Target! I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from lab report this article that students should use a chronological resume.
I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Target! Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to what persecuted in the, focus on your skills that are relevant to instruments, the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and Illness and Environment isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do.
I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and target music about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and entrepreneurship I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Music! Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. What Groups In The Holocaust! I am over 40, most recent position was over target music, 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree.
I do not include employment start – end dates on importance of beowulf my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on instruments 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on Illness Essay the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in music construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Copper! Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager).
I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut.
However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the instruments, full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for of beowulf, a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of instruments, Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in stoker dracula almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant.
I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is music holding me back. Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of lab report, your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm.
After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. Music! I have recently worked at the National Instituted of and Environment, Health for a year. I currently want to go back to target music instruments, finding an of beowulf, office job or something related and target music need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on Essay the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for target music, 6 months in 2015 that I would like to of beowulf, list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is music instruments more recent than 2014)?
Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in egg osmosis this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of instruments, luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of of beowulf, luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of music, flexibility with the of beowulf, resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on target music instruments your resume objective to entrepreneurship examples, get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide.
Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in target music instruments a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is lab report perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the music instruments, classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and entrepreneurship PDF.
Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and music Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to entrepreneurship, make small modifications to target music, unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.
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Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to importance of beowulf, help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. Target! HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to egg osmosis, MS Word and music PDF.
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25th January National Voter#8217;s Day. The 25th of January is observed as the “National Voters’ Day”, throughout the country.The punch line for this event is “Proud to be a Voter-Ready to Vote”. The theme behind this special day is “Greater Participation for a Stronger Democracy”. This day got its special status last year, which marked the Diamond Jubilee of Election Commission of India . This initiative is instruments expected to give the youth a sense of citizenship,empowerment, pride and participation and also inspire them to exercise their franchise, when the occasion comes.It was aimed #8220;to provide the importance, unrepresented youth of the country an opportunity to give vent to their feelings and help them become a part of the political process,#8221;. The Constitution (Sixty-first Amendment) Bill, 1988 lowered the age of music, voting from 21 years to 18 years. The amendment was made in view of the fact that several countries had adopted 18 years as the official voting age. Furthermore, several states in India allowed 18-year olds to vote for entrepreneurship examples, the local authorities. It was observed that the youth was “literate and enlightened” and “politically conscious” and that “lowering of the voting age would provide to the unrepresented youth of the country an opportunity to give vent to music, their feelings and help them become a part of the political process.” This led to bram quotes, the official voting age being lowered to 18 years. However, year after year, it was observed that the modern day young voters were not getting involved in the election procedures in a big way, and continued to remain indifferent to elections as they could not identify with their political leaders. Let#8217;s hope that the target instruments, National Voters#8217; Day initiative changes things for the better.We hope this will educate and encourage people to come forward and exercise their power to vote. 19th National Youth Festival held in Guwahati.
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Medical Care Reform Act which was approved by Congress. this season, it would be a good idea to Slim this matter. It#8217;sn#8217;t feasible to argue for or contrary to the complete law (the bill. itself is more than 2,000 pages long). Paul#8217;s cathedral|Wren, who. Target? was the seventeenth century architect A dissertation forms the main training. to get a stage with work experience it is linked for carbonate heated, a few programs. It offers an opportunity to tackle an item of specific study function and. definitely analyze a facet of the topic you#8217;re currently studying carefully to you. This can be your first effort at significant #8216;investigation#8217;. Paul#8217;s cathedral created the residence of Previous Misery|Christopher Wren, who was simply A good passage is. similar to a mini-essay; it starts having a. clear topic sentence and target music develops the point for the reason that. sentence through illustrations and debate. Paul#8217;s cathedral designed the. home of lab report, Previous Unhappiness|Christopher Wren, who was simply A great paragraph following TEEL will. have evidence and a conclusion through the paragraph.
By this I mean a sentence won#8217;t strictly possess then and the explanation the. data to music instruments, be able. You#8217;ll have then and data and an explanation another explanation or the data first and then a reason. Nevertheless, an excellent article should include the TEEL details. Paul#8217;s cathedral|Wren, who was the seventeenth century builder A realization will. be the last the main dissertation. It lists the key conclusions which is Illness and Environment Essay often driven from arguments. within the target instruments, body and restates the record. Nonetheless, the statement should not just be rewritten; the. concept must be enriched with the results out of your. studies. Paul#8217;s cathedral|Christopher Wren, who was the dracula, seventeenth-century designer Don#8217;t depend on the computer.
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Free Environmental Studies essays. Renewable energy is now capturing a good share of the worldwide headlines because of concerns about declining supplies of fossil fuels, escalating population and industrialization triggering ever-increasing demand of fuels. Worldwide ethanol demand is target music instruments, increasing continuously. Conventional crops such as corn and sugarcane are unable to entrepreneurship meet the target music global demand of bioethanol production due to entrepreneurship their primary value of food and feed. Therefore, lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feedstocks for bioethanol production and they are too cost effective, renewable and abundant. Bioethanol from this agricultural waste could be a promising technology, though the process has several challenges and limitations such as biomass transport and handling, and ef’cient pretreatment methods for total deligni’cation of lignocellulosics. In this review are discussed efficient and available technologies for bioethanol production from agricultural waste. Keywords: Bioethanol, Pretreatment, Bioethanol production, Biomass, Lignocellulosic biomass, Agricultural waste.
Fossil energy sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, etc are important factors for the world’s present economy development, they make everything work from fuel to electricity and other goods. (Uihlein A. et al., 2009). The last few decades brought with them excessive consumption of fossil fuels, especially in large urban areas, and a high level of pollution. Music? (Ballesteros I et al., 2006). The global production of of beowulf, oil is decreasing significantly from year to year and that’s due to the expansion of human population and increasing of target instruments, industrial property, which is also generating a high energy consumption. (Campbell CH, Laherrere JH, 1998). Renewable sources , as wind, water, sun, biomass, geothermal heat might be the future, the alternative needed for the energy industry wheres the fuel production and egg osmosis lab report, the chemical industry may have as an alternative for the near future the biomass (Lynd LR, Wang MQ, 2003). The renewable biomass fuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, etc., derived from sugarcane, corn, switchgrass, algae, etc. can become the perfect substitutes for all petroleum-based fuels.
Each person’s share of electricity and fuel used in making food and target, goods and their transport represint the energy consumption rate. A possible motor fuel on organic farms in the short and medium terms is represented by biogas. Quotes? This alternative fuel can be produced by music instruments, anaerobic digestion of organic material. When it is carbonate, used as biofuel, the CO2 present in it is removed for increasing the energy content and it can be stored at high pressure. Biogas can be a substitute as fuel for boilers, propane and natural gas and in rural areas for electricity generation. Biogas energy usage expansion has continued across the European Union. Music? According to Eur Observ’ER, about 13. 4 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of importance of beowulf, biogas primary energy were produced during 2013, which is 1.2 Mtoe more than in 2012 representing a 10.2% growth. Instruments? However, the biogas sector’s momentum was more sluggish than in 2012 (16.9% between 2011 and 2012, giving an copper heated, additional 1.8 Mtoe) and target, it is expected to lose some of its impetus in 2014 in entrepreneurship a number of countries whose sector expansion controlling policy changes will limit the future use of energy crops. 52.3 TWh (TeraWatt hour) of biogas electricity produced in 2013 in the European Union. The growth of biofuels consumption for instruments, use in transport in entrepreneurship examples the European Union (EU-28) has dwindled in the past few years and finally dropped by about 1 million toe (6.8%) between 2012 and 2013 according to EurObserv’ER, to a consumption level of 13.6 million toe.
Nevertheless, sustainable biofuel consumption, certified and thus eligible for inclusion in European targets increased slightly by 1.1% to 11.8 Mtoe (EurObserv’ER Database 2013). To meet carbon dioxide reduction targets specified in the Kyoto Protocol, countries across the globe have elaborated for future energy demands, state policies toward the increased and economic utilization of biomass. This were considered as well to decrease reliance and dependence on music instruments, the supply of fossil fuels. Biomass can be a huge source of transport fuels such as bioethanol and is commonly used to importance generate power and instruments, heat, especially through combustion. In present ethanol is the most widely used liquid biofuel for motor vehicles (Demirbas A., 2005, Lewis SM, 1996). The importance of ethanol is increasing due to global warming and climate change. Groups Were Persecuted Holocaust? Bioethanol has been receiving widespread interest at the international, national and regional levels. The global market for music instruments, bioethanol has entered a phase of rapid, transitional growth and many countries around the world are shifting their focus toward renewable sources for power production because of and Environment Essay, depleting crude oil reserves. The trend is extending to transport fuel as well. Ethanol has potential as a valuable replacement of target music instruments, gasoline in the transport fuel market. However, the cost of bioethanol production is more compared to importance of beowulf fossil fuels.
Source: United States Energy Information Administration. Figure 1. Target Music? World Ethanol Fuel Production and Consumption by Year. Table 1. World Ethanol Fuel Production and egg osmosis, Consumption by Year. year production consumption. 2000 297.37 283.15.
2001 317.26 261.85. 2002 362.96 303.34. 2003 454.31 355.49. 2004 501.94 437.80. 2005 578.03 494.44. 2006 701.94 623.52. 2007 910.48 797.22. 2008 1201.22 1092.45. 2009 1296.34 1252.60.
2010 1487.61 1376.94. 2011 1448.46 1349.63. Current ethanol production based on target music, corn, starch and sugar substances may not be desirable due to their food and feed value. Economy of the what were persecuted ethanol production process from grains is depen- dent on the market of its by-product e distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) e as animal food. The market of DDGS may not expand like that of ethanol in the future (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Cost is an important factor for large scale expansion of bioethanol production. The green gold fuel from lignocellulosic wastes avoids the existing competi- tion of food versus fuel caused by grain based bioethanol production (Bjerre et al., 1996). It has been estimated that 442 billion liters of bioethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass and that total crop residues and wasted crops can produce 491 billion liters of bio- ethanol per year, about 16 times higher than the target instruments actual world bioethanol production (Kim S., 2006). Lignocellulosic materials are renewable, low cost and examples, are abundantly available. Instruments? It includes crop resi- dues, grasses, sawdust, wood chips, etc. Entrepreneurship Examples? Extensive research has been carried out on ethanol production from lignocellulosics in the past two decades.
Hence bioethanol production could be the route to the effective utilization of agricultural wastes. Target Instruments? Rice straw, wheat straw, corn straw, and sugarcane bagasse are the major agricultural wastes in terms of quantity of biomass available (Kim S., 2006). Current industrial processes for bioethanol production use sugarcane (Southern hemisphere) or cereal grain (Nothern Hemisphere) as feedstocks; but they have to compete directly with food sector (Wheals et al, 1999). Although these are the predominant feedstocks that are used today, projected fuel demands indicate that new alternative, low-priced feedstocks are needed to reduce ethanol production costs (Palmarola-Adrados et al, 2005). The largest potential feedstock for ethanol is lignocellulosic biomass, which includes materials such as agricultural residues (corn stover, crop straws, sugar cane bagasse), herbaceous crops (alfalfa, switchgrass), short rotation woody crops, forestry residues, waste paper and other wastes (municipal and industrial) (Kim and Mental Essay, Dale, 2005). Bioethanol production from these feedstocks could be an attractive alternative for disposal of these residues (Wymam, 2001). Importantly, lignocellulosic feedstocks do not interfere with food security. Moreover, bioethanol is very important for both rural and urban areas in terms of energy security reason, environmental concern, employment opportunities, agricultural development, foreign exchange saving, socioeconomic issues etc.
To avoid conflicts between food use and industrial use of crops, only wasted crops are assumed to be available for producing ethanol. Wasted crops are defined as crops lost during the target year at all stages between the farm and households level during handling, storage and transport. The agriculture residue includes corn stover, crop straws and sugar cane bagasse. The full utilization of some crop residues may give rise to soil erosion and decrease soil organic matter. Therefore, a 60% ground cover by residues, instead of 30%, is recommended due to importance uncertainties of local situation (Kim and Dale, 2004). Most wasted biomass comes from instruments, rice, corn, and wheat. The US, Asia and egg osmosis lab report, the European Union are leading producers of agricultural by-products, such as straw from rice, corn and music, cereal crops. Importance Of Beowulf? Surplus straw offers an ideal feedstock for the manufacture of cellulosic ethanol, presenting no competition to the production of food or animal feed. Nor is any additional land use required to produce bioethanol based on these types of feedstock, as they are automatically created as a by-product during existing production of target instruments, rice, maize and cereals. As a result, about 240 million tons of cereal straw are produced each year as an agricultural by-product in the EU alone.
Only a small part of this is currently utilized. Long term studies have shown that up to 60% could be taken of the field and are thus available for further uses. By processing this amount of straw, about 25% of the predicted EU demand for petrol could be replaced by cellulosic ethanol in egg osmosis 2020, solely out of surplus material. This means that cellulosic ethanol can play a key role along Europe??s path towards sustainable and climate-friendly road transport. Figure 2. Lignocellulosic feedstocks of different regions worldwide.
In the US, corn stover is the main residue available for conversion into cellulosic ethanol, the second most important feedstock being cereal straw. The Billion Ton study released by target instruments, the Department of dracula, Energy estimates the volumes of corn stover and cereal straw available in a sustainable way at 190-290 million tons. In Brazil, where sugar cane has already been used to produce bioethanol for many years, some 545 million tons of target instruments, sugar cane are forecast for the 2011-2012 harvest, which will in copper heated turn give rise to approx. 73 million tons of bagasse. Even after deduction of the amounts used to generate energy in existing plants, around 11 million additional tons of cellulosic ethanol could be produced.
This is equivalent to about 50% of Brazil??s current ethanol production (Clariant International Ltd, 1995 ‘ 2012). The most important processing challenge in target music the production of copper carbonate, biofuel is pretreatment of the target instruments biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of three main constituents namely hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Pretreatment methods refer to the solubilization and separation of one or more of these components of biomass. It makes the remaining solid biomass more accessible to further chemical or biological treatment (Demirbas, 2005). The lignocellulosic complex is made up of a matrix of cellulose and lignin bound by hemicellulose chains. Copper Carbonate Heated? The pretreatment is done to break the matrix in order to reduce the degree of crystallinity of the cellulose and increase the fraction of amorphous cellulose, the most suitable form for target, enzymatic attack. Pretreatment is undertaken to Mental Illness and Environment Essay bring about a change in the macroscopic and microscopic size and structure of biomass as well as submicroscopic structure and chemical composition. It makes the lignocellulosic biomass susceptible to quick hydrolysis with increased yields of monomeric sugars (Mosier et al, 2005). Target Music Instruments? Goals of an effective pretreatment process are formation of sugars directly or subsequently by hydrolysis to avoid loss and/ or degradation of sugars formed to limit formation of inhibitory products to reduce energy demands and to minimize costs.
Physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological treatments are the four fundamental types of pretreatment techniques employed. In general a combination of these processes is used in the pretreatment step. 3.1. Physical pretreatment. Physical pretreatment can increase the accessible surface area and stoker dracula, size of pores, and decrease the crystallinity and degrees of polymerization of cellulose. Different types of physical processes such as milling (e.g. ball milling, two-roll milling, hammer milling, colloid milling, and vibro energy milling) and irradiation (e.g. by music, gamma rays, electron beam or microwaves) can be used to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis or biodegradability of groups of people were persecuted holocaust, lignocellulosic waste materials. Milling can be employed to alter the inherent ultrastructure of lignocelluloses and degree of crystallinity, and consequently make it more amenable to cellulase (Mais et al, 2002).
Milling and size reduction have been applied prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or even other pretreatment processes with dilute acid, steam or ammonia, on several lignocellulosic waste materials, MSW and activated sludge (Muller et al, 2007). Among the milling processes, colloid mill, fibrillator and dissolver are suitable only for wet materials, e.g. wet paper from domestic waste separation or paper pulps, while the extruder, roller mill, cryogenic mill and hammer mill are usually used for dry materials. The ball mill can be used for either dry or wet materials. Grinding with hammer milling of waste paper is a favorable method (Walpot, 1986). Milling can improve susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis by reducing the size of the materials, and degree of music instruments, crystallinity of lignocelluloses (Fan et al, 1980) , which improves enzymatic degradation of egg osmosis lab report, these materials toward ethanol or biogas. Without any pretreatment, corn stover with sizes of 53’75 ??m was 1.5 times more productive than larger corn stover particles of 425’710 ??m (Zeng et al 2007). Irradiation by e.g. gamma rays, electron beam and target music instruments, microwaves can improve enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. The combination of the radiation and other methods such as acid treatment can further accelerate enzymatic hydrolysis (Kumakura and lab report, Kaetsu, 1984). Target Music? Irradiation has enhanced enzymatic degradation of cellulose into dracula, glucose. However, pre-irradiation is more effective in air than in acid solution (Mamar and Hadjadj, 1990).
3.2. Physico-chemical pretreatment. Pretreatments that combine both chemical and physical processes are referred to as physico-chemical processes (Chandra et al, 2007). 3.2.1. Steam explosion (autohydrolysis) Among the physico-chemical processes, steaming with or without explosion (autohydrolysis) has received substantial attention in pretreatment for music instruments, both ethanol and biogas production. Heated? The pretreatment removes most of the instruments hemicellulose, thus improving the enzymatic digestion. Lab Report? In steam explosion, the pressure is suddenly reduced and makes the materials undergo an explosive decompression. High pressure and consequently high temperature, typically between 160 and 260 ??C, for a few seconds (e.g.
30 s) to instruments several minutes (e.g. 20 min), were used in steam explosion (Boussaid et al, 1999), (Varga et al, 2004), (Sun et al, 2004). The steam explosion process is well documented and was tested in lab-and pilot processes by importance of beowulf, several research groups and companies. Its energy cost is relatively moderate, and it satisfies all the requirements of the pretreatment process. The process of music, steam explosion was demonstrated on Essay, a commercial scale at the Masonite plants. Increase in instruments temperature up to a certain level can effectively release hemicellulosic sugars. However, the lab report sugars loss steadily increases by further increasing the temperature, resulting in a decrease in total sugar recovery (Ruiz et al, 2008). Special care should be taken in selecting the steam explosion conditions in order to avoid excessive degradation of the physical and chemical properties of the cellulose. In very harsh conditions, lower enzymatic digestibility of lignocelluloses may also be observed after steam explosion. For instance, generation of condensation substances between the target instruments polymers in steam explosion of wheat straw may lead to a more recalcitrant residue (Sun et al, 2005).
3.2.2. Steam explosion with addition of SO2. Steam pretreatment can be performed with addition of sulfur dioxide (SO2), while the of beowulf aim of adding this chemical is to improve recovering both cellulose and hemicellulose fractions. The treatment can be carried out by 1’4% SO2 (w/w substrate) at elevated temperatures, e.g. 160’230 ??C, for a period of target instruments, e.g. 10 min (Eklund et al, 1995).
3.2.3. Copper Heated? Ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) AFEX is one of the alkaline physico-chemical pretreatment processes. Here the biomass is target, exposed to liquid ammonia at relatively high temperature (e.g. 90’100 ??C) for a period of e.g. 30 min, followed by immediate reduction of pressure. The effective parameters in the AFEX process are ammonia loading, temperature, water loading, blowdown pressure, time, and number of bram stoker, treatments (Holtzapple et al, 1991). The AFEX process produces only a pretreated solid material, while some other pretreatments such as steam explosion produce a slurry that can be separated in music instruments a solid and a liquid fractions (Mosier et al, 2005). The AFEX process can either modify or effectively reduce the groups were persecuted in the lignin fraction of the lignocellulosic materials, while the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions may remain intact.
At optimum conditions, AFEX can significantly improve the enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum conditions for AFEX depend on the lignocellulosic materials. For example, the optimum conditions in instruments pretreatment of switch grass were reported to be about 100??C, ammonia loading of 1:1 kg of ammonia per kg of dry matter, and 5 min retention time (Alizadeh et al, 2005). One of the major advantages of AFEX pretreatment is no formation of some types of inhibitory by-products, which are produced during the other pretreatment methods, such as furans in stoker dracula quotes dilute-acid and steam explosion pretreatment. However, part of phenolic fragments of lignin and other cell wall extractives may remain on target, the cellulosic surface. Therefore, washing with water might be necessary to remove part of stoker quotes, these inhibitory components, although increasing the amount of wastewater from the process (Chundawat et al, 2007. Target? However, there are some disadvantages in using the AFEX process compared to some other processes. AFEX is more effective on the biomass that contains less lignin, and the AFEX pretreatment does not significantly solubilize hemicellulose compared to other pretreatment processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Furthermore, ammonia must be recycled after the pretreatment to reduce the Illness cost and protect the environment (Eggeman and Elander, 2005), (Sun and Cheng, 2002).
3.2.4. CO2 explosion. Supercritical carbon dioxide has been considered as an extraction solvent for non-extractive purposes, due to several advantages such as availability at music instruments relatively low cost, non-toxicity, non-flammability, easy recovery after extraction, and environmental acceptability (Zheng and Tsao, 1996). Supercritical carbon dioxide displays gas-like mass transfer properties, besides a liquid-like solvating power (Zheng et al, 1995). It was shown that in the presence of water, supercritical CO2 can efficiently improve the enzymatic digestibility of aspen (hardwood) and southern yellow pine (softwood) (Kim and Hong, 2001).
The delignification with carbon dioxide at high pressures can be improved by co-solvents such as ethanol’water or acetic acid’water, and of beowulf, can efficiently increase the lignin removal. Carbon dioxide molecules should be comparable in size to those of water and ammonia, and instruments, should be able to penetrate small pores accessible to water and ammonia molecules. 3.2.5. Liquid hot-water pretreatment. Cooking of lignocellulosic materials in liquid hot water (LHW) is one of the hydrothermal pretreatment methods applied for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials since several decades ago in e.g. pulp industries. Lab Report? Water under high pressure can penetrate into the biomass, hydrate cellulose, and remove hemicellulose and target music, part of lignin. The major advantages are no addition of chemicals and no requirement of corrosion-resistant materials for of beowulf, hydrolysis reactors in this process. The feedstock size reduction is a highly energy-demanding operation for the huge bulk of materials on a commercial scale; there could be no need for size reduction in LHW pretreatment. In addition, the process has a much lower need of chemicals for neutralization of the produced hydrolyzate, and target music, produces lower amounts of neutralization residues compared to many processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Hemicelluloses’ carbohydrates are dissolved as liquid-soluble oligosaccharides and can be separated from insoluble cellulosic and lignin fractions. LHW can enlarge the of beowulf accessible and susceptible surface area of the cellulose and make it more accessible to hydrolytic enzymes (Zeng et al, 2007).
Pretreatments with steam and target instruments, LHW are both hydrothermal pretreatments. Higher pentosan recovery and copper, lower formation of inhibitory components are the main advantages of LHW pretreatment compared to steam explosion. For instance, treating of de-starched corn fiber with hot water at 160 ??C for 20 min dissolved 75% of the xylan (Dien et al, 2006). At higher temperatures, e.g. 220 ??C, LHW can dissolve hemicelluloses completely and remove lignin partially within 2 min with no chemicals used (Sreenath et al, 1998). Xylan removal via percolation reactor, or by base addition (adjusting the target pH) during the carbonate heated process, has been suggested to reduce the formation of inhibitors such as furfural and degradation of xylose(Laser et al, 2002) . The pH, processing temperature, and time should be controlled in order to optimize the enzymatic digestibility by LHW pretreatment. Target? An optimized condition for LHW pretreatment of corn stover was reported to be 190 ??C for 15 min, in which 90% of the cellulose conversion was observed by subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis . LHW pretreatment at 160 ??C and a pH above 4.0 can dissolve 50% of the fibers from corn fibers in 20 min (Mosier, 2005). 3.2.6. Microwave oven and electron beam irradiation pretreatment.
Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in a microwave oven is also a feasible method which uses the high heating ef’ciency of a microwave oven and it is also easy to importance operate (Bjerre et al, 1996). Microwave treatment utilizes thermal and non-thermal effects generated by microwaves in aqueous environments. In the thermal method, internal heat is generated in the biomass by microwave radiation, resulting from the vibrations of the polar bonds in the biomass and the surrounding aqueous medium. Thus a hot spot is created within the music inhomogeneous material. This unique heating feature results in an explosion effect among the particles and bram stoker quotes, improves the disrup- tion of recalcitrant structures of lignocellulose (Hu and Wen, 2008). Thermal pretreatment provides an acidic environment for autohydrolysis by releasing acetic acid from the lignocellulosic materials. In the non-thermal method, i.e., the electron beam irradiation method, polar bonds vibrate, as they are aligned with a continu- ously changing magnetic ‘eld and the disruption and shock to the polar bonds accelerates chemical, biological and physical processes (Sridar, 1998). High energy radiation results in target instruments more changes in cellulosic biomass including increase of speci’c surface area, decrease of degree of polymerization and crystallinity of cellulose, hydrolysis of hemicellulose and partial depolymerization of lignin. 3.3.
Chemical pretreatment. 3.3.1. Alkaline hydrolysis. Alkaline pretreatment refers to the application of alkaline solutions such as NaOH, Ca(OH)2 (lime) or ammonia to remove lignin and a part of the hemicellulose, and importance, efficiently increase the accessibility of enzyme to the cellulose. The alkaline pretreatment can result in a sharp increase in music saccharification, with manifold yields. Pretreatment can be performed at low temperatures but with a relatively long time and what groups were holocaust, high concentration of the base. For instance, when soybean straw was soaked in ammonia liquor (10%) for 24 h at room temperature, the target instruments hemicellulose and of beowulf, lignin decreased by 41.45% and 30.16% respectively (Xu et al, 2007). However, alkaline pretreatment was shown to be more effective on agricultural residues than on wood materials. 3.3.2. Alkaline peroxide. Alkaline peroxide is an effective method for pretreatment of biomass.
In this method, the lignocelluloses are soaked in pH-adjusted water (e.g. to pH 11’12 using NaOH) containing H2O2 at target instruments room temperatures for a period of time (e.g. 6’24 h). The process can improve the enzymatic hydrolysis by importance of beowulf, delignification. 3.3.3. Organosolv process. Organosolv can be used to provide treated cellulose suitable for target music instruments, enzymatic hydrolysis, using an organic or aqueous organic solvent to remove or decompose the network of lignin and possibly a part of the hemicellulose (Curreli et al, 1997). In this process, lignocellulose is mixed with organic liquid and water and heated to dissolve the lignin and part of the hemicellulose, leaving reactive cellulose in the solid phase.
In addition, a catalyst may be added either to reduce the operating temperature or to enhance the delignification process (Chum et al, 1985) . Lignin in the biomass can be extracted from the solvent for e.g. Egg Osmosis Lab Report? generation of electricity, process heat, lignin-based adhesives and other products, due to its high purity and low molecular weight (Pan et al, 2005). In organosolv pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials, a large number of organic or aqueous-organic solvents at instruments temperatures of entrepreneurship examples, 150’200 ??C can be used with or without addition of catalysts such as oxalic, salicylic, and acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, the solvent may accompany acetic acid released from acetyl groups developed by hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. A variety of instruments, organic solvents such as alcohols, esters, ketones, glycols, organic acids, phenols, and Mental Illness, ethers have been used. However, the price of solvent and simplicity in recovery of solvent should also be considered. The applied solvents should be separated by e.g. evaporation and condensation, and recycled to reduce the operational costs of the music process. Removal of solvents from the pretreated cellulose is usually necessary because the solvents might be inhibitors to the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or digestion of hydrolyzate (Sun and Cheng, 2002). 3.3.4. Wet oxidation. Wet oxidation has been applied as pretreatment for and Environment Essay, both ethanol and biogas production.
In this process, the materials are treated with water and target, air or oxygen at temperatures above 120??C (e.g. 148’200??C) for a period of importance of beowulf, e.g. 30 min (Palonen et al, 2004). The temperature, followed by reaction time and oxygen pressure, are the most important parameters in wet oxidation (Schmidt and Thomsen, 1998). The process is exothermic, and therefore it becomes self-supporting with respect to heat while the reaction is instruments, initiated. Wet oxidation of the and Environment Essay hemicellulose faction is a balance between solubilization and degradation. This process is an effective method in separat ing the cellulosic fraction from lignin and hemicellulose. Oxygen participates in the degradation reactions and allows operation at comparatively reduced temperatures by enhancing generation of organic acids. However, the control of reactor temperature is critical because of the fast rates of reaction and heat generation. Music Instruments? The main reactions in wet oxidation pretreatment are the formation of acids from hydrolytic processes, as well as oxidative reactions. All three fractions of lignocellulosic materials are affected in this process.
The hemicelluloses are extensively cleaved to monomeric sugars; the lignins undergo both cleavage and oxidation; and bram quotes, cellulose is partly degraded. The cellulose becomes highly susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis (Schultz et al, 1984). Similar to many other delignification methods, the lignin produced by wet oxidation cannot be used as a fuel, since a major part of the lignin undergoes both cleavage and oxidation. This phenomenon considerably reduces the target music instruments income from this by-product at industrial scale for ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials (Galbe and lab report, Zacchi, 2002) . Wet oxidation can also be performed by oxidation agents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Target Music Instruments? Studies showed that the pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide greatly enhanced the susceptibility of cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis. About 50% of the entrepreneurship lignin and most hemicellulose were solubilized by treating the biomass with 2% H2O2 at 30??C within 8 h, giving 95% efficiency of glucose production from cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. 3.3.5. Ozonolysis pretreatment.
Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials can be performed by treatment with ozone, referred to instruments as ‘ozonolysis’ pretreatment. This method can effectively degrade lignin and part of hemicellulose. Groups Were Persecuted? The pretreatment is usually carried out at instruments room temperature, and does not lead to inhibitory compounds (Vidal, 1988). However, ozonolysis might be expensive since a large amount of ozone is required (Sun and Chang, 2002). The main parameters in ozonolysis pretreatment are moisture content of the sample, particle size, and ozone concentration in the gas flow. Among these parameters, an essential factor is the percentage of water in the feed, and it has the most significant effect on the solubilization.
The optimum water content was found to be around 30%, corresponding to the saturation point of the fibers. This is an attractive pretreatment method since it does not leave acidic, basic, or toxic residues in the treated material (Neely, 1984). 3.3.6. Acid hydrolysis pretreatment. Treatment of lignocellulosic materials with acid at a high temperature can efficiently improve the enzymatic hydrolysis. Sulfuric acid is the most applied acid, while other acids such as HCl and what groups of people were persecuted in the holocaust, nitric acid were also reported (Taherzadeh, 2007) . Target? The acid pretreatment can operate either under a high temperature and low acid concentration (dilute-acid pretreatment) or under a low temperature and high acid concentration (concentrated-acid pretreatment).
The lower operating temperature in concentrated-acid pretreatment (e.g. 40 ??C) is a clear advantage compared to dilute-acid processes. However, high acid concentration (e.g. 30’70%) in the concentrated-acid process makes it extremely corrosive and dangerous. Therefore, this process requires either specialized non-metallic constructions or expensive alloys. The acid recovery, which is importance, necessary in target instruments the concentrated-acid process for groups of people were persecuted holocaust, economical reasons, is an energy-demanding process. On the other hand, the neutralization process produces large amounts of gypsum. Target Music Instruments? The high investment and maintenance costs also reduce the commercial interest in this process as a commercial option (Sun et al, 2004). Dilute-acid hydrolysis is importance, probably the most commonly applied method among the chemical pretreatment methods. It can be used either as a pretreatment of lignocellulose for music instruments, enzymatic hydrolysis, or as the entrepreneurship examples actual method of hydrolyzing to fermentable sugars.
Different types of music instruments, reactors such as batch, percolation, plug flow, countercurrent, and shrinking-bed reactors, for carbonate, either pretreatment or hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by the dilute-acid processes, have been applied. The major drawback of some pretreatment methods, particularly at low pH is the formation of different types of inhibitors such as carboxylic acids, furans and phenolic compounds (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). These chemicals may not affect the enzymatic hydrolyses, but they usually inhibit the microbial growth and fermentation, which results in less yield and productivity of ethanol or biogas. Therefore, the pretreatments at low pH should be selected properly in order to avoid or at least reduce the formation of these inhibitors. 3.4.
Biological pretreatment. Microorganisms can also be used to treat the lignocelluloses and enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. Target Music Instruments? The applied microorganisms usually degrade lignin and hemicellulose but very little part of cellulose, since cellulose is more resistance than the other parts of lignocelluloses to the biological attack. Groups Of People Persecuted In The? Several fungi, e.g. brown-, white- and soft-rot fungi, have been used for this purpose. White-rot fungi are among the most effective microorganisms for biological pretreatment of lignocelluloses (Sun and music instruments, Cheng, 2002). Biological treatments with microorganisms or enzymes are also investigated to improve digestion in biogas production. The biological pretreatment might be used not only for lignin removal, but also for biological removal of specific components such as antimicrobial substances (Srilatha et al, 1995). Solid-state fermentation of orange peels by fungal strains of Sporotrichum, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillum enhanced the availability of feed constituents and reduced the level of the antimicrobial substances. Examples? In a similar work, cultivation of white-rot fungi was used to music detoxify olive mill wastewater and improve its digestion. Low energy requirement, no chemical requirement, and mild environmental conditions are the examples main advantages of biological pretreatment.
However, the treatment rate is very low in most biological pretreatment processes (Sun and target, Cheng, 2002) Table 2. Summary of some bio-deligni’cation processes. Substrate Microorganism for lignin degradation Time of pretreatment % of importance, substrate converted to reducing sugars. Sugarcane bagasse Pleurotus ostreatus. Phanerochaete sordida; Pycnoporus cinnabarinus 115. Phlebia sp. MG-60 (A marine fungus) 5 weeks. 92% deligni’cation; total reducing sugar. yield 11.26 0.73 mg/g.
71% deligni’cation; total reducing sugar. yield 11.56 0.51 mg/g. 73.6% deligni’cation; Total Reducing sugar. 41% lignin degraded. 4. Music Instruments? Enzymatic hydrolysis. Sacchari’cation is the critical step for bioethanol production where complex carbohydrates are converted to what groups were holocaust simple monomers. Compared to acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis requires less energy and mild environment conditions (Ferreira et al, 2009)). The optimum conditions for cellulase have been reported as temperature of 40-50 C and target, pH 4-5 (Neves et al, 2007). Entrepreneurship? Assay conditions for xylanase have also been reported to be 50 C temperature and pH 4-5 (Park et al, 2002).
Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is instruments, advantageous because of its low toxicity, low utility cost and of beowulf, low corrosion compared to acid or alkaline hydrolysis (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Moreover, no inhibitory by-product is formed in enzymatic hydrolysis (Ferreira et al, 2009). However, enzymatic hydrolysis is carried out by cellulase enzymes that are highly substrate speci’c (Banerjee et al, 2010). Here cellulase and target instruments, hemicellulase enzymes cleave the bonds of cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. Cellulose contains glucan and hemicellulose contains different sugar units such as mannan, xylan, glucan, galactan and arabinan. Cellulase enzymes involve endo and exoglucanase and b-glucosidases. Endoglucanase (endo 1,4-D glucanhydrolase or E.C. Entrepreneurship Examples? 22.214.171.124) attacks the low crystallinity regions of the cellulose ‘ber, exoglucanase (1,4-b-D glucan cellobiohydrolase or E.C. 126.96.36.199) removes the music instruments cellobiase units from the free chain ends and egg osmosis lab report, ‘nally cellobiose units are hydrolysed to glucose by b-glucosidase (E.C.
188.8.131.52). Music Instruments? Hemicellulolytic enzymes are more complex and are a mixture of at copper carbonate heated least eight enzymes such as endo-1,4-b-D-xylanases, exo-1,4-b-D xylocur- onidases, a-L-arabinofuranosidases, endo-1,4-b-D mannanases, b-mannosidases, acetyl xylan esterases, a-glucoronidases and a-galactosidases (Jorgensen et al, 2003). Target Music? Cellulose is entrepreneurship examples, hydrolysed to glucose whereas hemicellulose gives rise to several pentoses and hexoses. Several species of Clostridium, Cellulomonas, Thermonospora, Bacillus, Bac- teriodes, Ruminococcus, Erwinia, Acetovibrio, Microbispora, Strepto- myces are able to produce cellulase enzyme. Many fungi such as Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Phanerochaete, Humicola, Schizophillum sp. also have been reported for cellulase production. Target Music Instruments? Among the various cellulolytic microbial strains Trichoderma is one of the most well studied cellulase and hemicellulase producing fungal strains (Xu et al, 1998). Trichoderma is able to produce at least two cellobiohydrolases and ‘ve endoglucanases and three endoxylanases. However, Trichoderma lacks b-glucosidase activity that plays an ef’cient role in polymer conversion. On the other hand, Aspergillus is egg osmosis, a very ef’cient b-glucosidase producer.
Trichoderma cellulase supplemented with extra b-glucosidase has been studied several times. Target Music Instruments? Combina- tion of Trichoderma reesei ZU-02 cellulase and what persecuted in the holocaust, cellobiase from Aspergillus niger ZU-07 improved the hydrolysis yield to 81.2% with cellobiase activity enhanced to 10 CBU/g substrate (Chen et al, 2008). Various factors in’uence yields of monomer sugars from ligno- cellulose. Temperature, pH and mixing rate are the main factors of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (Olsson et al, 1996). Target Music? Other factors that affect yield are substrate concentration, cellulase enzyme loading, and surfactant addition. Lab Report? High substrate concentration may lead to substrate inhibition. Cellulase contributes to the major cost of the lignocellulosic ethanol technology. Therefore, an ef’cient pretreatment is to be selected to decrease cellulose crystallinity and to target music remove lignin to the maximum extent, so that hydrolysis time as well as cellulase loading will be minimized. Surfactants modify the cellulose surface by adsorbing lignin onto surfactant and thus the surfactant prevents the enzyme from unproductive binding with lignin and lab report, lowers enzyme loading (Eriksson et al, 2002). The sacchari’ed biomass is used for fermentation by several microorganisms.
But the industrial utilization of lignocelluloses for bioethanol production is hindered by the lack of ideal microor- ganisms which can ef’ciently ferment both pentose and target instruments, hexose sugars (Talebnia et al, 2010). For a commercially viable ethanol production method, an ideal microorganism should have broad substrate utilization, high ethanol yield and productivity, should have the ability to withstand high concentrations of ethanol and high temperature, should be tolerant to inhibitors present in hydrolysate and have cellulolytic activity. Genetically modi’ed or engineered microor- ganisms are thus used to achieve complete utilization of the sugars in the hydrolysate and better production bene’ts. The processes usually employed in the fermentation of ligno- cellulosic hydrolysate are simultaneous sacchari’cation and fermentation (SSF) and separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Conventionally or traditionally the SHF process has been employed but SSF is superior for ethanol production since it can improve ethanol yields by removing end product inhibition and of beowulf, eliminate the target need for separate reactors. It is also cost effective but difference in optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for dracula, hydrolysis and fermentation poses some limitations (Neves et al, 2007) . The higher ethanol yield coef’cient from SSF would be partially due to more conver- sion of target instruments, xylose to xylitol under the SSF conditions (Buaban et al, 2010). A compar- ative study between the two processes (SHF and SSF) is presented in Table 3. Table 3. Comparison between the two main fermentation techniques.
Fermentation process Features and advantages Limitations. and fermentation ‘ Low costs. ‘ Higher ethanol yields due to removal of end product inhibition of sacchari’cation step. ‘ Reduces the number of reactors required Each step can be processed at its optimal operating conditions. ‘ Separate steps minimize interaction between the steps ‘ Difference in optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for hydrolysis and fermentation.
‘ End product inhibition minimizes the yield of ethanol. Chance of contamination due to long period process. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation. Studies have shown that SSF is a better alternative to what of people persecuted holocaust SHF. The slow xylose consumption during fermentation in SHF may be due to the presence of instruments, toxic compounds which inhibit the growth and entrepreneurship, fermentation activity of the microorganism. The drawback of SSF can be removed by using thermo-tolerant micro- organisms like Kluyveromyces marxianus which has been developed to withstand the higher temperatures needed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Apart from instruments, SSF or SHF, the available alternatives are consoli- dated bioprocessing (CBP) and simultaneous sacchari’cation and carbonate heated, co-fermentation (SSCF) (Cardona et al, 2009). In CBP, cellulase production, biomass hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation are all together carried out in instruments a single reactor . The process is also known as direct microbial conversion (DMC). Stoker Dracula? Mono- or co-culture of microorganisms is generally used to ferment cellulose directly to ethanol. Music? Application of CBP requires no capital investment for bram stoker dracula quotes, purchasing enzyme or its production. Bacteria such as Clostridium thermocellum and some fungi including Neurospora crassa, Fusarium oxysporum and music instruments, Paecilomyces sp have shown this type of entrepreneurship, activity.
However, CBP is not an target instruments, ef’cient process because of poor ethanol yields and lab report, long fermentation periods (3-12 days) (Szczodrak and Fiedurek, 1996). In SSCF the co-fermenting microorganisms need to be compatible in terms of operating pH and temperature . A combination of Candida shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reported as suitable for the SSCF process (Neves et al, 2007). Sequential fermentation with two different microor- ganisms in different time periods of the fermentation process for better utilization of sugar has also been employed using S. cerevisiae in target music the ‘rst phase for hexose utilization and C. Copper? shehatae in the second phase for pentose utilization but ethanol yields achieved are not high (Sanchez and Cardona, 2008). Some native or wild type microorganisms used in the fermen- tation are S. Target Music? cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Zymomonas mobilis, Pachy- solen tannophilus, C. shehatae, Pichia stipitis, Candida brassicae, Mucor indicus etc. Among all the best known yeast and bacteria employed in ethanol production from Mental Illness and Environment Essay, hexoses are S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis respectively . But S. cerevisiae cannot utilize the main C-5 sugar e xylose e of the instruments hydrolysate . Of Beowulf? Native organisms such as Pichia and Candida species can be used in place of S. cerevisiae and they can utilize xylose but their ethanol production rate is at least ‘vefold lower than that observed with S. cerevisiae . Different microorganisms have shown different yields of ethanol depending on their mono- mer utilization (Table 4). Table 4 Ethanol yields from various substrates by various microorganisms. Substrate Fermenting microbe Yield of ethanol Feature of the employed microorganism. Can ferment both glucose and xylose.
Utilizes xylose and music, glucose present. Adapted at increased concentration. Co-ferment glucose and entrepreneurship examples, xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of sugar. Ferment only glucose. Ferment glucose ‘rst and then. xylose from the mixture. Sugar cane bagasse. Rice straw Pichia stipitis BCC15191. Recombinant Escherichia coli KO11.
Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124. Pichia stipitis A. Candida shehatae NCL-3501. Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 0.29 0.02 g ethanol/g available fermentable sugars (glucose and xylose) after 24 h. 31.50 g of ethanol/L in 48 h equivalent to a theoretical maximum yield of 91.5% 0.35 gp/gs Calculated as ‘nal ethanol. 0.41 gp/gs concentration divided by target instruments, total sugar in the fermentation medium. 0.45 g/g and 0.5 g/g of sugar utilized produced from autohydrolysate by free and immobilized cells in bram stoker dracula quotes 48 h.
0.37 g/g and 0.47 g/g of sugar utilized produced from acid hydrolysate by free and immobilized cells in target 48 h. Maximum ethanol production achieved 4 g/L. Maximum ethanol production achieved 6 g/L (78% of theoretical maximum) Can ferment both glucose and xylose. Utilizes xylose and Mental Illness and Environment, glucose present in hydrolysates. Adapted at music instruments increased concentration of hydrolysate. Co-ferment glucose and egg osmosis lab report, xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of sugar. Ferment only glucose.
Ferment glucose ‘rst and music, then xylose from the mixture. Genetic engineering has been employed to develop the various aspects of fermentation from higher yield to better and Mental Essay, wide substrate utilization to increased recovery rates. A number of genetically modi’ed microorganisms such as P. stipitis BCC15191 (Buaban et al, 2010) , P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124, recombinant E. Music Instruments? coli KO11, C. shehatae NCL-3501 S. Mental And Environment? cerevisiae ATCC 26603 have been developed. Strict anaerobic hemophilic bacteria such as Clostridium sp. and Thermoanaerobacter sp. have been proposed to explore the bene’ts of fermentation at elevated temperatures. Some other thermo-tolerant microorganisms developed are K. marxianus, Candida lusitanieae and Z. mobilis (Bjerre et al, 1996). Lignocellulosic biomass has been projected to be one of the main resources for economically attractive bioethanol production.
Though theoretical ethanol yields from music instruments, sugar and starch (g ethanol/ g substrate) are higher than from lignocellulose, these conventional sources are insuf’cient for worldwide bioethanol production. In that aspect agricultural wastes are renewable, less costly and abundantly available in nature. Agricultural wastes do not demand separate land, water, and energy requirements. They do not have food value as well. For economically feasible bioethanol production, several hindrances are to be overcome. These refer to copper the four major aspects which are feedstock, conversion technology, hydrolysis process, and fermentation con’guration. With regard to feedstock major obstacles are cost, supply, harvesting, and handling. As regards conversion technology the hindrances are biomass pro- cessing, proper and cost effective pretreatment technology to target instruments liberate cellulose and hemicellulose from their complex with lignin. What In The? In respect of the hydrolysis process the challenge is to achieve an ef’cient process for depolymerization of cellulose and hemi- cellulose to produce fermentable monomers with high concentra- tion. In this aspect enzymatic hydrolysis may be the most potent alternative process for sacchari’cation of complex polymer. Several efforts have been made to reduce the cost of target, cellulase enzyme to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis process.
Finally, in case of fermentation con’guration, the challenges involved are xylose and glucose co-fermentation, and the use of recombinant microbial strains. In conclusion it may be said that to solve the importance of beowulf technology bottlenecks of the conversion process, novel science and music instruments, ef’cient technology are to be applied, so that bioethanol production from agricultural wastes may be successfully developed and optimized in the near future. 1. Buffiere P, Loisel D, Bernet N, Delgenes JP. Towards new indicators for the prediction of solid waste anaerobic digestion properties. Water Sci. Technol. 2006;53:233’241. 2. Grethelin HE. The effect of quotes, pore size distribution on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of target music, cellulosic substrates. Biotechnol.
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2007;97:265’278. 10. Fan LT, Lee Y, Beardmore DH. Mechanism of the enzymatic hydrolysis of stoker, cellulose: Effects of target music instruments, major structural features of cellulose on what groups of people, enzymatic hydrolysis. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 1980;22:177’199.
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Effects of music instruments, dilute-acid and steam explosion pretreatments on the cellulose structure and kinetics of cellulosic fraction hydrolysis by dilute acids in lignocellulosic materials. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 1994;45:23’34. 23. Entrepreneurship? Mes-Hartree M, Saddler JN. The nature of inhibitory materials present in pretreated lignocellulosic substrates which inhibit the enzymic hydrolysis of cellulose.
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Characteristics of degraded lignins obtained from steam exploded wheat straw. Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 2004;86:245’256. 27. Target Instruments? Chum HL, Douglas LJ, Feinberg DA, Schroeder HA. Evaluation of pretreatments of biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Solar Energy Research Institute; Golden, Colorado: 1985. Carbonate Heated? pp. 1’64. 28.
Ruiz E, Cara C, Manzanares P, Ballesteros M, Castro E. Music Instruments? Evaluation of steam explosion pre-treatment for bram stoker dracula, enzymatic hydrolysis of sunflower stalks. Target Music? Enzyme Microb. Tech. 2008;42:160’166. 29. Sun XF, Xu F, Sun RC, Fowler P, Bairdd MS. Characteristics of degraded cellulose obtained from steam-exploded wheat straw.
Carbohyd. Res. 2005;340:97’106. 30. Stenberg K, Tengborg C, Galbe M, Zacchi G. Optimisation of steam pretreatment of SO2-impregnated mixed softwoods for ethanol production. J. Chem. Technol.
Biotechnol. 1998;71:299’308. 31. Holtzapple MT, Jun JH, Ashok G, Patibandla SL, Dale BE. Illness And Environment? The ammonia freeze explosion (AFEX) process ‘ A practical lignocellulose pretreatment. Target Music? Appl. Copper Heated? Biochem. Biotechnol. 1991;28:59’74. 32. Alizadeh H, Teymouri F, Gilbert TI, Dale BE.
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Chundawat SP, Venkatesh B, Dale BE. Effect of particle size based separation of milled corn stover on AFEX pretreatment and enzymatic digestibility. Biotechnol. Music? Bioeng. 2007;96:219’231. 35. Wyman CE.
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39. Zheng Y, Lin H-M, Wen J, Cao N, Yu X, Tsao GT. Music Instruments? Supercritical carbon dioxide explosion as a pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis. Biotechnol. Lett. 1995;17:845’850. 40. Kim KH, Hong J. Supercritical CO2 pretreatment of lignocellulose enhances enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. Bioresource Technol. 2001;77:139’144.
41. Pasquini D, Pimenta MTB, Ferreira LH, Curvelo AAdS. Extraction of lignin from sugar cane bagasse and Pinus taeda wood chips using ethanol-water mixtures and egg osmosis lab report, carbon dioxide at high pressures. J. Supercrit. Fluid. 2005;36:31’39. 42. Music Instruments? Zeng M, Mosier NS, Huang CP, Sherman DM, Ladisch MR. Entrepreneurship Examples? Microscopic examination of changes of plant cell structure in corn stover due to hot water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis.
Biotechnol. Music? Bioeng. 2007;97:265’278. 43. Dien BS, Li XL, Iten LB, Jordan DB, Nichols NN, O’Bryan PJ, Cotta MA. Enzymatic saccharification of hot-water pretreated corn fiber for copper heated, production of instruments, monosaccharides.
Enzyme Microb. Tech. 2006;39:1137’1144. 44. Sreenath HK, Koegel RG, Moldes AB, Jeffries TW, Straub RJ. Enzymic saccharification of alfalfa fibre after liquid hot water pretreatment. Process Biochem. 1999;35:33’41. 45. Mosier N, Hendrickson R, Ho N, Sedlak M, Ladisch MR. Optimization of pH controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn stover.
Bioresource Technol. Bram Stoker Dracula? 2005;96:1986’1993. 46. Target? Mosier NS, Hendrickson R, Brewer M, Ho N, Sedlak M, Dreshel R, Welch G, Dien BS, Aden A, Ladisch MR. Industrial scale-up of pH-controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn fiber for fuel ethanol production. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 2005;125:77’97. 47.
Palmqvist E, Hahn-H??gerdal B. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. II: Inhibitors and mechanisms of inhibition. Carbonate? Bioresource Technol. 2000;74:25’33. 48. Sanchez G, Pilcher L, Roslander C, Modig T, Galbe M, Liden G. Dilute-acid hydrolysis for fermentation of the Bolivian straw material Paja Brava. Bioresource Technol. 2004;93:249’256. 49. Schell DJ, Farmer J, Newman M, McMillan JD. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of instruments, corn stover in pilot-scale reactor: Investigation of yields, kinetics, and enzymatic digestibilities of solids.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 2003;105:69’85. 50. Kassim EA, El-Shahed AS. Enzymatic and examples, chemical hydrolysis of certain cellulosic materials. Target? Agr. Wastes. 1986;17:229’233. 51.
Xu Z, Wang Q, Jiang Z, Yang X-X, Ji Y. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw. Biomass Bioenerg. 2007;31:162’167. 52. Mental Illness? Curreli N, Fadda MB, Rescigno A, Rinaldi AC, Soddu G, Sollai F, Vaccargiu S, Sanjust E, Rinaldi A. Mild alkaline/oxidative pretreatment of wheat straw. Process Biochem. 1997;32:665’670. 53. Itoh H, Wada M, Honda Y, Kuwahara M, Watanabe T. Target Instruments? Bioorganosolve pretreatments for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of beech wood by ethanolysis and white rot fungi. J. Biotechnol. 2003;103:273’280.
54. Pan X, Gilkes N, Kadla J, Pye K, Saka S, Gregg D, Ehara K, Xie D, Lam D, Saddler J. Bioconversion of hybrid poplar to importance of beowulf ethanol and co-products using an organosolv fractionation process: optimization of target, process yields. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2006;94:851’861. 55. Rolz C, de Arriola MC, Valladares J, de Cabrera S. Effects of some physical and chemical pretreatments on the composition and enzymatic hydrolysis and digestibility of lemon grass and citronella bagasse. Agr. Wastes. 1986;18:145’161. 56.
Pan X, Arato C, Gilkes N, Gregg D, Mabee W, Pye K, Xiao Z, Zhang X, Saddler J. Biorefining of softwoods using ethanol organosolv pulping: Preliminary evaluation of process streams for importance of beowulf, manufacture of instruments, fuel-grade ethanol and co-products. Copper Carbonate Heated? Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2005;90:473’481. 57. Schultz TP, McGinnis GD, Biermann CJ. Similarities and differences in pretreating woody biomass by steam explosion, wet oxidation, autohydrolysis, and rapid steam hydrolysis/continuous extraction. Proceedings of Annual Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Wastes; Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA.
1984. 58. Palonen H, Thomsen AB, Tenkanen M, Schmidt AS, Viikari L. Evaluation of wet oxidation pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. Music Instruments? 2004;117:1’17. 59. Varga E, Klinke HB, Reczey K, Thomsen AB.
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63. Azzam AM. Pretreatment of importance, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of target, cellulose and ethanol fermentation. J. Environ. Sci. Heal. 1989;24:421’433. 64. Dracula Quotes? Vidal PF, Molinier J. Ozonolysis of Lignin ‘ Improvement of in vitro digestibility of poplar sawdust.
Biomass. Music Instruments? 1988;16:1’17. 65. Neely WC. Carbonate? Factors affecting the pretreatment of biomass with gaseous ozone. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 1984;26:59’65. 66.
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Srilatha HR, Nand K, Babu KS, Madhukara K. Fungal pretreatment of orange processing wastes by solid-state fermentation for improved production of methane. Process Biochem. 1995;30:327’331. 70. Dhouib A, Ellouz M, Aloui F, Sayadi S. Effect of bram stoker, bioaugmentation of activated sludge with white-rot fungi on olive mill wastewater detoxification. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2006;42:405’411.23. 71.
Stone JE, Scallan AM, Donefer E, Ahlgren E. In: Cellulases and their Applications. Hajny GJ, Reese ET, editors. American Chemical Society; Washington DC, USA: 1969. 72. Mohammad J. Taherzadeh , K. Karimi: Pretreatment of instruments, Lignocellulosic Wastes to Improve Ethanol and Biogas Production: A Review, Journal of Molecular Sciences, Sep 2008. 73. Mental Essay? Nibedita Sarkar, Sumanta Kumar Ghosh, Satarupa Bannerjee, Kaustav Aikat, Bioethanol production from agricultural wastes: An overview. 74. Uihlein A, Schbek L. Environmental impacts of a lignocellulosic feedstock biore’nery system: an assessment. Biomass and Bioenergy 2009;33:793-802. 75.
Ballesteros I, Negro MJ, Oliva JM, Cabanas A, Manzanares P, Ballesteros M. Ethanol production from steam-explosion pretreated wheat straw. Applied Biochemistry and target, Biotechnology 2006;130:496-508. 76. Campbell CH, Laherrere JH. The end of cheap oil. Scienti’c American; 1998:78-83.
77. Lynd LR, Wang MQ. A product e nonspeci’c framework for evaluating the potential of biomass-based products to displace fossil fuels. Journal of Industrial Ecology 2003;7:17-32. 78. Demirbas A. Bioethanol from cellulosic materials: a renewable motor fuel from biomass. Energy Sources 2005;27:327-33.
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cass coursework Your entire coursework section will be organized by term. Each semester, quarter, trimester and unit is considered a separate session. Target Music Instruments! Before you enter any course, you will need to add your first session by clicking on bram stoker dracula quotes You will click on this button for EVERY semester, quarter, trimester or unit you have attended college. It is exceedingly rare for correctly entered coursework to only have one session.
2. Fill in information about your first term at this school. NOTE: The Academic Status should reflect your status when you took the course. This is not your current status. 3. Enter your first course as it is music instruments listed on your official transcript. Click “Save” when complete. Course Title - this line MUST match exactly what is listed on your official transcript, or be a clear abbreviation of Illness and Environment Essay, what appears on your transcript. For example, if your transcript states “Introduction to Chemistry” you can report “Intro to Chem”, but not “Organic Chemistry”. Course Prefix and Number -this line should have TWO pieces of information in it: the course prefix (usually a shortened form of the department’s name) and the course number.
Course Level - Refer to the back of your transcript to determine whether the target, course number of this course would be considered lower division (sometimes called freshman/sophomore level) or upper division (junior/senior level). Illness Essay! This section may be different than your Academic Status at music instruments the time. Course Subject - Use the examples, Course Subject List to music select the most appropriate course subject. Please be aware that Microbiology has its own course subject and that General Chemistry courses fall under Inorganic Chemistry. Course Type - If you took a science course, you will need to what of people were persecuted in the specify whether it is a lab course, a lecture course, or a class that consisted of both lab and lecture.
You can only fill in target, this section if the course subject is of people in the holocaust one of the subjects calculated into the Science GPA. Special Classification - Select the target music instruments, most appropriate answer from the dropdown menu. The majority of your courses will be classified as “Not Applicable”. Only select “Institutional/Departmental Exam” if you received credit from an exam without taking a course. Essay! For example, if you tested out of target, a language requirement, and what groups were persecuted in the, this appears on your official transcript with the number of credits you received, this would be listed as “Institutional/Departmental Exam”. 4. Click on “Add Course” to enter your next course. Repeat this step for as many courses as you took during that term. 5. Click on the “Add New Session” button to start the process for target music instruments, your next term! PharmCAS will verify your self-reported courses against your official transcripts and will report any discrepancies to your selected pharmacy institutions. You MUST enter in your coursework yourself. If you make a few typographical errors, these will be corrected for you during the carbonate heated, verification process.
PharmCAS will return your application to you for corrections or explanation if it identifies a significant number of course discrepancies or omissions. If you fail to properly enter all of your courses when you first submit your application or do not make corrections as requested, your application will be delayed in target music, processing and you may jeopardize your chances for admission. Entering Special Types of Coursework. Enter these credits under the first term of the school that gave you college credit for those scores. You should enter them as closely to your official transcript as you can. In The Holocaust! If your transcript doesn’t have course prefix or numbers listed, you can simply enter “N/A” for Not Applicable. Music! Make sure you select “Advanced Placement for of beowulf, your special classification. Because these courses typically do not have grades associated with them, enter “CR-Credit”. NOTE: Your Test Score is NOT considered a numeric grade and shouldn’t be entered as a grade. If you know your AP score, please feel free to enter it under “Test Score”.
Courses Taken in target instruments, High School/Dual Enrollment. Even if you never physically attended a college campus, if you received credit from an egg osmosis, institution for course taken during high school you will need to enter that school on your application, send an official transcript and enter that coursework on your application. There is even a special classification in target music instruments, the coursework section you can use to designate that a particular course was taken while you were in carbonate heated, high school. List all Study Abroad courses that appear on music a U.S. Transcript with itemized grades and entrepreneurship examples, credit hours in target music instruments, the “Coursework” section. For each Study Abroad course, select the name of the egg osmosis lab report, U.S. institution in which the Study Abroad credit and grades appear. If the target music, U.S. transcript does not itemize the grades and/or credits for study abroad, follow the policies for what, international (foreign) coursework below.
International (Foreign) Institution. Do NOT list any international (foreign) courses completed outside of music, a U.S. institution in this Coursework section. Consult PharmCAS instructions on how to groups of people were in the holocaust submit international transcripts, including all Canadian transcripts. If you attended a PharmCAS-recognized overseas U.S. institution, list all courses attempted and instruments, credits earned in this section. Copper! PharmCAS will consider course work from an overseas U.S. institution in the same manner as U.S. coursework. For a list of overseas U.S. Music! institutions, review the transcript instructions under “General Instructions”. A course is only considered repeated if it was repeated at the same institution.
NOTE: The images below have been generated to show the repeat policy. When entering your coursework, you should list EVERY course you took during that term. It is what of people were persecuted in the holocaust rare for applicants to have terms with only music instruments a single course within them. If you received letter grades in every attempt of your courses, list each attempt as “Repeated”. What Groups Of People Were Persecuted! Be sure to list the full amount of music instruments, credits for each attempt. If you withdrew from a course and then repeated a course, leave the withdrawn course as “Not Applicable”, but select “Repeated” for the second attempt.
List the full amount of credits for each attempt. Entering Planned/In Progress coursework in PharmCAS is very similar to the process for entering Completed coursework. When entering your term, select “Planned/In Progress” When this has been done correctly, you will be presented with a course entry page that does not ask you to specify a grade for this course. NOTE: If you have any Planned/In Progress courses to report, you MUST list them in your coursework section.
Q: I took some courses over a decade ago. Do I still have to enter these courses? A: YES! No matter how long ago you took those courses, you MUST list every college course you have ever taken. Q: Why do I have to enter all of my courses? A: You must enter all of entrepreneurship examples, your U.S. Instruments! courses on dracula quotes your PharmCAS application because it…
Allows PharmCAS to target music automatically generate 20+ different GPAs using standardized criteria and calculations. Gives your designated programs access to your entire course history in a standardized electronic format that can be sorted by any field. Eliminates the carbonate heated, need for programs to decipher different transcript formats. Allows your programs to calculate custom GPAs without manually entering course credits and grades. Provides PharmCAS with a mechanism to collect additional information about your course history that is not (typically) on transcripts, such as the course subjects, student status at target the time each course taken (e.g., freshman), and test scores for AP, IB, and CLEP credit. Egg Osmosis! Eliminates the need for PharmCAS staff to instruments manually enter all courses which would increase cost to apply and the average processing time by copper heated, weeks or months. Q: I took summer courses. Since the term was shorter than terms during the year, are these “quarters” or “units”?
A: No. In the vast majority of cases, all of your term types are going to be the same at any school, unless you attended a school which changed calendar types during your enrollment. Target Music! Quarter hours are automatically converted into semester hours in egg osmosis, the GPA calculations by multiplying the number of quarter hours by .667. If you enter your summer sessions at target instruments a school on the semester calendar as quarters, your GPAs will not show that you have received as many credits as you have earned. Q: Can I use my unofficial transcript or online student account to examples enter my coursework? A: PharmCAS recommends you obtain an official transcript from every institution you have attended to help you enter in your coursework, because course prefixes and course titles can sometimes be reported differently than on the official transcript. If the target music, coursework you enter has several such differences, it will be undelivered to you for copper heated, corrections. Q: I have attended two colleges.
Can I just report all of my courses from my other college as they transferred to my primary college? A: No. You have to use the transcript from the target music, original school which granted you those credits in order to show the entrepreneurship examples, most accurate information to your degree programs: Not all courses can transfer over from one school to another, and music, some courses might be left off of your transfer credits. When courses show as transfer credits, the grades or credits might not be what you originally earned Often, schools will show the closest equivalent to the course offered at their school rather than the original title, prefix or number of the course. Q: Do I need to include all of quotes, my courses on my PharmCAS application? A: Yes. All previous coursework taken at target music instruments regionally accredited U.S. colleges must be listed (including repeated, failed and withdrawn courses) and PharmCAS must receive an official transcript from each college attended. Importance Of Beowulf! Applications that do not include all courses listed on their transcripts will be put on hold until the discrepancy is resolved with PharmCAS.
Q: Do I need to target instruments include courses taken at foreign institutions? A: NO, you should not enter any coursework taken at non-accredited, non-U.S. foreign institutions, unless you have taken courses at a college outside the egg osmosis, U.S. as part of a Study Abroad program. If you have taken courses at a college outside the music instruments, U.S. as part of a Study Abroad program, list those courses as they appear on the official transcript of the U.S. institution that gave you itemized course credit for your Study Abroad. However, if the U.S. transcript does not list each Study Abroad course separately, you must follow each pharmacy degree program’s instructions for submitting foreign coursework. All Canadian colleges and of people in the, universities must be listed in the Colleges Attended section of your application as 555555 – NON-US (FOREIGN) INSTITUTION. Do not list the coursework from any Canadian institution in the Coursework section of your application. PharmCAS can only instruments accept and forward official evaluations of coursework taken outside the U.S. NOTE: Transcripts from foreign institutions must be evaluated by one of the five transcript evaluation services listed in the application tutorial and sent to PharmCAS. PharmCAS will forward copies of stoker dracula, official foreign coursework evaluations to target music instruments all of your designated pharmacy schools once they are received at PharmCAS.
A: You may update your coursework information when PharmCAS initiates the academic update windows. You will receive an e-mail notification when this window is available. The Fall Academic Update window will open on entrepreneurship December 15, 2016, following the completion of the Fall 2016 term, and close on music instruments February 15, 2017. Arrange for your official Summer 2016 and Fall 2016 transcripts to entrepreneurship examples be sent directly to PharmCAS as soon as they are available and no later than February 15, 2017. If you do not submit your updated courses and target music, transcripts in a timely manner, your selected pharmacy schools may no longer consider you for entrepreneurship, admission. You cannot make edits to your course work section, whether completed or planned / in-progress, until the instruments, Academic Update window is open.
Please refer to the Academic Update section of the Instructions for more information regarding the Fall and Spring Academic Update. Q: What do the terms “Academic Bankruptcy” and Illness and Environment Essay, “Freshman Forgiveness” mean? A: Some colleges and target instruments, universities offer Academic Bankruptcy and/or Freshman Forgiveness policies to students who have earned poor grades at the institution. If you are not familiar with these types of bram stoker dracula, academic amnesty policies, they probably do not apply to you or your transcripts. PharmCAS GPAs include ALL college courses completed by the applicant, including those with Freshman Forgiveness and Academic Bankruptcy status. Freshman Forgiveness: Some institutions allow students to repeat courses taken during the target instruments, freshman year in which a grade of D or F (or incomplete) was earned. The institution only uses the second grade in the calculation of the cumulative grade point average. Generally, the grades/credits for Illness and Environment Essay, both attempts appear on target music the transcript. Applicants must list all courses with Freshman Forgiveness status on the PharmCAS application.
Academic Bankruptcy is similar to entrepreneurship examples Freshman Forgiveness. This policy usually applies to all coursework taken at the institution, including courses with A, B, and C grades and those taken after the freshman year. Target Music! It “wipes” the student’s academic record clean as far as the copper heated, institution is concerned. Generally, the bankrupted coursework remains on target music instruments the transcript; but it is not counted in the transcript’s GPA calculation and does not count toward the student’s degree requirements. Applicants must list all courses with Academic Bankruptcy status on the PharmCAS application.
All Freshman Forgiveness and Academic Bankruptcy courses WILL BE calculated in your PharmCAS GPA. Illness And Environment Essay! Your degree program designations reserve the right to exclude these courses once they receive your application.