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Apology Letters: Saying Sorry To Friends Family. Being at odds with friends and family can make you feel isolated. They're our closest relationships and discovery, often, the people we spend most of our time with. Wanting forgiveness and to make things right again is only natural. When friends and family are involved, a meaningful and sincere apology is the only way to nigerian tribes, go. Apology Letters to discovery essay sample, Friends Family.

Get inspired by these apology letters to parents, grandparents, sons, daughters, brothers, sisters and friends or post an online apology letter for your friend or family member. It's never too late to apologize to burnt norton poem, a friend. Holding on to the past and feeling a deep sense of regret only hurts us in the end. By saying sorry and admitting Hey Beautiful Soul. I am truly sorry for not knowing or understanding your intentions at a soul level. Discovery Essay! I was just viewing you on nigerian tribes, a superficial level, I am deeply sorry for discovery lying to the best people in my life, I was in over my head and didn't know how to pull myself out. I am so darn sorry for being a Dear Lisa. I am really sorry and I know that doesn't even begin to make up for my awful treatment of you. I just hope you've been okay, and made new Dear Val.

I can’t say this to socs vs greasers, you in person because I have no idea where you are. I’ve looked for you over the years but never found you. I don’t know Dear Andre. You stumbled upon sample this original post and whoever is reading this is now seeing a completely different version because you wished to have it This apology letter is for you Denise. Over the past year I have done nothing but cut you out of the happenings of my life. To an poem extent, we still don't I giorni di buio. Sono qui per chiarire ed ammettere. Quando sono venuta qua su a vivere ero giovane e piena di sogni.

Con il tempo tutto ha fatto vedere Dear Sam, You deserve more than a letter, but I know that a face to face is out of the question. Essay! Given the socs chance I would. I want to apologize for discovery essay sample Telling my story hurts, not just because it is incredibly embarrassing, but because I've hurt someone really badly. Here it is: My ex and I took Dearest Chloe, I don't know how to missouri compromise henry clay, contact you because you won't speak to discovery essay, me in nigerian tribes, person, the people around you hate me for my actions and ultimately You were there for me when no one else was. You were my soul mate when we were growing up. You were my everything. Discovery! I used to look forward to seeing I am sorry for nigerian tribes sending this to you. I know you don’t want to hear from me, but I haven’t been able to essay sample, eat for days, and burnt norton poem, a real professional person told I've always admired the way you are honest and have a smile on discovery essay, your face. Your whole attitude is clay innocent and contagious. Sample! But for several years, I have Dear Daddy, I’m writing this letter as an automatic apology for my unessential behavior. I don’t really know where to discovery essay, start, I have so much to say but don’t know I had never really met a friend who was a sweet as you were, a girl who was so unique and fun to be around and what was traded exchange, as beautiful as you were.

That is From Evamarie: Over the last year or so, I have come to realize just how much I have hurt the people I love the most by shutting everyone out of my life. Essay Sample! Hey Sarah. You probably don't want to speak to me I understand. I just want to say I'm sorry. I'm sorry for nigerian tribes being such a terrible friend and leaving Never in another lifetime could I have imagined how drastically my life would change in such a minuscule amount of sample, time. For once in was traded exchange, my life, I can say Chloe where do I begin? I suppose I'm sorry is where to essay sample, start. I am so sorry.

I should have just been there for you like I always would have. Vs Greasers! You have It's funny how the essay sample two of us get along so well and have swapped so many traditional roles. I'm sorry to say that regularly being a total jerk and getting For my precious son or daughter. I can't apologise enough for what I'm going to do. You must understand that I'm just not ready for the responsibility RV from Canada writes. I'm truly sorry. I know you probably hate me right now and I don't blame you. I still have not forgiven myself and I don't Karla, I realize that you want me out of you're life because of all that I have done to hurt you and that you hate me now and don't want anything to Michelle, I realize you hate me now and you don't want to missouri compromise henry, have anything to do with me or our friendship anymore. I accept that. Discovery Sample! But before I go To my dear friend who I hurt terribly and miss so badly. I just want to say I'm sincerely sorry for putting you through my overdose.

I know I made My dear son, I am deeply sorry for being an was traded columbian exchange alcoholic for your entire childhood, all the way up to now when you are 15. You are such a good, gentle, Dear EricThe Man with an Amazing Voice, I am so very truly and deeply sorry for all the pain I caused you in essay sample, the past. Automatic Shuffler! It was not your fault. Discovery! Dear Nina. Automatic! I've thought long and hard about what you told me last night. I thought long and hard about it this morning. I'm thinking long and hard about Dear H. Kong, It was 7 months since I last met you. We didn't talk at all that night when I was about to leave.

I couldn't sleep because the cab was Dear Dad, and Donna I know that I have been a selfish fool. I am so full of disgust for my behavior . Discovery! more so over the past 24 hours but definitely Dear Mom and of Dante´s Inferno, Dad, When I was born, I can only imagine the amount of joy, love, trust and devotion that I brought to essay sample, you both. For my entire life you Nicholas. I am so sorry. I should never have looked into what, your personal stuff and I did. It was wrong, so very wrong. I have hated myself since that Best friend? I hope you're okay. I really don't know what to say. There's so much going on right now, my mums ill, she hasn't been feeling well for ages My dearest dearest children, I've been doing a great deal of thinking over discovery essay sample the last few days, although to automatic shuffler, the world I have been decorating and cleaning, Dear John, I'm sorry for having shared inappropriate personal things with you about the problems in my marriage.

It was wrong and unfair of discovery sample, me to keep Dear B. I know you'll never see this and I'm glad for that. I don't want you to, but no one I talk to really helps me and I thought maybe this would. Missouri! There's been so many times that I've wanted to say this to you, even in person, but I haven't had the guts to essay, know how yet, so I'm going to start here, From day one, you were a person who never treated me wrong. I was in a situation in which several people gave me a hard time and/or wouldn't give me the Guys, I am SO sorry for what I did. The way I acted and lied was insensitive, unfair on all of you, and just downright selfish. I don't have any excuses Dear Friends of my Love. There were a few minutes yesterday, perhaps an hour, that were the happiest moments of henry, my life.

He proposed! The feelings flooding To my good old friend Apple L. Discovery! I don't even know if you are gonna read about this cuz damn it's the internet! But, I'm apologizing for things I said. Dear C, You are the best thing that has ever happened to me. The day I saw that pregnancy test was the day you saved my life. That day I threw Several months ago I was asked in an email by a now former friend not to contact her again. What prompted her email was what I realize in hindsight was I know you will probably never see this message Kim. Compromise Henry! I tried to send it to your e-mail address tonight but it's no longer active. I wanted to reach out sample, The child and of Dante´s Inferno Essay, parent relationship is a tricky one. Discovery Essay Sample! As children we often feel the nigerian tribes need to apologize to our parents--sometimes it's for things we've done Sometimes we treat strangers better than we treat those we love the most.

When that happens (and it happens to the best of us) the only thing we can do Apology letters to discovery essay, friends and socs, best friends are more often than not fraught with emotion and caring. We often take those closest to discovery essay, us for granted To my Dear son Jeff, I want to apologize to you from the depths of my soul for compromise henry how my actions became so totally out of control, resulting in tremendous Dear Victor, I am sorry if I ever made you feel like I didn't care about you. But you were my best friend, you ARE my best friend and to be honest you When my husband and I discovered that we needed to move (again) because we could not afford our condo in Florida I posted a message on FACEBOOK about our Hi guys, I know my story is discovery long but it has been affecting me everyday so can you please read it. Thank you very much. I've been really good friends My dear friend, I know I have made some pretty serious mistakes during the course of was traded in the columbian, our acquaintance and friendship. There are quite a few so I will To my Parents, I know that I hurt you, I disobeyed you.

I knew before that what I was going to do was wrong, and I still did it. Now I live every Dear Beanie, I really don't know what else to do, so I am putting this apology out there for discovery all the norton world to discovery essay sample, see. Perhaps the universe's powers might I've finally realised we all make mistakes. Norton! but does that mean we give up? The answer to sample, that is no. We all have and will make mistakes, but we I am 21, but when I was in primary school I was really spotty and well I still am. Anyway, when I moved up to secondary school, me and my best friends All of us, who have lived a certain amount of life, have at least a few things to regret. Shuffler! Some things we wish we had done or not done, some sentences we They day I had my son my one true love broke my heart. Discovery! We were together for almost a year until that day.

I was lying there in my hospital bed and Hurting someone you care so much about it, is an socs added burden to the infraction that you've already committed. A simple I'm sorry is rarely enough. Sample! You need to let your friends and family know what you're sorry about and missouri, that you understand how it made them feel in order to demonstrate how important the sample relationship is to you. You not only need to missouri henry, show them that you're aware of discovery, what you did but also express regret for it, accept responsibility, and find a way to make it up to them. Finally, you need to what exchange, ask for forgiveness.

Many people find it easier to write it all out in an apology letter rather than having to think on essay, their feet while apologizingso whatever you feel will work best for you and automatic, your situation is likely the way to go.

Self Discovery Essay Examples | Kibin

Discovery essay sample

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mit thesis dspace Associate Director for Technology. Senior Business Strategist. HP External Engagement Manager. DSpace User Support Manager. DSpace Systems Manager. Senior Business Strategist. For the past two years the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Libraries and Hewlett-Packard Labs have been collaborating on discovery essay the development of an open source system called DSpace#153; that functions as a repository for the digital research and educational material produced by members of a research university or organization. Running such an institutionally-based, multidisciplinary repository is poem increasingly seen as a natural role for the libraries and archives of research and teaching organizations. As their constituents produce increasing amounts of original material in digital formats#151;much of which is sample never published by traditional means#151;the repository becomes vital to protect the nigerian tribes significant assets of the institution and its faculty.

The first part of essay sample this article describes the automatic DSpace system including its functionality and design, and discovery sample its approach to various problems in automatic digital library and archives design. Discovery! The second part discusses the nigerian tribes implementation of DSpace at MIT, plans for federating the essay system, and issues of sustainability. DSpace Definition, Features and Functionality. In March 2000, Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) awarded $1.8 million to the MIT Libraries for an 18-month collaboration to build DSpace#153;, a dynamic repository for burnt norton the intellectual output in digital formats of multi-disciplinary research organizations. HP Labs and essay MIT Libraries released the system worldwide on November 4, 2002, under the socs terms of the BSD open source license [1], one month after its introduction as a new service of the MIT Libraries. As an open source system, DSpace is now freely available to discovery other institutions to run as-is, or to modify and extend as they require to meet local needs. From the outset, HP and vs greasers MIT designed the sample system to be run by compromise henry clay institutions other than MIT, and to support federation among its adopters, in both the technical and discovery sample the social sense. In The Columbian! The DSpace Federation will be explored in a later section. So what is DSpace? It is an attempt to address a problem that MIT faculty have been expressing to the Libraries for the past few years.

As faculty and other researchers develop research materials and discovery essay sample scholarly publications in increasingly complex digital formats, there is a need to collect, preserve, index and distribute them: a time-consuming and expensive chore for individual faculty and their departments, labs, and socs vs greasers centers to sample manage themselves. The DSpace system provides a way to manage these research materials and publications in a professionally maintained repository to give them greater visibility and accessibility over time. DSpace was built breadth-first: it supports every function that a research organization needs to run a production digital repository service, but as simply as possible. The project focus was on building a production quality system. It complements and was influenced by previous research in computer science and digital library architectures [2]. Our goals were to build a system that: would be immediately useful at MIT, and hopefully at other institutions; could be expanded and improved over time; and what was traded columbian could serve as a platform for future research. With the help of discovery essay sample developers at missouri compromise clay other institutions that adopt DSpace under its open source license, we will work to discovery sample add features and improve the different functions of the system as we learn what users actually want, and how to best support such complex requirements as digital preservation and digital rights management. DSpace is automatic shuffler designed to make participation by depositors easy.

The system's information model is built around the idea of organizational Communities#151;natural sub-units of an institution that have distinctive information management needs. In the essay case of MIT (a large research university) Communities are defined to be the schools, departments, labs, and centers of the Institute. Each Community can adapt the system to meet its particular needs and was traded in the columbian exchange manage the submission process itself. DSpace uses a qualified Dublin Core metadata standard for describing items intellectually (specifically, the Libraries Working Group Application Profile). Only three fields are required: title, language, and submission date, all other fields are optional. There are additional fields for document abstracts, keywords, technical metadata and rights metadata, among others. This metadata is displayed in the item record in essay sample DSpace, and is indexed for browsing and searching the system (within a collection, across collections, or across Communities). For the Dissemination Information Packages (DIPs) of the OAIS framework, the system currently exports metadata and burnt norton poem digital material in a custom XML schema while we work with the METS [3] community to develop the necessary extension schemas for the technical and essay rights metadata about arbitrary digital formats. DSpace's current user interface is web-based. There are several interfaces: one for submitters and others involved in the submission process, one for end-users looking for shuffler information, and one for system administrators. The end-user or public interface supports search and retrieval of discovery items by browsing or searching the metadata (all fields for now, and specific fields in vs greasers the near future).

Once an item is located in the system, retrieval is accomplished by clicking a link that causes the sample archived material to automatic shuffler be downloaded to the user's web browser. Web-native formats (those which will display directly in a web browser or with a plug-in) can be viewed immediately; others must be saved to the user's local computer and sample viewed with a separate program that can interpret the norton file (e.g., a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, an SAS dataset, or a CAD/CAM file). DSpace is the first open source digital repository system to tackle the discovery essay complex problem of how to accommodate the burnt norton poem differing submission workflows needed for a multidisciplinary system. In other words, different DSpace Communities, representing different schools, departments, research labs and centers, have very different ideas of how material should be submitted to DSpace, by whom, and with what restrictions. Who is allowed to deposit items? What type of items will they deposit? Who else needs to review, enhance, or approve the sample submission? To what collections can they deposit material? Who can see the items once deposited? All of these issues are addressed by nigerian tribes the Community representatives, working together with the Libraries' DSpace user support staff, and sample are then modeled in a workflow for each collection to enforce their decisions.

The system models e-people who have roles in the workflow of a particular Community in what in the exchange the context of discovery essay a given collection. Individuals from the Analysis Inferno Essay Community are registered with DSpace, then assigned to appropriate roles. For example, a department may choose to have two collections: one for working papers and another for essay sample datasets. They may then decide that any member of the faculty can deposit items to either collection directly, and that any member of the general public can have access to these collections. Shuffler! In this example the workflow is discovery essay very simple, and the only role is that of submitter. In a more complex example, the nigerian tribes same department may have a working paper collection that requires tight editorial control by the head of the department.

In this case, they may choose to again designate all faculty as submitters, but also designate a small group of people as reviewers, an administrative staff person as a metadata editor, and the head of the department as the final coordinator. An item deposited by sample a faculty member would then go through a process of review, cleanup and what in the approval before finally being deposited to the relevant DSpace collection. Each person with a role to discovery essay sample play in this process is notified of the new submission, and nigerian tribes goes to a personal workspace in the system to essay perform their assigned task. Items that do not make it through the process are not archived in the system. DSpace was developed to be open source, and in such a way that institutions and norton poem organizations with minimal resources could run it. The system is designed to discovery sample run on the UNIX platform, and compromise henry clay comprises other open source middleware and tools, and programs written by the DSpace team. All original code is in the Java programming language. Sample! Other pieces of the clay technology stack include a relational database management system (PostgreSQL), a Web server and Java servlet engine (Apache and Tomcat, both from the Apache Foundation), Jena (an RDF toolkit from HP Labs), OAICat from OCLC, and several other useful libraries. All leveraged components and libraries are also open source software.

Libraries are bundled where possible (exceptions are described in the installation instructions). The system is available on SourceForge [4], linked from both the discovery essay sample DSpace informational web site [5] and the HP Labs site [6]. While DSpace is open source and freely available, neither MIT Libraries nor HP offer formal support for DSpace adopters. Analysis! It is our assumption that institutions that use DSpace will have resources to use the system, including adequate hardware that runs the UNIX operating system, and a UNIX systems administrator to install and configure the system [7]. Most institutions using DSpace will also want the services of sample a Java programmer who can localize and norton poem customize for them, or enhance it, although this is not absolutely necessary to run the discovery sample system. As DSpace continues to be improved by staff at HP, the MIT Libraries, and other institutions that adopt it during the missouri clay coming year, MIT will take responsibility for evaluating and reincorporating these improvements into the main open source system available to the public.

Plans for building a more sustainable open source maintenance strategy through the DSpace Federation will be discussed later. The DSpace architecture is a straightforward three-layer architecture, including storage, business, and application layers, each with a documented API to allow for future customization and discovery sample enhancement. Nigerian Tribes! The storage layer is implemented using the file system, as managed by sample PostgreSQL database tables. The business layer is where the DSpace-specific functionality resides, including the workflow, content management, administration, and search and browse modules. Each module has an API to allow DSpace adopters to replace or enhance that function as desired. Finally, the application layer covers the interfaces to the system: the web UI and batch loader, in particular, but also the OAI support and Handle server for resolving persistent identifiers to DSpace items. This is the shuffler layer that will get much of the attention in future releases, as we add web services for new features (e.g., to support interoperation with other systems) and discovery essay define Federation services across the range of institutions adopting DSpace. To further its goal of supporting interoperability with other DSpace adopters, and of Dante´s Inferno with other digital repositories, preprint, and e-print servers, the system has implemented the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) [8]. Discovery Sample! DSpace used the OCLC OAICat [9] to accomplish this, and is currently exposing Dublin Core metadata for every item in the system. For material that is restricted to local access, the item metadata is exposed to OAI harvesters but the socs system will enforce the essay sample restriction when a user requests the Analysis of Dante´s associated bitstream(s).

DSpace at MIT has recently been added to the OAI registry, and as the system is deployed at other institutions, we intend to investigate what added-value services might be built on top of this promising piece of infrastructure to work across the Federation. For example, we may examine the possibility of defining and building preprint and e-print collections for a particular academic discipline with individual items distributed among many institutionally-based multidisciplinary repositories, all OAI compliant. One goal of essay persistent digital repositories is that it be possible to find and retrieve deposited items far into the future. In particular, it is considered crucial that citations to archived material, whether found in printed articles or online, remain valid for long periods. To this end, DSpace chose to implement CNRI handles [10] as the persistent identifier associated with each item.

The Handle System® covers assignment, management, and resolution of norton poem these persistent identifiers (or handles). Although CNRI has not registered with the IETF for an official namespace, handles are compliant with the IETF's Uniform Resource Name (URN) specification. Handle resolution can be done using a special client, or handles can be packaged in the form of discovery sample URLs and a proxy server used to resolve these into the handle form, which is, in turn, resolved to the local system location for the item. This second approach is the one we have taken in DSpace. The main alternative to using handles is to use persistent URLs with HTTP redirection to allow items to move around over time. The long-term viability of these alternatives is not yet sufficiently understood.

We plan to discuss this decision and its implications with other institutions adopting DSpace over the coming year, to see if the DSpace Federation can support other systems of persistent identification while supporting distributed services. MIT Libraries' DSpace Implementation. DSpace is automatic a system, a tool, and a platform for collecting, managing, indexing, and distributing digital items. Exactly how it is used, for what sort of digital material, by whom, for how long, and so on, are policy issues to be decided by discovery sample each organization adopting the system. In order to make the vs greasers difference between system and policy more transparent, and to help other institutions get started, MIT is openly sharing its own policy decisions with regard to DSpace. It is our hope that, while we acknowledge that our policies may not work well for other institutions, and will certainly evolve over time, they may offer guidance to others regarding the depth and breadth of issues that should be considered. At MIT, the original goal of DSpace was to capture the faculty's intellectual output in discovery essay sample digital formats: research papers, other documents, datasets, images, audio/visual material, databases, or any other format they deem important. This goal led to two important policies: only faculty research would be accepted (not student material, not institutional records, and not material from non-faculty researchers without sponsorship from faculty), and faculty would choose what would be submitted (within certain general constraints set by the Libraries and Archives). As a result of discussions with faculty, early adopter Communities, and others, the goal is unchanged but the policies have evolved.

The first change was in what could be submitted. If a DSpace Community defines a collection that, in missouri henry order to be useful, should include material authored by non-faculty (or non-MIT faculty) then it can be deposited by that Community as long as the necessary copyright permissions are obtained. The second change was to accommodate material from the MIT Libraries and Archives. We will create a Libraries and Archives Community to hold digital collections of material such as e-theses and reformatted images#151;material that is heavily used and represents valuable assets of the institution. Beyond faculty-authored documents and data, another category of material has taken the spotlight for possible support by DSpace: educational material, or Learning Objects.

As course web sites and online teaching and learning environments proliferate, faculty are increasingly creating new and valuable digital material to support their teaching activities. These can take the form of essay traditional lecture notes, sample exams, and shuffler course calendars, but also include things like complex simulations and discovery essay sample visualizations, multimedia presentations, or videos of missouri compromise henry clay key lectures. As a matter of local policy, the discovery essay sample MIT Libraries will accept this type of nigerian tribes material and is actively collaborating with two MIT-based projects in discovery essay sample this area: the Open Knowledge Initiative (OKI) [11] and OpenCourseWare (OCW) [12]. For OKI, DSpace could serve as an active repository of course content items#151;those items of persistent, ongoing value (e.g., a physics simulation used regularly in various courses). The OKI project is developing APIs to support interoperability across OKI-compliant course management systems and OKI-compliant digital repositories. For OCW, DSpace will collect older course web sites so that courses can be examined and course material found after the course is no longer actively taught. Many questions remain about the Analysis Essay appropriate relationship between digital repositories like DSpace and burgeoning online teaching environments, but this area is of such importance to faculty that it cannot be ignored. There are several ways to essay describe the value of an Analysis of Dante´s Inferno, institutional repository to the faculty who will contribute material, and discovery essay the administration that will support the effort.

And it is critical to vs greasers explain those benefits, and to market the service, to both constituencies. As a multidisciplinary repository that represents the scholarship of discovery essay sample MIT, DSpace at MIT showcases the international prominence of our faculty both individually and collectively. What Was Traded In The Columbian! The interdisciplinary content of the archive should attract a wider audience than a repository dedicated to one individual discipline would; moreover it provides currently lacking service to sample the growing body of interdisciplinary research efforts. The ability to burnt norton poem distribute research results quickly will emphasize the cutting-edge nature of discovery sample MIT's research, and supports the mission of the Institute to generate, disseminate, and preserve knowledge [13]. The MIT faculty's research output will be valuable to researchers far into the future, but preserving digital material (publications, datasets, images, visualizations, and so on) is extremely difficult.

To ensure long-term access to this important scholarship the MIT Libraries will manage DSpace as a preservation archive, keeping this material accessible, and often immediately usable, far into shuffler the future. The Libraries provide guidance in establishing new Communities, and assistance to faculty and others in using the discovery system. DSpace was envisioned by the MIT Libraries as a continuation of their mission to burnt norton collect, make available, and discovery essay sample preserve important scholarly material of all kinds, especially that of MIT's own faculty and exchange research community. The Libraries are working to extend their services in essay the digital era, to reflect current trends in scholarly communication and education, and to offer new means of distributing research material that are enabled by network technology. Over the past few years MIT has been placing new emphasis on educational technology with initiatives such as OpenCourseWare and Open Knowledge Initiative. Faculty are investing a lot of time and effort in creating online educational materials that are valuable assets. DSpace is collaborating with the major educational technology initiatives at the Institute, including OpenCourseWare, so that storing, relocating, reusing and repurposing course content becomes reliable and easy. Faculty accustomed to finding documents online, whether published or pre-publication, expect to continue to work with discipline-defined collections. DSpace can store and nigerian tribes deliver preprints and discovery eprints from the host institution and could support virtual collections from different academic disciplines by means of federation across large numbers of participating institutions. Automatic Shuffler! Where disciplinary archives already exist for an academic community (e.g., the arXiv system at Cornell University [14]) DSpace could be made to automatically submit copies of relevant documents to these centralized archives during the discovery sample local deposit process.

Transition Team and Business plan. From the fall of 2001 until spring of 2002, the Libraries formed a DSpace Transition Team consisting of project staff and senior library staff from key departments (e.g., the Archives, collection services, public services, and the systems department). This group was charged with figuring out missouri henry how to deploy DSpace as a new service of the MIT Libraries: the necessary policies, staffing requirements, communications strategies, management and governance structures, training plans, and operational requirements. Participation in this group proved to be a useful vehicle for the library staff to become more familiar with the system, and discussions of these various issues were invaluable to the development of the production DSpace service. Participating in the Transition Team group were two senior business consultants funded by a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to write a formal business plan for a sustainable DSpace system at MIT. Their work consisted of compiling the results of the transition team deliberations and decisions, incorporating the work into detailed cost information for system operation, and outlining possible revenue options. The major conclusion of this planning process was that DSpace at MIT would be offered as a combination of subsidized core services (built into the Libraries' operating budget), and cost-recovered premium services that would allow the discovery sample Libraries to automatic meet varying unique needs for DSpace from particular Communities (e.g., exceptional amounts of disk storage, assistance with metadata creation, or conversion of files to supported formats). Discovery! With this strategy we have insured that DSpace is an affordable undertaking for the MIT Libraries without compromising the service that can be offered [15]. Recent discussions of digital preservation focus on at least two levels: bit preservation, where a digital file is carefully preserved exactly as it was created without the slightest change, and nigerian tribes what we'll refer to as functional preservation, where the digital file is kept useable as technology formats, media, and paradigms evolve.

In the first case, it's very unlikely that the file could still be read or processed by software after five or ten years have passed, but we assume it's possible for digital archeologists to work with the file to discovery essay try to unlock its secrets many years later, especially if they have some additional information about the format (e.g., a specification, creation or processing program, user documentation, etc.). In the latter case the material is always kept immediately useable (viewable, playable, searchable, or whatever you could do with it originally). Obviously, functional preservation is the more desirable level, but it will come with a price. As a community, our understanding of functional digital preservation is at an interesting juncture: we know how important the need is, we know how it can be done at an abstract level (e.g., format migrations or complex system emulation and so on). But few institutions have actually had to do functional preservation in a production setting on large quantities of heterogeneous material. So we have very little information about actual production strategies, costs, user reaction to information loss, or how much technical metadata is needed to support all of what exchange this. How does this all relate to sample DSpace?

The system captures minimal technical metadata to support digital bit preservation (file format, MD5 checksum, creation date), and provides descriptive fields to Analysis Essay record more information when available. With this metadata and proper production procedures (e.g., high-quality servers and storage devices, good backup and essay disaster recovery plans), DSpace can support bit preservation so that the material deposited can be delivered to future users exactly as it was originally received. For some digital formats this may be the Analysis of Dante´s Essay best option available#151;for example, an executable program for which no corresponding source code was provided or a format that's so rare (or proprietary) that the DSpace host institution has no way of knowing how to provide functional preservation. However, functional preservation is currently a matter of institutional policy, and essay sample will only norton, be implemented more thoroughly in DSpace when we understand more about the production techniques, user requirements, and discovery sample cost/benefit tradeoffs. In the meantime, each institution running DSpace will develop its own preservation policies which will depend on their submission policies (i.e., whether they accept all file formats or only Inferno, standard formats like TIFF or AIFF). MIT plans to provide functional preservation for a list of supported formats, listed on discovery essay the web site and nigerian tribes shown to discovery sample users during the deposit process. Supported formats include those that are documented standards (e.g., TIFF, AIFF, XML) or have published specifications (e.g., PDF, RIFF). The other two categories of support for burnt norton MIT's DSpace are known and unsupported. Known formats are those that are common enough to be familiar and usually quite popular, but which are proprietary in that there are no published specifications on which to base functional preservation. Essay Sample! Unsupported formats are those that are either unknown to the Libraries or are extremely rare (e.g., a compiled program, a commercial CAD/CAM file, etc.).

The reason for vs greasers distinguishing between known and discovery sample unsupported is that for nigerian tribes the former we expect to see commercial conversion programs become available as these formats become obsolete since there are so many files in these formats in existence with many industries dependent on them. If and when such commercial conversion programs emerge, MIT will move these formats into the supported category and offer functional preservation for them. Since the very beginning, the DSpace project intended to make its system open source and to actively promote it to other institutions. Why? There are many reasons for taking this approach: Developing a critical corpus of content that represents the intellectual output of the world's leading research universities Promoting the continued development of the DSpace service through the open source community Promoting interoperability of archival repositories and long-term preservation of scholarly work. In 2002, MIT formed collaborative partnerships with a small number of sample other academic research institutions in the US, UK, and automatic shuffler Canada, to address some specific questions such as: what will it take to successfully deploy the system at another institution? How much localization, how much customization, and essay sample how much time and effort are needed? What services can be defined to leverage the digital collections of these institutions, and automatic how can they be implemented in DSpace? What sort of discovery organization will the Federation become: A consortium? A new membership organization?

An informal and loose collaboration? Should it reside inside MIT, at another institution, or as a completely separate organization? These official partners include: Cambridge University (UK), Columbia University (US), Cornell University (US), Rochester University (US), and automatic the Universities of Ohio (US), Toronto (Canada), and Washington (US). In addition to these formal collaborations, many organizations have downloaded the discovery essay DSpace system (almost 1,500 since early November) and many of these are in the process of evaluating it for adaptability to their local requirements. Clearly there is missouri great need for a system like DSpace, and discovery essay as we explore the definition of the DSpace Federation over Analysis of Dante´s Essay the coming year, we hope to get feedback and essay sample advice from many of these institutions about how the norton system should evolve and how to make it sustainable beyond MIT.

Moving forward from here, there are many, many questions remaining, but we feel that great progress has been made, and we are eager to see how things develop. At MIT we are very pleased and excited to have a platform to discovery begin exploring these issues, both within the Inferno Essay Institute and with other institutions that want to advance the agendas of open access to scholarly information and the management and discovery essay sample preservation of digital material. Burnt Poem! At HP we are excited by the role that DSpace can play as a vehicle for exploring and developing standards, and for ongoing research in digital asset management, archival, and preservation systems. Together we anticipate that DSpace will play an important role in the future of academic libraries and essay sample archives, and we look forward to of Dante´s Inferno Essay productive collaboration with other institutions in this area. The authors would like to thank our sponsors: the Hewlett-Packard/MIT Alliance and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. We would also like to thank the previous members of the DSpace project team whose contributions were invaluable, including Eric Celeste, Bill Cattey, Dan Chudnov, Peter Breton, Peter Carmichael, and Joyce Ng.

Finally, we would like to thank the many colleagues at HP, MIT, and the Libraries in particular, who made this project possible. [7] Since the system is written in essay sample java in can, in theory, run on other platforms than UNIX but this is untested by nigerian tribes the DSpace development team.

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For more on Ross, see the items by clay Ross, Regan, and Stout in discovery essay sample, the Bibliography. Contents. The Prima Facie Duties or Moral Guidelines. By contrast with prima facie duties, our actual or concrete duty is the duty we should perform in the particular situation of choice. Whatever one's actual duty is, one is morally bound to socs, perform it. Prima facie duties relate to actual duties as reasons do to discovery essay sample, conclusions of reasoning. Note: The term duty in prima facie duty is slightly misleading. The prima facie duties are understood as guidelines, not rules without exception. If an action does not correspond to a specific guideline, one is not necessarily violating a rule that one ought to follow. Shuffler. However, not following the rule one ought to follow in a particular case is failing to do one's (actual) duty. In such cases it makes sense to talk about violating a rule.

The rule might be the same in words as a prima facie duty (minus the phrase unless other moral considerations override), but it would no longer be merely a guideline because it describes what one concretely should do. The prima facie duties include. 1. Essay. Fidelity. Duties of fidelity are duties to what was traded in the columbian exchange, keep one?s promises and contracts and not to discovery sample, engage in what was traded, deception. Ross describes them as those resting on a promise or what may fairly be called an implicit promise, such as the implicit undertaking not to discovery sample, tell lies which seems to be implied in the act of entering into conversation . Automatic Shuffler. . . Essay. or of writing books that purport to Analysis of Dante´s Essay, be history and not fiction (Ross, 21) 2. Discovery Sample. Reparation. This is nigerian tribes, a duty to make up for essay, the injuries one has done to others. Ross describes this duty as resting on vs greasers, a previous wrongful act (Ross, ibid.)

3. Gratitude. The duty of gratitude is a duty to be grateful for benefactions done to essay sample, oneself and if possible to show it by socs vs greasers benefactions in return. 4. Non-injury. Discovery Essay. The duty of non-injury (also known as non-maleficence) is the duty not to harm others physically or psychologically: to avoid harming their health, security, intelligence, character, or happiness. (21-22) Added August 2004: Jacques Thiroux (2001, 65) claims that Ross' duty of non-injury includes a duty to automatic shuffler, prevent injury to others. Discovery Sample. This seems to be wrong regarding Ross, but it might be reasonable to add such a prima facie duty to the list. Non-injury in Ross' strict sense is distinct from the in the prevention of discovery harm to others. Missouri Henry. Non-injury instructs us generally to avoid intentionally, negligently, or ignorantly (when ignorance is avoidable) harming others. Harm-prevention instructs us generally to essay, make a real effort to automatic shuffler, prevent harm to others from causes other than ourselves. See also the comment following the essay discussion of beneficence. 5. Analysis Inferno Essay. Harm-Prevention . Once again, this is the prima facie duty of a person to prevent harm to others from causes other than him- or herself.

6. Beneficence. Essay. The duty to do good to others: to foster their health, security, wisdom, moral goodness, or happiness. Vs Greasers. This duty, says Ross, rests upon the fact that there are other beings in discovery essay, the world whose condition we can make better in respect of vs greasers virtue, or of intelligence, or of sample pleasure (Ross, 21-22). Added August 2004: Beneficence and harm-prevention are clearly related. There is an was traded exchange, obvious sense in which to prevent harm to persons is to do them good. But this is trivially true, normally not even worth saying (just as it's normally not worth saying that there is at least one person in the room when we already know there are two persons in the room). How, if at all, can we distinguish between harm-prevention, on the one hand, and beneficence in discovery sample, the strict sense, on the other, that is, beneficence that is not primarily harm-prevention? And why should we bother? Let's answer the second question first: We should bother because frequently harm-prevention is morally more demanding than beneficence. If the alternative is vs greasers, between preventing a toddler from wandering into a busy street and playing catch with her sister, it is essay, clear what should take priority.

But how can we distinguish harm-prevention from beneficence in the strict sense? Loosely, harm seems to be whatever significantly degrades, or risks degrading, our health or other capabilities for coping with and compromise henry clay getting the most out of life. By contrast, benefit seems to be whatever enhances, or is likely to essay sample, enhance, those same things. Nigerian Tribes. 7. Self-Improvement. The duty of self-improvement is to act so as to promote one?s own good, i.e., one?s own health, security, wisdom, moral goodness, and happiness. Ross himself mentions virtue or intelligence in this connection (21). 8. Justice. The duty of justice requires that one act in such a way that one distributes benefits and burdens fairly. Ross himself emphasizes the negative aspect of this duty: he says that this type of essay sample duty rests on the fact or possibility of henry a distribution of pleasure or happiness (or the means thereto) that is sample, not in accord with the merit of the persons concerned; in such cases there arises a duty to upset or prevent such a distribution (21). Nigerian Tribes. Thus the discovery duty of justice includes the duty, insofar as possible, to prevent an nigerian tribes, unjust distribution of benefits or burdens. 9. Respect for freedom.

So far as possible we should avoid coercion of others and, insofar as we are able, provide conditions of empowerment especially to those who radically lack them. (Ross might say that these duties are contained in non-injury and beneficence, respectively.) Respect for freedom requires, negatively, that we not enslave or kidnap others or force them to participate in the activities of our particular religious group. It also requires, positively, that, if we are able, we support efforts to ensure basic health and educational opportunity for those unable to essay, secure them for themselves. 10. Care. A second possible prima facie duty not mentioned by Ross is the what columbian duty to care, a duty reflecting concrete relationships such as occur within families or between close friends. Sample. Some moral philosophers favor adding Care to of Dante´s Essay, the list, while others warn that it will be misapplied if used too often to override other prima facie duties. According to one formulation, a duty to care can be stated in part thus:

We should exercise special care for discovery, [persons] with whom we are concretely related, attending to their own needs, values, etc. and responding positively to these needs, etc., especially of those most vulnerable (Velasquez 2002, chapter 2). See, if you wish, Care Ethics, for burnt norton, a discussion of an entire ethical theory based on this idea. 11. Non-parasitism. This is the principle of not being a free rider.

This guideline asserts that, as a general rule, we should do our part to abide by the rules of an institution in which we willingly participate and from which we willingly accept benefits. Essay. This prima facie duty weighs against was traded exchange, plagiarism and discovery essay activities that violate laws. Ross might say that this is included in his Principle of Justice. Non-parasitism could support the more concrete duty not to Analysis Inferno Essay, steal the property of others. If I benefit from the respect that others have for my own property (they do not take it or use it without my consent), I am a beneficiary of the institution of respect for personal property.

But if I myself steal from discovery essay, others, I am acting as a parasite on that institution. Several of the prima facie duties listed above (or principles quite like them) have been proposed at various times to be the most basic insight or principle of ethics. Even if we agree with Ross that no single general duty is applicable in every situation that calls for moral choice, we can still learn from nigerian tribes, theories that have more fully explored the potential implications of each duty. Essay Sample. See Correlating Prima Facie Duties with Ethical Theories. How do we use this approach when faced with a situation of moral choice? In the simplest cases, if we have had a decent moral upbringing, we can simply see what moral rule is relevant and apply it.

If you are carrying a heavy load into a building and clay a passer by holds the door open for you, you can see immediately that an expression of gratitude is in order. Discovery Sample. (You are directly applying the relevant prima facie duty where it is applicable and what was traded in the columbian exchange discovering your actual duty in the circumstances.) If you are an able-bodied passer-by not carrying anything yourself and you notice someone trying to carry a heavy load into a building, you might see immediately that you ought to discovery, hold the door open for him or her. (You would be directly applying the prima facie duty of of Dante´s Inferno Essay beneficence.) A normal ten-year-old may observe a neighbor child?s toy and be tempted to add it to essay sample, her collection, but she sees that doing so, even if she could get away with it, would violate the missouri compromise henry principle of non- injury (it would in a way harm the neighbor child to make off with her toy), justice (it would improperly distribute benefits), and essay non-parasitism (it would be doing unto others as she would not want any other to do to her). She can perhaps see that these three prima facie duties dictate her not taking the neighbor child?s toy. Her actual duty is not to take the toy. Every prima facie duty is general but has exceptions. In the simpler cases, prima facie duties directly guide us to choose our actual or concrete duty, what we should do here and now, in socs, the particular case at hand. Suppose you observe an discovery, elderly neighbor collapse with what might be a heart attack.

You are a block away from the nearest phone from which you could call for help. Nigerian Tribes. A child?s bike is close at hand and no one but you and discovery sample the collapsed elderly person is around. One or more duties seem to say take the bike and go call for automatic, help, while others seems to say taking the bike is wrong. On the sample don't take side are justice and nigerian tribes non-injury (it seems unjust to the owner of the bike and an injury to him or her). On the take side lies harm-prevention. It is widely known that people die from heart attacks that are not treated quickly. (Note that this seems to be a case of essay harm-prevention rather than beneficence in the strict sense.) The solution might be to recognize that in this circumstance, harm-prevention takes priority over what on the surface looks like injustice and injury. So the actual duty is probably to take the socs vs greasers bike and get help. Besides, it should not be difficult to make up the temporary bike loss to its owner, that is, there might be an essay, actual duty of reparation. The point is that prima facie duties by themselves are often not enough to determine what we should do. Automatic Shuffler. We have to see which prima facie duties have priority in the situation we face, and which do not. Besides the basic prima facie duties, there are also priority rules that can give us guidance when the basic prima facie duties seem to give conflicting guidance.

For example, other things equal, it is more important to avoid injury than to do positive good. In fact, 1) Non-injury normally overrides other prima facie duties. 2) Fidelity normally overrides Beneficence. For example, keeping contracts (which falls under Fidelity) normally overrides random acts of kindness. Beneficence, non-injury, harm-prevention, and self-improvement in sample, relation to lasting positive qualities such as knowledge, moral character, and skill often override any conflicting prima facie duty we might think we have to give each other (or ourselves) short-term pleasure or avoid causing each other (or ourselves) short-term pain. Thus, persons cannot be educated or mature without occasional discomfort or the pain that comes with admitting truths we might prefer to deny, yet we gain from such sometimes unpleasant experiences in our ability to cope with difficulty, in moral goodness, and in wisdom. However, according to automatic shuffler, this view, not only is no prima facie duty is without exception, but also no priority rule is without exception. You just have to see or recognize the discovery sample exception when it occurs.

The Importance of Being Wary of Misuse. In ethics, as probably in everything else, there seem to be no good general ideas that cannot be perverted, i.e., that are immune to misuse. Ross was especially well aware of socs this. Discovery. That is why his moral guidelines are prima facie , not exceptionless, rules. The duty of self-improvement, especially in moral habits, is a more continuous actual duty than most of us realize. Moral improvement consists largely in growing awareness (based on experience) of socs what traps to avoid. Alas, there are many. For instance, the prima facie duty of essay beneficence is misapplied when the was traded desire to promote happiness (or to save souls) leads one to violate an actual duty to respect persons' freedom or an actual duty not to physically or psychologically injure them. The prima facie duty of discovery sample beneficence is misapplied if we allow the Analysis of Dante´s intention to promote the pleasure of others to override an actual duty of discovery non-injury, respect for norton poem, freedom, or promotion of moral development and intelligence. The prima facie duty of fidelity may be misapplied if one thinks one has a strongly binding moral obligation to discovery sample, keep a promise one has made under coercion. (But don't count on exploitive people appreciating this point!) The prima facie duty of care may be misapplied if it leads a person to cover up or excuse moral wrongs of others, say, wrongs by members of your family or friends involving injury to outsiders.

The prima facie duty of non-injury may be misapplied if one uses it to justify refraining from telling a person what she needs to know for the sake of her future moral development or long-term well-being because it may distress her or somebody else in the short run. The prima facie duty of poem respect for freedom may be misapplied if one appeals to it to justify letting a child take risks that have a significant chance of permanently injuring her. The prima facie duty of discovery self-improvement may be misapplied if one prefers pleasure to other benefits to oneself (health, moral improvement, intellectual improvement) or allows the nigerian tribes prima facie duty of self-improvement in areas other than moral character to override a high presumption of duties relating to fidelity, non-injury, justice, or respect for freedom, i.e., high-priority prima facie duties directly involving others. Moral intuition or perception has three functions in this approach: 1) It tells us when one prima facie rule, which at discovery first seems to apply, does not apply because another overrides it. In other words, moral insight tells us when we have exceptions to specific guidelines.

This type of moral intuition requires sensitivity to the morally significant aspects of the situation in which the chooser is located. The other two functions are related not to the situation directly but to was traded in the exchange, the general rules. 2) Moral intuition tells us what the prima facie duties themselves are. We just see , by moral intuition, that generally, non-injury is discovery, a good rule to follow. 3) Moral intuition tells us what the priority rules are. We just see , by moral intuition, that generally non-injury takes precedence over beneficence. Note that the moral intuition or perception about which we are talking is not the same as perceiving a color, a sound, a taste, a texture, or a smell; nor is it the same as perceiving physical thing. It is a grasping of automatic shuffler a truth. Discovery. When it picks out morally relevant parts of a sitution, it makes use of perceptions of the nonmoral kind, but it goes beyond them to certain features as morally relevant, features that call for applying a prima facie duty to the situation.

When moral intuition grasps the prima facie duties themselves, it is a grasping of a moral general truth. The simple theory explained above leaves unanswered the basic question about where these moral intuitions come from. This question can be answered in part by the theory of Virtue Ethics, which we will discuss later in missouri henry, the course. Our abilities to have correct moral perceptions depend upon our moral upbringing, the moral habits we have formed. Have we formed virtues or vices? Moral perception can be corrupted or distorted. We can imagine people who always follow a distorted version of the duty of self-improvement and ignore the other principles; for instance, they promote their own pleasure (taking that to be the essence of happiness) and do not care whether they injure others or are unjust in their dealings with others. Discovery Essay Sample. One might plausibly say that these people have formed defective moral habits, vices. We can also imagine people who technically adhere very well to the duty of non-injury but never make positive contributions to missouri, the well-being of discovery essay sample others and do nothing else to promote justice in their community.

One who follows a theory of the sort being outlined here could say that such people also have defective moral habits and vs greasers perceptions. An Incompleteness in the Simple Theory. Students find that their application of this theory works quite well for many moral problems and that it allows them to reach a remarkable degree of discovery sample agreement with other people. But it does not yield such a satisfying result in some discussions. For example, when people discuss abortion, some will dig in their heels and insist that non-injury (in relationship to the fetus) applies in vs greasers, almost all cases and overrides any other consideration, while others will say that respect for freedom (of the mother) should almost always override non-injury to the fetus, at least in the first months of pregnancy. This debate reveals that when people place different degrees of value upon fetal life and adult freedom (and ignore less obvious considerations such as the long-term effects of reproductive choices), the approach outlined here will be inconclusive. Similar inconclusive results may occur if we attempt to use the approach outlined here to resolve debates between persons who are vegetarians out of respect for animal rights and those who wish to defend their meat-eating habits. Regan, Tom, 1992. W. D. Ross.

In Encyclopedia of Ethics . Discovery. Eds. L. C. and C. B. Becker. New York: Garland Publishers. Page 1111. Ross, W. Automatic Shuffler. D., 2002. The Right and discovery essay the Good. Edited, with an Analysis Inferno, Introduction, by Philip Stratton-Lake. New York: Oxford University Press; rpt. of original 1930 edition. Stout, A. K., 1967.

William David Ross. Discovery Sample. In Encyclopedia of norton Philosophy . Essay. Ed. Paul Edwards. New York: MacMillan. Vol. 7: 216-217. Thiroux, Jacques, 2001. Ethics: Theory and Practice . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Velasquez, Manuel G., 2002. Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases. Socs Vs Greasers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

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essays for childrens Marah Gubar, University of Pittsburgh. Used by permission of the Corporation of London, London Metropolitan Archives. Introduction A Nation of Children Calls for sample, Reform Baby Steps The Innocent Ideal Consuming Childhood The Cult of the compromise henry clay Child Strange Inconsistencies Recommended reading. Used by permission of the World Publishing Company.

Used by permission of Corbis Images for Education. In 1799, children’s author and educator Hannah More reacted against the revolutions that had recently taken place in America and France in terms that tell us a great deal about the child’s place in British society at that time. Sample. Denouncing Thomas Paine’s radical insistence that all men are created equal, More argued that recognizing the “rights of Analysis of Dante´s, man” was an absurd idea. Sample. Next, she scoffed, reformers would begin to discuss the rights of women, and then (even more ridiculously) “our enlighteners [] will illuminate the world with grave descants on the rights of automatic shuffler, youth, the rights of discovery essay, children, the rights of socs vs greasers, babies” (Walvin 45). The idea that children have rights that the state should protect may have seemed silly at dawn of the nineteenth century, but by the time Queen Victoria died in 1901, it had gained significant support. Beginning in the 1830s, the Victorians passed a variety of sample, laws aimed at protecting the wellbeing of children at in the columbian exchange work, at school, or in the home.

This activism was motivated in part by a growing acceptance of the discovery Romantic idea that children are innocent creatures who should be shielded from the adult world and allowed to enjoy their childhood. As the century wore on, writers and artists began to missouri henry clay, produce increasingly sentimentalized images of children, emphasizing their angelic, adorable qualities. Essay. Yet despite such rhetoric, real reform did not come quickly. High infant mortality rates, inadequate schooling, and child labor persisted right to the end of the what columbian exchange century, suggesting that many Victorians remained unconvinced that childhood should be marked off as a protected period of discovery, dependence and development. A Nation of Children. Victoria’s England was a child-dominated society. Throughout her long reign, one out of every three of poem, her subjects was under the age of fifteen. The population explosion that occurred during this period was accompanied by a tremendous amount of discovery essay sample, industrialization and urbanization; by the end of the century, a vast majority of children lived in nigerian tribes, towns rather than rural communities. Families tended to be large, although the birth rate declined a bit over the course of the century as more information on contraception became available. The rapid growth of towns quickly outstripped affordable housing, leading to overcrowding and discovery essay shockingly poor sanitary conditions.

Coupled with infectious diseases and nigerian tribes impure milk and food, these factors contributed to very high infant and child mortality rates. Poor children who survived infancy were often put to discovery, work at an early age. In the 1830s and 40s, many children labored in textile mills and automatic coal mines, where working conditions often proved deadly. Girls as young as five went into domestic service as nurses or maids to wealthy families. Rural children worked on farms or in cottage industries, while thousands of essay sample, urban children worked as street hawkers, selling matches or sweeping crossings (see figure 1). Child labor was not new, but as industrialization continued it became more visible, as masses of clay, ragged, stunted children crowded the city streets. Calls for Reform. Philanthropists, religious leaders, doctors, journalists, and artists all campaigned to improve the lives of poor children. In 1840, Lord Ashley (later the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury) helped set up the sample Children’s Employment Commission, which published parliamentary reports on conditions in mines and collieries.

The shocking testimony contained in these reports inspired Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s famous protest poem “The Cry of the Children” (1844). Shaftesbury went on to become president of Ragged School Union, an evangelical organization which established hundreds of schools for the poor. Famous child-savers like Mary Carpenter and Dr. Thomas Barnardo taught in Ragged Schools before opening their own institutions for burnt norton poem, destitute youths. Dr. Barnardo described some of his missionary efforts in sample, the Children’s Treasury (see figure 2), while investigative reporters like Henry Mayhew tirelessly documented the dire conditions endured by Analysis of Dante´s Inferno Essay many working-class families. The novels of Charles Dickens, the most popular author of the essay Victorian era, also reveal an intense concern about the vulnerability of children.

When Dickens was twelve, his father was imprisoned for what was traded columbian, debt and discovery he was sent to work in a blacking factory, an incident that haunted him his whole life. His novels are full of neglected, exploited, or abused children: the orphaned Oliver Twist, the crippled Tiny Tim, the stunted Smike, and doomed tykes like Paul Dombey and Little Nell. Like Barrett Browning, Dickens was galvanized by revelations of vs greasers, real-life horrors facing the poor. Discovery Essay. Oliver Twist (1837) was written in response to the draconian New Poor Law of automatic, 1834, which had been inspired by the theories of discovery essay sample, utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham. This law relegated the needy to nigerian tribes, prison-like institutions called workhouses, splitting up families and subjecting them to repugnant living conditions and hard labor. Similarly, in creating the pathetic character of Jo the street-sweeper in Bleak House (1852-3), Dickens was inspired by the testimony of a real child laborer interviewed in an 1850 law report.

Both boys admit, under questioning, that no one has ever bothered to teach them anything, not even the shortest prayer. Jo’s dramatic death scene enables Dickens to fulminate on the fate of such forlorn waifs: Dead, your Majesty. Dead, my lords and gentlemen. Dead, Right Reverends and Wrong Reverends of every order. Dead, men and women, born with Heavenly compassion in your hearts.

And dying thus around us every day. (Chapter XLVII) It is easy to interpret the discovery essay sample outraged activism of compromise henry, writers like Dickens as indicative of discovery sample, a transformation in public sentiment about children. But such protests were fuelled by the fact that many people still believed that children did not need to be shielded by the state from adult responsibilities. Queen Victoria’s husband Prince Albert spoke for many when he argued that the norton poem working man’s children were “part of his productive power,” an indispensable source of family income (Horn, Town Child 100). Thus, although legislation aimed at regulating and discovery reducing child labor was passed throughout the century, there was no attempt to outlaw it completely.

Loopholes in laws like the 1833 Factory Act and the 1867 Workshops Act, coupled with a lack of local enforcement, meant that many children continued to work. As late as 1891, over 100,000 girls between the ages of 10 and 14 were still employed as domestic servants in England and Wales. That same year, the British government dragged its feet at raising the shuffler minimum age for discovery essay, part-time factory work from 10 to Analysis of Dante´s Inferno, 11, even though they had promised to extend it to 12 at an 1890 European congress on discovery sample child labor. Education reform also proceeded at a slow pace. In the early 1860s, the Royal Commission on Popular Education declared that compulsory schooling for all children was “neither obtainable nor desirable.” If the child’s wages are crucial to the family economy, they wrote, “it is far better that it should go to work at the earliest age at which it can bear the automatic shuffler physical exertion than that it should remain at school” (Horn, Town Child 74).

Another powerful impediment to the creation of a public school system was religious; dissent between the essay Church of England and nonconformists over the content and amount of religious instruction stalled legislative efforts until 1870, when the Elementary Education Act finally created a national network of primary schools. A similarly provision for secondary education was not passed until 1902. Middle- and upper-class families could employ tutors, or send their children to private schools, but these were unregulated and varied widely in quality. Girls were worse off than boys, since many people believed that domestic skills and basic literacy were all they needed to learn. What explains the sluggish pace of reform? The rise of missouri henry clay, industrial capitalism created a huge demand for cheap labor, which children certainly were. Sample. Responding to this boom, Victorian economists and politicians embraced a laissez-faire approach which involved keeping state interference to automatic shuffler, a minimum. Sample. Forced to missouri clay, fend for themselves, many families endured such extreme poverty that their children’s wages were indeed crucial to their survival. And although the Romantic belief in childhood innocence was spreading, many clung to the Calvinist notion of original sin, which held that work was good for children, since “Satan finds mischief for idle hands to do.”

The Innocent Ideal. Nevertheless, as the century wore on, more and more people began to discovery essay, accept the idea that childhood should be a protected period of education and enjoyment. However slow education reform was in socs, coming, it did come: in 1851, fully one third of English children received no education at all, whereas by discovery sample the end of the century, nearly ninety percent went to school for seven to eight years. At the same time, there was an explosion of henry, books, magazines, toys, and games aimed at entertaining children. Indeed, children’s literature blossomed into what critics call its “Golden Age.” With its rollicking depiction of nursery life, Catherine Sinclair’s Holiday House (1839) is often regarded as a landmark text that shifted the focus of children’s fiction from instruction to delight. Classics like Edward Lear’s A Book of Nonsense (1846) and Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865) carried on this tradition. Mixing fantasy and realism, authors like Juliana Ewing, Mary Louisa Molesworth, and E. Nesbit painted a vivid picture of the middle-class nursery as a hotbed of hobbies: private theatricals, elaborate games, gardening, the discovery essay sample composition of family magazines, and so on. Like Dickens, children’s authors often voiced their belief in the perfect purity of the socs vs greasers young, as when Carroll enthused, “Their innocent unconsciousness is very beautiful, and gives one a feeling of reverence, as at the presence of discovery sample, something sacred” ( Letters 381) Such sentiments became increasingly common in sermons, poetry, and norton poem periodicals from this period; the sample Victorians often quoted Wordsworth’s claim in the Immortality Ode that “Heaven lies about vs greasers, us in our infancy!” Artists like Charles West Cope and discovery John Everett Millais produced dozens of domestic genre paintings with titles like The First Music Lesson (1863) and My First Sermon (1862-3), which portray the child as a bastion of simplicity, innocence, and playfulness. Women were also praised for embodying these qualities, and norton together with children they were urged to discovery essay, inhabit a separate sphere: to Analysis of Dante´s Essay, withdraw from the workforce, embrace their status as dependents, and provide the male breadwinner with a refuge from the dog-eat-dog capitalist world outside the family. Ironically, though, even as the sample Victorians represented children as opposed by nature to the materialistic world of trade and profit, the figure of the child was commodified and put on display as never before.

For example, the what was traded columbian exchange Pears Soap Company bought reproduction rights to Millais’ paintings Cherry Ripe (1879) and Bubbles (1886), and placed the discovery sample images in advertisements and calendars (see figure 3). When Cherry Ripe was featured as a color centerfold in burnt poem, a Christmas annual, the essay sample magazine quickly sold 500,000 copies. Kate Greenaway also took advantage of the what in the columbian increased public appetite for images of childhood; her watercolors of children playing appeared not just in discovery essay, her wildly popular books but on tea towels, wallpaper, stationary, soaps, and clothes. Actual young people were paraded before the public as well. New presentation furniture like the bassinet and the perambulator allowed infants to be displayed to an admiring world. Child actors appeared on stage in norton, record numbers, performing in pantomimes, ballets, operettas, straight dramas, minstrel shows, music halls, and circus acts. By the 1880s, Drury Lane Theatre was hiring 150-200 children per pantomime. Child prodigies like Jean Davenport and Lydia Howard astonished audiences by playing multiple roles in the same evening, while numerous companies routinely ran all-child productions.

For example, the famous D’Oyly Carte Opera Company had a children’s troupe which put on discovery essay Gilbert and Sullivan operettas without the help of a single adult performer. The Cult of the Child. As children became more visible on the stage, the question naturally arose: did such work constitute labor? Considerable controversy arose over this issue in automatic shuffler, the 1880s. Discovery Sample. Educational activists like Millicent Garrett Fawcett insisted that children under ten should be banned from burnt, full-time theatre work as they had been from factories and workshops. Theatre people and other artists, including Carroll and the poet Ernest Dowson, strongly disagreed. Acting was not a labor but an art, they maintained, and children benefited from and enjoyed doing it. Dowson develops this argument in essay sample, his 1889 article “The Cult of the Child.” As his title indicates, however, the insistence that children “delight in” performing quickly gives way to the admission that adults delight in watching children perform. “Disillusioned” grown-ups, tired of what, facing the complexities of contemporary life, find relief by turning their attention to children: “[T]here are an ever increasing number of people who receive from the beauty of childhood, in art as in life, an exquisite pleasure.” Dowson and other members of the “cult” insisted that contemplating the innocent simplicity of children served as a healthy corrective to the tawdriness and skepticism of discovery essay sample, modern life. Automatic. Religious doubt was on the rise, particularly after the publication of Charles Darwin’s findings about evolution. Some commentators have suggested that the child gradually replaced God as an object of worship. But although adherents to discovery essay, the cult of the automatic shuffler child described their appreciation in religious and/or aesthetic terms, the art they produced reveals a disturbing tendency to conceive of the child as the discovery essay ideal romantic partner.

In novels like Carroll’s Sylvie and Bruno (1889) and J. M. Barrie’s The Little White Bird (1902), besotted bachelors pursue children rather than women, while Dowson wrote a sonnet sequence celebrating the charms “Of a Little Girl.” Dowson also fell in missouri compromise henry clay, love with an discovery sample eleven-year-old named Adelaide Foltinowicz, proposing to her when she was fourteen. He was not alone; eminent Victorians like John Ruskin and the Archbishop of Canterbury also wooed young girls, and child prostitution was an accepted if deplored fact of London life. To our eyes, the burnt Victorians seem very inconsistent in terms of their attitudes toward children. Child-worshippers who waxed rhapsodic about the perfect purity of essay sample, children simultaneously eroticized them. Even as sentimentality about childhood reached new heights, the notion that all children are savages likewise gained widespread support; many Victorians accepted the “Law of Recapitulation,” which stipulated that as a child develops, he or she repeats the stages of development of the human race.

This belief in “the savagery of all children and the childishness of all savages” served a justification for subjecting children to harsh discipline, and natives of other countries to norton poem, the rule of the discovery essay sample expanding British Empire (Cunningham 98). These contradictory impulses of cruelty and nigerian tribes concern informed the actions of individual Victorians. Journalist W. T. Sample. Stead provides a perfect example. In 1885, he launched a campaign to raise awareness about child prostitution and prod the government to raise the age of consent. But his method of pursuing these admirable goals landed him in jail. To prove that virgins were being sold on the street in record numbers, he abducted a thirteen-year-old girl without telling her parents what he planned to do with her. After subjecting the unwitting girl to a medical exam to prove her purity, he drugged her, pretended to accost her, and sent her off to missouri clay, Paris.

The lurid account he wrote of discovery sample, these events featured headings like “The Violation of Virgins” and “Strapping Girls Down.” It reads like pornography, yet it helped assure the passage of the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885, which raised the age of consent from thirteen to sixteen. This bizarre event encapsulates some of the conflicting discourses circulating around the Victorian child. Boone, Troy. Youth of Darkest England: Working-Class Children at the Heart of Victorian Empire . Norton Poem. New York: Routledge, 2005. Bristow, Joseph. Discovery Essay Sample. Empire Boys: Adventures in a Man’s World . London: HarperCollins, 1991. Coveney, Peter. The Image of Childhood: The Individual and Society: A Study of the Theme in English Literature . Rev. Ed.

Baltimore: Penguin books, 1967. Cunningham, Hugh. The Children of the socs Poor: Representations of Childhood Since the Seventeenth Century . Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1991. Davidoff, Leonore and Catherine Hall. Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class, 1780-1850 . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1897. Garlitz, Barbara. Discovery. “The Immortality Ode: Its Cultural Progeny.” Studies in English Literature 6 (1966): 639-649. Higonnet, Anne.

Pictures of Innocence: The History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood . London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. Horn, Pamela. The Victorian Country Child . Thrupp, Stroud, UK: Sutton, 1997. ---. The Victorian Town Child . Socs. New York: NYUP, 1997.

Kincaid, James. Child-Loving: The Erotic Child and Victorian Culture . New York: Routledge, 1992. Robson, Catherine. Men in Wonderland: The Lost Girlhood of the essay Victorian Gentleman . Princeton: Princeton UP, 2001. Steedman, Carolyn.

Strange Dislocations: Childhood and the Idea of Human Interiority, 1780-1930 . Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1995. Walvin, James. A Child’s World: A Social History of English Childhood 1800-1914 . Shuffler. New York: Penguin, 1982.