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beginning resume Crafting Your Work. The Writing Business. The Writing Life. Juveniles Essay. The Writing Life. Fiction Writing - General. Fiction Writing - Genres. School Days. POD Subsidy Publishing. Juveniles As Adults Essay. General Promotion Tips. This free script provided by. Do you know what a writer's resume looks like? I have a regular full-time job but also work as a freelance writer from shorter days home.
Recently I saw two ads for writing jobs, requiring a resume along with clips and Juveniles as Adults, a query leter. Should I include only my writing credits and education? Or should I include my whole employment history even though many of apple symbol those jobs had nothing to do with writing? Here's a dilemma freelance writers often face: How do you go about as Adults, getting a day job in determinants of elasticity the writing or publishing business? If you're a freelancer, chances are that (a) you work from home, and Juveniles, (b) your job history (current or former) may have little relationship to your writing skills. You know that you have the skills to 2 act handle a regular writing or editorial position, but how do you convince an employer? Don't despair: There is an Essay, alternative.
Instead of using a traditional work history resume, consider developing a skills resume instead. Scene. This type of resume is Juveniles Tried Essay, a perfectly acceptable alternative to the chronological resume, and enables you to focus on the skills and experience that are directly relevant to the job for which you're applying. A skills resume differs from a job-history resume in that it lists your skills and qualifications in a separate section, rather than as a subset of apple symbol your work history. The basic framework for such a resume might look something like this: Section 1: Name, address, telephone, fax, e-mail, URL. If you're using a print resume, center these in Tried Essay a larger, attractive (but not too fancy) font, as follows: Ima Great Writer. 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Optional. If you choose to list your objectives, use no more than two lines here. Explain Of Bespoke. Section 3: Qualifications.
This is the critical part of your resume. You may want to give this section a more definitive title, such as Writing and Editing Experience . Here, you'll want to list each type of skill that is relevant to the job you're applying for. For example, if the Juveniles as Adults Essay, job listing asks for apple symbol, demonstrated writing and Tried as Adults Essay, editing skills, plus familiarity with Internet publishing and HTML, your qualifications section might look something like this: Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and government, business writing. Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of Juveniles Tried as Adults two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Even if your work history has nothing to do with your writing skills, you should include it.
A history of employment indicates to a potential employer that you are, in fact, employable. If your history indicates several periods of explain of bespoke documents steady employment with a single company, this indicates that you are considered a reliable worker (i.e., one who was retained) rather than someone who either flits from job to job or gets fired frequently. If you've been promoted within your company (past or present), list this as well, as this is another good indication of your ability to Juveniles as Adults Essay function well as an employee. Unlike the job-history listings in shorter school a regular chronological resume, however, you'll want to keep these sections short. List your job title, dates, the name of the company and its location, and a contact name and number if you wish. Use no more than two or three lines to summarize your duties and major achievements. Be selective: List promotions, and highlights such as number of people supervised, whether you were responsible for Juveniles Tried Essay, a budget, whether you handled major projects, etc. If you have been self-employed as a freelance writer for a period of time, list this as your most recent job. This will help explain any otherwise awkward gaps in your employment history. Government Interference. For example: Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present City, state Brief description of Tried your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services.
Don't bother to recap the school, skills you've already listed above. Needless to say, if you can find any duties in your work history that relate to writing or the Tried as Adults Essay, job you're trying to obtain, list them -- even if it's something as obscure as contributed to shorter school the company newsletter. Juveniles As Adults Essay. Do not, however, list your reasons for apple symbol, leaving previous jobs (whether voluntary or otherwise), and never include negative information about your previous employers. Every resume should include your educational history, starting with the most recent degrees and working backwards. If you have a college education, omit information about high school. This section should also include any other relevant education you may have, such as vocational training, on-the-job training, or even online courses that are relevant to Tried as Adults Essay the job you're seeking. (Keep in mind, however, that adult education courses, which generally don't involve grades or certification, generally won't impress an employer.) Many writing and editorial jobs ask for a degree in writing (e.g., journalism, English, etc.). Don't panic if you have no such degree; most companies are more than happy to accept experience in government interference lieu of formal education. Section 6: Awards and Memberships. This is the section to Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay list any awards you've received, especially relating to writing and editing. (Don't include awards your website has received, unless they are truly meaningful.) If you are a member of apple symbol any writing or editorial societies or organizations, list those as well (if you have room). Section 7: Personal Information. It was once fashionable to list personal interests and hobbies on Tried Essay, a resume.
Now, however, that is considered inappropriate. If you have specific hobby skills that somehow relate to the job in question, try to scene 2 act find a way to list those under skills instead. (For example, if you're applying for a job at Tried as Adults Essay, an archaeology magazine and you've participated in several digs during your summer vacations, list those under skills and experience.). Here's what your resume might look like when you're finished: 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Explain The Characteristics Documents. Objectives: An editorial position that will enable me to contribute to the creative development of a publication and Essay, expansion of its circulation. Writing and Editorial Background. Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of XXX articles in and larry wachowski XX national publications; co-author of Juveniles Tried as Adults two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the determinants, 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present.
City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to Juveniles as Adults Essay recap the skills you've already listed above. Explain Documents. City, state; contact name and phone number if desired. Brief summary of your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. Company Name Brief summary of your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions.
M.A., University of Tried as Adults Somewhere, 1989 - Journalism. B.A., University of Somewhere Else, 1985 - English. Certification in Editorial Excellence, 1992; Certification in HTML, Online School of HTML, 1997. Awards and government, Memberships. Cat Writers' Association, Best Article, 1998. Speakers' Bureau Certificate of Excellence, 1997. Member, Authors' Guild. Juveniles As Adults Essay. Member, Mystery Writers' Association of America. Member, Mytown Writers' Consortium; Vice-President 1997-1998.
In addition to determinants your resume (which you should try to keep to one page, unless you've had truly extensive relevant experience), you'll also want to Juveniles Tried Essay provide a publications list. This should also be kept to a single page. Give it the same header (name, address, etc) as your resume, and use it to list your most significant publications or those that are most relevant to the position. 2. Double-space the Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay, list, which should include the title of each article or story, the publication in school days which it appeared, and the date of publication. If it appeared online (and is still available), you may wish to as Adults include the URL as well. You may also be asked for clips. Choose your best; if your publications include quality photos, consider springing for days, color copies.
It should go without saying that these should be published clips -- but I have been amazed at the range of samples offered by job applicants. One individual who was applying to Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay a job I was about to shorter school vacate offered the first three pages of two unfinished short stories as samples of her writing ability (need I say that she wasn't hired?). If you haven't assembled a portfolio of your best work, this is Juveniles as Adults, a good time to do so. Find a nice leather binder at an office supply store, and insert your best clips into plastic sheet-protectors (the kind that are large enough to hold an 8.5x11 page without the need to actually hole-punch your clips themselves). Determinants. Don't use those ancient, awful plastic protectors with the black paper insert; besides being as obsolete as dinosaurs, those can actually damage your clips. Juveniles. If you write in several different fields, consider dividing your portfolio into sections. Include color copies of and larry wachowski any awards you've received, along with a copy of your publications list. Juveniles Tried Essay. This resume advice may seem all very well if you actually have something to put in the characteristics your skills and experience section -- but what if you don't? The short answer is that you're not likely to get the job of your dreams. Tried As Adults Essay. The long answer is: If you know you'd like to the characteristics be able to apply for a job in the writing, editing, or publishing business in the future, start preparing now . If you have dreams of becoming an editor, and you're now a freelance writer, look around for editing possibilities.
Today, you can find a host of part-time, telecommuting editorial jobs online; check our Jobs for Writers section for a list of links to job boards. For many of these jobs, all you need is Juveniles as Adults Essay, skill and a modem. Build a relationship with a company that can give you a good recommendation. Government. While it's often easy to find volunteer jobs, be aware that a magazine publisher may not be impressed by Juveniles Essay, the fact that you edited your church newsletter or Neighborhood Watch bulletin. A history of paid positions, even part-time contract jobs, will serve far better (and put food on andy, your table at the same time). Such jobs can also bring you a regular paycheck during those gaps when freelancing checks are slow to arrive. A good skills resume may be all you need to get your foot in the door. After that, it's up to Juveniles Tried as Adults you. If that sounds intimidating, why not think of yourself in the same terms as one of shorter school days your queries or manuscripts? With the proper presentation -- the Juveniles Tried, right envelope, a professional approach, and appropriate credentials -- you'll be well on your way to apple symbol the job of Tried as Adults Essay your dreams. Scene 2 Act 2. Copyright 2001 Moira Allen.
Moira Allen is the editor of Writing-World.com, and has written nearly 400 articles, serving as a columnist and regular contributor for such publications as The Writer, Entrepreneur, Writer's Digest , and Byline . An award-winning writer, Allen is the author of eight books, including Starting Your Career as a Freelance Writer, The Writer's Guide to Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay Queries, Pitches and Proposals, and Writing to Win: The Colossal Guide to Writing Contests. In addition to Writing-World.com, Allen hosts VictorianVoices.net, a growing archive of shorter days articles from Victorian periodicals, and Tried as Adults Essay, The Pet Loss Support Page, a resource for grieving pet owners. She lives in Maryland with her husband and the obligatory writer's cat. She can be contacted at editors at the characteristics documents, writing-world.com. Copyright 2017 by Moira Allen.
All rights reserved. All materials on this site are the property of their authors and may not be reprinted. without the author's written permission, unless otherwise indicated.
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objectives resume This articles provides a collection of sample resume objectives. Career objective is the most important part of resume which describe your motive for job. This statement helps employer to determine whether your goal is in as Adults line with their organization and the position available. Take your time to create a powerful opening for the characteristics, resume. Your Objective should be two or three lines long at most. Choose the objectives which describe your skills best. To make a sound position in corporate world and work enthusiastically in Tried as Adults Essay team to school days achieve goal of the organization/MNC with devotion and hard work. To succeed in Tried as Adults Essay an environment of growth and excellence and earn a job which provides me job Satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organization goals. To seek challenging assignment and responsibility, with an of elasticity, opportunity for Juveniles as Adults Essay, growth and career advancement as successful achievements.
To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and earn a job which provides me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To excel in my field through hard work, research, skills and the characteristics of bespoke, perseverance. As Adults Essay! To serve my parents, and my country with the best of my abilities. To succeed in an environment of growth and the characteristics of bespoke documents, excellence and earn a job which provides me satisfaction and self development and help me to achieve organizational goal. To work in an environment which provides more avenues in the fields of computer Hardware and Networking. To be involved in work where I can utilize skill and creatively involved with system That effectively contributes to the growth of organization. To pursue a highly rewarding career, seeking for Juveniles as Adults Essay, a job in challenging and hamlet scene, healthy work environment where I can utilize my skills and knowledge efficiently for organizational growth. To be an astute learner and the best performer in your organization. So that I can build an innovative career in your esteemed organization by using my skills and other significant talents. To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and Juveniles as Adults Essay, earn a job Which provides me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals.
To work in pragmatic way in an organization where I can show my talent and enhance my skills to meet company goals and objective with full integrity and zest. To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and earn a job which provide me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To achieve high carrier growth through a continuous learning process and keep myself dynamic, visionary and competitive with the changing scenario of the world. To work in a challenging environment that provides generous opportunities for learning. In the apple symbol, field of Essay, Hardware/Networking. To seek challenging assignment and responsibility with an opportunity for growth and career advancement as a successfully achievement.
To work hard with full determination and dedication to achieve organizational as well as personal goals. To give my best in 2 act 2 my professional pursuit for overall benefit and growth of the company that I serve by facing the challenges. I will show my caliber and gain some experience. To obtain professional and financial heights, both for the organization and self, through skill and knowledge and learn from presents as well as establishment also. To obtain a position of responsibilities that utilizes my skills and experience and keen to work in an environment where I can enrich my knowledge.
To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and earn a job which provides me job satisfaction and self development and Tried, help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business Efficiencies and to serve my organization in best possible way with sheer determination and government interference, commitment. To strive for excellence, to work in Juveniles Tried such an environment that will enhance my knowledge and career, where I can perform my management skills according to my strong Caliber and apple symbol, efficiency. To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business Efficiencies and to serve my organization in best possible way with sheer determination and commitment. To live honest and Juveniles Essay, hard life to work in a highly challenging competitive environment for the enhancement of my creative abilities and hamlet, optimum profitability of the organization. To work hard with full dedication for the achievement of organization objective under satisfying job contact, hence enhancing my skill and knowledge and ready to learn new things. To serve the Organization as a hard worker in this competitive environment discharging all my professional skills.
To be a part of Organization that provides an Tried as Adults, atmosphere of mutual growth and benefits, where I can show my talent and potential. To work in tandem with a team in wachowski a challenging and competitive environment where I could improve my knowledge, capabilities and Tried as Adults Essay, put them to use for the development of the organization. To take up challenges in the field of computer Hardware learning the practical that Facilities translation of innovative ideas into novel finding of commercial therapeutic Importance. To create value and recognition on work place by producing the best result for the organization through synchronize and hard work. To obtain an entry-level position within an organization that offers security and professional growth which requires strong analytical and technical skills. To excel in explain the characteristics my field through hard work, research, skills and perseverance. Essay! To serve my parents, and my country with the of elasticity, best of my abilities. As I am the as Adults Essay, fresher in this field, I will know about the nature of my work. Moreover, I will attempt to know about the interference, various processes which form my job.
By doing so, I will be able to do my job more proficiently. On the other hand, I shall implement my knowledge into Juveniles as Adults the practical world. I will always try to use my skills like honesty, devotion towards my job, punctuality etc. I will discuss my ideology with my superiors. To work in scene 2 a progressive organization which can expand all my knowledge and Juveniles Essay, provided me exciting opportunities to utilize my skills and qualification to produce result fidelity.
To be part of reputed organization which provides a steady career growth along with job satisfaction, challenges and government, give value contribution in the success of Essay, organization. To be a professional and to utilize my skill and knowledge to full fill the requirement of the organization in customer service. To work with best of my abilities an shorter days, skills in order to benefit my organization to be better other in this competitive Time an influential position in the organization. To work in an organization where I can fulfill my dream to become as a successful computer hardwareand networking engineer.” To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business Efficiencies and to serve my organization in best possible way with sheer determination and Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay, commitment. To utilize my knowledge coupled with experience to convert organizational goals in to reality to also ensure a steady growth for self. To make contribution to the organization to the best of my ability and to develop new skills and share my knowledge while interacting with others and achieve new height.
To reach the highest echelons in an organization with hard work, dedication constant endeavor to perform better and give results. To get a job that can provide challenge. I believe that I would be the most effective in on organization that trust me with responsibility and interference, provide s opportunity to learn and grow. To render my sincere effects in to Essay your esteemed organization this can develop and brush up my knowledge. To work in an environment where I will accomplish my goal to become a Hardware and Network Engineer. To work in a organization where I can use my skills to achieve the organization objective and andy, get conductive environment to Learn and grow.
To work in a globally competitive environment on challenging Assignments that shall yield the twin benefits of the job satisfaction And a steady paced professional growth. To contribute organization effectiveness through emphasis on efficient utilization of Technical knowledge experience skill to enhance my job performance. To secure a challenging position where I can effectively contribute my skills as Software Professional, possessing competent Technical skills. To give my best in my professional pursuit for overall benefit and growth of the company that I serve by facing the challenges will show my caliber and gain some experience. To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business efficiencies and to serve my organization in best possible way with sheer determination and commitment. To seek challenging assignment and responsibility with an opportunity for growth and career advancement as a successfully achievement. To succeed in an environment of growth and Juveniles as Adults, excellence and earn job which provides me job satisfaction and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To secure a challenging and regarding position and utilize my strong technical, analytical and team building skills. To work to my optimum level for the betterment of the company/organization and to make a mark as a distinguished professional in an organization.
To work in rapidly growing organization with a dynamic environment and achieve organizational goal with my best efforts. To work in an environment where I will accomplish my goal to become a successful Hardware and Networking Engineer. To render my sincere effects in to your esteemed organization this can develop and andy, brush up my knowledge. To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and earn a job which provides me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence a job which provides me job satisfaction self development and help me to achieve personal as well as organizational goal. To seek a responsible and challenging position in the Organization where my knowledge and experience can be Shared and enriched. I would like to Juveniles as Adults be a part of an apple symbol, organization where I could use and enhance my knowledge and talent for the development of both the organization and myself.
To seek a challenging job in a reputed organization and to integrate my knowledge in your esteemed organization. To work in Tried as Adults an organization where I can acquire new knowledge and sharpen my skills and put my efforts or achieving organization as well as individual goals. To Obtain Position In A Multinational Company That Will Utilize My Knowledge In Computer And Be Part As A Team Player In The Success Of Grow Thing Company. To excel in my field through hard work, research, skills and perseverance. To serve my parents, and determinants, my country with the best of Juveniles Tried as Adults, my abilities. To have a challenging career in corporate world and to be a successful professional. To excel in my field through hard work, research, skills and Perseverance. To serve my parents, and my country with the scene 2 act, best of my abilities. To join the organization, where I can contribute my skills talent in the growth of organization. To work in learning and challenging environment, utilizing my skill and Juveniles Tried as Adults, knowledge to determinants be the best of my abilities and contribute positively to my personal growth as well as growth of the organization. To work with an organization that provides me an opportunity to grow and to Juveniles Tried Essay exploit my potential to excel in the area of my preview so to help the organization in apple symbol the accomplishment of its goal.
To enter an impeccable relationship with an organization of repute which can utilize the inherent talent of the incumbent to the maximum and to work on a challenging and dynamic project with good amount of freedom and corresponding work responsibility. To continuously strive for Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay, higher achievement in life and establish myself as a perfect and accept challenging work and apple symbol, contribute forward the success of esteem organization by hard work and acquired skills. To take up a challenging Career grows with honesty, loyalty, Good relationship and best performance, and translate my Experience, knowledge, skills and abilities into value for an Organization. To succeed in an environment of growth and Juveniles as Adults Essay, excellence and scene 2, earn a job which provides me job satisfaction and self development and Juveniles Tried as Adults, help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. I want to apple symbol get that position from where I will be able to Juveniles Essay do something not only for my family but also for those person who really needy. To serve a growing organization to the best of my ability sincerely, honestly with hard labor and where I am the school days, role player for as Adults Essay, the overall growth of the explain documents, concern and give respect to my senior.
I am ever keen to acquire some new technologies and climb the corporate to ladder by honest and hard work. To continuously strive for higher achievement in life and establish myself as a perfect and accept challenging work and contribute forward the success of esteem organization by hard work and acquired skills. To take up a challenging Career grows with honesty, loyalty, Good relationship and best performance, and translate my Experience, knowledge, skills and abilities into value for an Organization. To continuously strive for higher achievement in life and establish myself as a perfect and Juveniles Tried Essay, accept challenging work and contribute forward the success of esteem organization by hard work and acquired skills. Seeking challenging career in Social Development Sector to get a position of responsibility, using my skills and efficiency to apple symbol communicate my ideas and as Adults Essay, views and commit myself for achieving organizational objectives with the team effort and apple symbol, my positive attitude and performance.
A spring for a position in organization where I can implement my skills and Knowledge to best in my conjunction with company goal and objective. Willing to work for a reputed organization to deliver my service up to best of my capabilities. I aspire for a challenging position in a professional Organization where I can enhance my skills and Juveniles as Adults Essay, strengthen them in conjunction with Organization’s goals. A self motivated achiever with an ability to plan and government, execute. Looking for a high-grown organization with a competitive and challenging environment that creates an ideal condition for delivering high quality services. Aspiring to associate with an organization, which offers a congenial environment for growth. I am organized and enjoy working with people have an attitude for learning quickly. I enjoy challenges and Juveniles as Adults Essay, look forward to explain documents the learning opportunity offered by my next co-op work team.
I aspire for a challenging position in a professional Organization where I can enhance my skills and Juveniles Tried as Adults, strengthen them in conjunction with Organizations’ goals. A self motivated achiever with an ability to plan and execute. Intend to build a career with leading corporate of hi-tech environment with committed and dedicated. Which will help me to explore myself fully and realize my potential willing to shorter school work as key player in challenging and creative environment. Desire to make a promise in career by Tried as Adults Essay, way of self-development and apple symbol, contributing meaningfully to the progress of Juveniles Tried Essay, organization.
A challenging Career which offers an opportunity to move in organizational hierarchy with continuous learning and growth. This is the step where it would essential for me to become acquainted with the work scenario. I would learn the work culture. I will study the work so that when I join to this job it would be easy for me to government interference work. Wanted to Tried as Adults Essay serve organization with honesty and full efficiency to make the organization as a leading company. With oriented and leading edge organization which will provide opportunities for continuing growth and advancement.
Looking for a challenging role so that I can use my capabilities through sincerely dedication and hard work to move up the graph of the wachowski, Organization. A challenging position that will utilize my extensive technical skills and Juveniles Tried Essay, will lead me to determinants innovative work environment. Looking for a challenging role so that I can use my capabilities through sincerely dedication and hard work to move up the graph of the Organization. Optimum Utilization of Juveniles, my talents and Skills and want to be a successful computer Hardware and Networking Administrator. Seeking a challenging and andy and larry, progressive career using my inner strengths, professional, skills and creative thinking to gain future exposure, strengths and Experiences.
Seeking a responsible and Juveniles Tried Essay, challenging position with a turbulent and dynamic organization which offers opportunities for apple symbol, personal and professional development and where I can best utilize my knowledge and skills. Seeking a position to enhance my skills and Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay, abilities in the Information Technology Industry that offers professional growth while being resourceful, innovative and flexible. Capable to perform Job Course and and larry, condition within the Responsibilities Sphere. Fully Motivated and Dedicated to Job range to achieve Good Career in Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay working Organization. Willing to work for government interference, a reputed organization to deliver my service up to best of my capabilities. To be a professional and to utilize my skill and knowledge to full fill the requirement of the organization in customer service.
I would like to be flourishing as a Network technician. I have all technical skills as well as a positive approach which will lead me to success in any deal. In future I would like to Juveniles Tried as Adults grasp more and more knowledge about this field which will give me name and fame in the related field. I will update my knowledge every time and use it for the progress of the company. To work with best of explain the characteristics, my abilities an skills in order to Juveniles benefit my organization to be better other in this competitive Time an influential position in the organization. My intention at this step would be to learn new things related to my profession. As it is a technical field, one has to interference be updated because the technology changes often.
It is my responsibility to learn and Juveniles, adopt the new technology. It would be profitable for me as well as for my company. Highly motivated to apple symbol work in a professional environment with a growing organization and to put in best efforts for the technical enhancements of as Adults Essay, organization and myself. Looking for a high-grown organization with a competitive and challenging environment that creates an ideal condition for delivering high quality services. And Larry Wachowski! Aspiring to Juveniles as Adults associate with an organization, which offers a congenial environment for documents, growth. Want to build a career with leading corporate having committed and as Adults Essay, dedicated people whom I will work with all my potential. Looking for a challenging role so that I can use my capabilities through sincerely dedication and hard work to move up the graph of the Organization. Learn each and everything that contribute best for the growth of the organization by continue developing and determinants of elasticity, sharing my skill ability.
I would always prepare myself for contributing in the progress of organization. The development of the company would be my prime area of interest. It would help me to create a good impression among my companions. I would use my ideology while working. So, I will come to know the strength of my skills.
A Position that will harness strong problem solving analytical interpersonal and networking skills and will allow working with a high performance team working on Juveniles, cutting edge of technology. In today's world, competition has reached its peak. It is shorter days, not easy to stabilize ourselves in this neck-cut competition. However, if we have skills and enough confidence, we can survive in the IT world. Juveniles Essay! For that, I will enhance my skills and make myself capable in the field. To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business efficiencies and to serve my organization in andy best way with sheer determination and commitment. Want to Juveniles Tried as Adults build a career with leading Corporate having committed and dedicated people whom I will work with all my potential and enhance my skills. A growth oriented profile in shorter days a company where my skill knowledge is Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay, effectively used for the success of the organization. Want to Work with a Rapidly Growing Organization with a dynamic environment to hamlet achieve goal of Tried as Adults Essay, organization with my best efforts. Seeking challenging career in shorter school days Social Development sector to get a position of responsibility, using my skills efficiency to communicate my ideas and views and commit myself for achieving organization objectives with the Tried as Adults Essay, team effort and my positive attitude and performance.
Continuous progress on both professional and personal fronts through all round skills with emphasis on assigned targets. Hard work and team spirit thereby anticipating and meeting the challenging arising in the contemporary competitive business environment integrity and given to sustained hard work. And if provide with an hamlet, opportunity I shall try my level best in satisfying my superiors in rightful discharge of my duties. I want to exploit my talent and want to grow with the Organization and want to become a responsible person by doing hard work and want to deliver my best to the organization. In quest for Juveniles as Adults, assignments in Operation management, Service management, Business development, Testing and Maintenance with an organization of repute. Seeking a position to utilize my skills and abilities in interference the Computer industries that offers professional growth while being resourceful, innovative and flexible. Willing to work as a key player in challenging and Tried, creative environment. I can tackle with any technical problem as I have the profound knowledge of my field. Apple Symbol! I have all technical skills which help me to solve any problem. I know how to work in Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay various situations. I can cope up with my companions.
I know my work areas. I know how to discuss on various business deals and I can crack them.
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The Limits of Modernity in Tried Essay Shakespeare#039;s King John - Essay. Steve Longstaffe, S. Martin's College Lancaster. Deborah Curren-Aquino, summing up fifty years of critical engagement with Shakespeare's King John, identifies a radical break with earlier views of the play in the tendency in post 1940 scholarship to describe John as ambivalent, ambiguous, suspicious, sceptical, questioning and ideologically subversive. Government? 1 The form and tone of John, in other words, are recognisably modern. Few critics have gone as far as Sigurd Burckhardt, who in the 1960s asserted that the play documented Shakespeare's own modernity, defined as the recognition that order, or justice and truth at Juveniles Essay, the heart of things, was of human, rather than divine, origin. 2 Burckhardt's position, though not his confidence that he could show that when he wrote King John, or quite possibly in writing it, Shakespeare became a 'modern', is echoed in Virginia Vaughan's claim of 1989 that the play like Shakespeare's other history plays depicts a crucial point in the inauguration of the relativism of the modern age. 3 But for the most part, writers on John have avoided such grand narratives of epistemological shifts, and found the play's modernity to be historically produced in a much more local way: as part of a Shakespearian negotiation with chronicle, source play, or the history play genre. What John is sceptical about, in determinants of elasticity other words, is other historical accounts of John's reign, especially regarding their relationship to what might still be termed Tudor ideology.
For many critics, Shakespeare's John is in antagonistic relation to such sources as the anonymous Queen's Men's play The Troublesome Reign of King John and the 1587 Holinshed, interrogating the writing of history of which these two texts, and the history play as a genre, were part. Such a John appears our contemporary, teasing out aporias and contradictions in as Adults Renaissance writings of legitimacy, faith, or patriotism. 2 Act 2? For Phyllis Rackin, it is a 'problem history' where the audience has no sure guide through the ideological ambiguities. Tried As Adults Essay? 4 Larry Champion identifies it as an open-ended chronicle play with historical process transformed into human process, stripped bare of Tudor providentialism and reduced to an individual self-interest that only in government its best moments might be communally enlightened. 5 Guy Hamel argues that Shakespeare's assault on formulas [ . Juveniles Tried As Adults? . . Apple Symbol? ] reveals itself in almost every departure from The Troublesome Reign. 6 To situate Shakespeare's play in a sceptical relation to ideology or generic formulas is, of course, profoundly unsubversive of the continuing critical imperative to speak with the Bard. The modern Shakespeare, as Stephen Greenblatt has pointed out, must subvert only that which is no longer subversive. The John worthy of modern critics' engagement is Essay produced by a common critical strategy, which is most clearly visible in interference the conclusion of Juveniles Essay one of the play's editors that it would be a crippling limitation of the power of King John to tie it too closely to the situation of the 1590s. Government? 7 It is in its implication in the religious politics of the Juveniles Essay period of the Spanish war that John is most clearly un-modern; it is hamlet scene 2 act 2 part of the Juveniles Essay wartime anti-Catholic polemic, something which has been played down in order to produce a modernity which legitimates a continual critical return to the characteristics of bespoke, the play, and to a lesser extent, to Shakespeare. It is not surprising that there has been relatively little interest in John's brand of Protestant nationalism of late, for, as David Aers has pointed out, many influential contemporary critics of Tried as Adults Essay early modern writing display a marked lack of interest in Christian traditions, Christian practices and and larry wachowski Christian institutions. 8 Mid-century critics, following E. M. Tried? W. Tillyard's characterisation of the play as but Mildly Protestant in explain tone, stressed the moderation of the play's anti-Catholic sentiments, whilst identifying an assertion of Protestant nationalism.
9 Recent critics have gone further, identifying a play-world where all religious utterances are just further examples of debased political rhetoric in a world with no consistent values, not even Protestant nationalism. 10. But how debased is as Adults Essay this rhetoric? Specifically, did the kind of language with which John defies the Papal legate Pandulph on apple symbol, his first encounter with him circulate in post-Armada London as a somehow debased version of earlier, more sincere, Tudor coinages? To stretch the 1980s monetary rhetoric further, I suggest that, on the contrary, play rhetoric directed against foreign Catholics wishing to overthrow an English monarch was on the gold standard during this period of as Adults Essay war with Spain. John's words themselves are direct as he responds to Pandulph's demands in the name of the Pope:
Thou canst not, cardinal, devise a name. So slight, unworthy and hamlet scene 2 ridiculous, To charge me to an answer, as the pope. Tell him this tale; and from the mouth of as Adults Essay England. Add thus more, that no Italian priest. Shall tithe or toll in our dominions; But as we, under God, are supreme head, So under Him that great supremacy, Where we do reign, we will alone uphold.
Without th' assistance of a mortal hand: So tell the apple symbol pope, all reverence set apart. To him and Tried Essay his usurp'd authority. Government Interference? 11. And on being accused of Tried Essay blasphemy by the French king, John amplifies his declaration with a piece of Foxean anti-Catholicism:
Though you and all the kings of Christendom. Are led so grossly by this meddling priest, Dreading the curse that money may buy out; And by the merit of vild gold, dross, dust, Purchase corrupted pardon of a man, Who in that sale sells pardon from himself, Though you and all the rest so grossly led. This juggling witchcraft with revenue cherish, Yet I alone, alone do me oppose. Against the pope, and count his friends my foes. This speech is apple symbol immediately followed by John's excommunication, and by Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay Pandulph encouraging both rebellion and assassination.
As Lily Campbell has pointed out, John is presented here as standing in the same relationship to the Catholic church as Elizabeth, even appropriating her own title of supreme governor in his use of Henry VIII's formulation supreme head. The clarity of John's position here is momentary, however; he does not reach these vituperative heights again. Indeed, he resigns his crown to Pandulph later on. But it is important not to underrate the wachowski legitimating power of John's rhetoric. Such defiance, in Tried as Adults the post-Armada period, places John firmly as a properly patriotic Englishman engaged in the same struggle as Elizabeth. Apple Symbol? The Protestant nationalism that supported Elizabeth's land and sea campaigns against the Spanish would thus have been engaged in Tried Essay John's case. Explain Of Bespoke? Furthermore, it could have been so powerfully engaged as decisively to affect interpretation of the play. Juveniles Tried? In the post-Armada context, John is a true English king primarily because of the 'true' rhetoric he employs; his anti-Catholicism is central to the play's politics. King John is consensually dated to the period between 1587, when the second edition of Holinshed appeared, and 1598, when Francis Meres mentioned in print a Shakespearian King John, though it is impossible to know whether that play was the one first printed in 1623.
13 It thus belongs within the core years of the Spanish war, and determinants probably to the post-Armada period. After 1588, however, the Essay national mood was certainly not conducive to apple symbol, a relaxed and Tried as Adults sceptical investigation of the possible hypocrisy of religious nationalism. Of Elasticity? The defeat of the as Adults Essay Armada, far from engendering a lasting sense of invulnerability to school days, foreign Catholic invasion, fed a sometimes apocalyptic wartime paranoia. Tried Essay? 14 Even in 1588, the official London festivities to celebrate the andy and larry wachowski victory were subsumed into the queen's thirtieth anniversary shows. Elsewhere in the country, David Cressy informs us, the Armada celebrations in 1588 were more solemn than jubilant [ . . . ] the festivities were conducted in a minor key. 15 London, though its strategic importance meant that it was carefully governed, had its share of hardship, and had to cope with returning soldiers threatening to Juveniles, loot Bartholomew Fair in 1589, and hamlet scene 2 with royal demands for men, ships, and money at a time when the capital was also struggling with plague and Tried as Adults dearth. 16 Thousands were conscripted in the early 1590s, and government interference City trained bands were often mustered. 17 In southern England there were general anti-invasion musters in 1590 and 1596. In the latter year, the Spanish cannon besieging Calais could be heard in Greenwich, the capture of which prompted Sir Henry Knyvett to write his civil defence tract The Defence of the Realm. The Spanish raided Cornwall in 1595, and sent another Armada in Tried as Adults 1597. School? 18.
Although English Catholics protested their loyalty, and Juveniles as Adults Essay towards the end of Elizabeth's reign did so vociferously, Cardinal Allen's assurance to Philip II that they would rise to support an apple symbol invasion was impossible for the authorities to ignore. 19 The early 1590s saw the Essay final addition to Elizabeth's anti-Catholic laws. After the legislation of 1593 obstinate recusants were not permitted to travel more than five miles from their homes without severe penalties. New anti-Jesuit provisions were also added to the 1581 Act to retain the government Queen's Majesty's subjects in their true obedience. As Adults Essay? 20 Though these measures were moderated in committee, and were not applied completely rigorously, they do indicate that the apple symbol government were worried about Catholic invasion preparations. Juveniles Tried As Adults? The church, naturally, was hardly irenic at this time.
Even before the war, anti-Catholic rhetoric proliferated as a discourse which structured, by way of reappropriations, most of the controversies that developed [ . . . ] between contending positions in the English church itself, especially those between Puritan radicals and the church establishment. 21 For the Protestant divine, anti-Roman polemic was at and larry wachowski, once an Tried Essay expression of Protestant zeal and an implicit gesture of loyalty to a national church, the the characteristics documents Protestantism of as Adults Essay whose doctrine was generally acknowledged. 22 Anti-Catholicism seems to have been one of the media through which the English church talked to explain the characteristics documents, itself; it functioned at least partly to legitimate what was being said. War against a Catholic enemy, and Juveniles Tried the anti-Catholicism of the of elasticity English church, both would have both provided a context for interpreting John's defiance of Pandulph. In addition, anyone familiar with recent historical accounts of John's reign would have expected to see him presented as a legitimate king undermined by circumstances and Catholic conspiracy. John's use in this context by anti-Catholic polemicists has been well documented. 23 Foxe's account in the Acts and Tried as Adults Essay Monuments limits itself to religious matters, and determinants of elasticity places John within the perspective of the as Adults Essay struggle between the school days true church and antichrist. Holinshed's account emphasises that the as Adults Essay contemporary sources are Catholic and therefore biased, scarselle can they afoord him a good word [ . . Government? . ] the occasion whereof [ . . . ] was, that he was no great freend to as Adults Essay, the clergie, before criticising John for the characteristics his great crueltie, and unreasonable avarice. 24 But Holinshed's John, like Foxe's, is a worthy pre-Protestant religious patriot.
Even those not well versed in the chronicles would have heard of John, and how after his submission to Pandulph most miserable tyrannie, raveny and spoyle of the most greedie Romish wolves ensued, through the deployment of Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay this reign in the 1571 Homily against Disobedience. 25 Anyone aware of these versions of the historical John would have come to the play expecting to shorter days, see a proleptically Protestant king subverted by the Roman church. Though Polydore Vergil and John Stow did not write within this representative tradition, their impact on public opinion was likely during the immediate post-Armada period to have been negligible. John does appear in the Huntington plays of the later 1590s as a wicked tyrant, but in these plays there is no attempt to address the political agenda of Tried King John. There is no indication that a Protestant nationalist audience would have taken such plays seriously as historical accounts directly addressing the political concerns of the early-to-mid 1590s. Explain Of Bespoke? Significantly, the Huntington plays were first performed in 1598, and Juveniles Essay thus may well have post-dated a realisation that the crucial phase of the struggle for western Europe was to all intents and purposes over. 26. The repertory in the post-Armada years was dominated by serious matters with an immediate gut appeal to the characteristics of bespoke, [. . . Essay? ] militarism, in andy and larry the words of Andrew Gurr. 27 The growth of the English history play was due, according to David Bevington, to a need for relevant, but indirect, appeals to war fever. 28 Anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiments were common across a range of plays.
John's resistance to Tried, Pandulph in Shakespeare's drama would have functioned metonymically to link him to contemporary anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment, and to the Protestant histories and other polemical deployments of the historical John's reign. The ubiquity and strength of anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment, furthermore, could well have operated so as to produce a strong cathexis for these sentiments and their utterer in the play, conditioning responses to, and interpretations of, it. Determinants? In other words, the intellectual or emotional reactions to John's religious nationalism would not be qualified by elements elsewhere in the play; John's words in 3.1 would themselves qualify the responses to the rest of the play, including some of its ambiguities, suspicions, scepticisms and questions. Recent critics read John's rhetoric very differently. For many, the religious nationalism of his speeches function not to mobilise anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish sentiment, but to indicate that such a rhetoric, and Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay such a mobilisation, is more fully present elsewhere, in the The Troublesome Reign. The fact that this play has more anti-Catholic material than King John has often been taken to mean that the andy and larry latter play fails to cross some (qualitative? quantitative?) threshold whereby it might be deemed to mobilise popular religious xenophobia. Thus, Phyllis Rackin sees the play compressing and Juveniles Tried as Adults marginalizing John's dispute with Rome.
29 For M. M. Reese, Shakespeare's play eliminates the crude anti-Catholic bias of the anonymous play. 30 Robert Ornstein explains that Shakespeare lacked the temperament to exploit religious prejudices and hysterias [ . . . And Larry? ] the religious issue very nearly disappears in Juveniles Tried as Adults King John, and John completely loses his stature as a 'reformation' hero. 31 John Blanpied agrees that Shakespeare neutralises the anti-Papal material, leaving John without a polemical base from which to borrow his authority. 32. For many, the result of this compression, and consequent neutralisation and marginalization, is a play which, in the words of Virginia Vaughan, presents politics, not polemics. 33 As long ago as 1962 Geoffrey Bullough drew this distinction, stating that Shakespeare turned away from [ . . . ] sectarian propaganda to emphasise more purely political motives. 34 Such a construction of Shakespeare's John (and, of course, John's Shakespeare) as drawing a distinction between real politics and shorter un-sophisticated (and explicitly anti-Catholic) rabble-rousing has received much critical support, though earlier writers attribute it to a Shakespearian distaste for bias or rant, or a preference for complexity over simplicity, and later ones more to Tried, a textual refusal of the easy closure which a more foregrounded religious element would have allowed or perhaps necessitated. 35 The dominance of Christianity in Renaissance England is days perhaps the most effective reminder of as Adults Renaissance difference; conveniently, Shakespeare manages to 2 act 2, play down that difference and provide a transcendent scepticism for our age of suspicious reading. As can be seen from Blanpied and Juveniles Tried Ornstein, the playing down of the religious element also means a John robbed of the legitimating power of interference religious nationalism.
John's words to Pandulph are read as attenuated by Tried John's compromised moral or legal status. Andy And Larry Wachowski? Deborah Kehler states that in the light of his false claim, John's use of divinity to serve his own ends is transparent, while for Juveniles Essay Philip Edwards what seems an admirable quality of sturdy national courage is questioned by the moral quality of the speaker, and by his eventual fate in the play. Scene 2 Act 2? 36 Responses to John's words are conditioned not by their deployment of a powerfully cathected sentiment, but by character. Even those critics recognising the power of John's words conclude that they are an isolated and anomalous moment, occasional choric greatness, or an affect of efficiency, not magnanimity. 37 At best, for Juveniles Tried as Adults Larry Champion, the anti-Catholic John is just one of the determinants equally persuasive views of the Juveniles Tried usurper, the apple symbol wouldbe murderer, the terror-stricken capitulator, the sufferer, the patriot, and the kingly defender of Tried as Adults his nation.
38 Without a rousing crudely religious centre, the play's politics are nicely modern: for character within the play, there is no clear royal authority. For the audience watching it, there is no unblemished cause and no unquestioned authority to of bespoke documents, claim their allegiance, in Phyllis Rackin's formulation. Juveniles Tried As Adults? David Womersley, though he sees the play as clearly conservative in its conclusions, agrees that it confronts the question of apple symbol how one lives in a world without value. Essay? 39 Without wishing to play down the play's contradictions, I think that there is at least one value discernible. The play is clearly dialectical, with many causes and claims directly challenged. 40 Falconbridge has long been read as a sceptical outsider, who has a complex relationship to the politics of commodity he describes, and government perhaps practises. 41 More recently, readings of the play as oppositional and enquiring have been strengthened by feminist revaluations of Eleanor and Constance as subversive voices. 42 Equally clearly, John's involvement in Arthur's death may be perceived as moral weakness, just as Hubert's refusal to Juveniles Tried Essay, do the deed shows moral strength.
43 None of this, however, directly undermines John's unblemished cause of resisting Pandulph. Scene? Although he is criticised for much else within the play, the only voices raised against John's defiance are Pandulph's and those foreign kings' loyal to him, which is only to be expected, as they are the targets of John's ire. The main reasons for the widespread critical perception of the play as modern in Tried Essay its politics are mentioned by Kehler and Edwards above: that John is hamlet 2 act 2 illegitimate, that he is lacking in moral quality, and Juveniles Essay that he later gives his crown, effectively, to the Pope. Of these, the moral argument is least persuasive. Machiavellianism does not preclude sincerity, especially with such an affective topic. Renaissance history plays often portray monarchs as complex, and attempt to manipulate audience responses via this complexity. Holinshed recognises John's faults, but does not allow them to interference, reflect on his status as proto-Protestant martyr.
William Camden, writing in 1605 of the Tudor bugbear Richard III, recognised that albeit hee lived wickedly, yet made good laws. Juveniles As Adults Essay? 44 The other two points require more detailed engagement. John's submission to the Papacy at the end of the play could well have cancelled his earlier robust anti-Papalism. Through an analysis of the representative strategies used for the characteristics John's cession I will argue that it may not have done so. If he is not a legitimate king, then he is employing anti-Catholic rhetoric to bolster his position. He need not be shown to believe his own words. If this were so, John's use of religious rhetoric is on a par as a cynical manipulation of language with Richard Ill's political use of witchcraft accusations in Shakespeare's play and the anonymous True Tragedy of Tried as Adults Richard III. John is not illegitimate just because his opponents say he is.
The challenges of Constance or the of elasticity Dauphin have no particular power on their own. Yet for many critics, whether or not they engage with John's modernity, it is axiomatic that John is an illegitimate king, that he is a usurper in possession of the crown when the right lies with Arthur (and, some have added, the true kingliness with Falconbridge). 45 There are two cruces commonly adduced to support John's illegitimacy. Both can be read differently. The first is Tried as Adults Essay a critical exchange in the play's first scene, where John and Eleanor discuss the implications of the French challenge just made on Arthur's behalf. Eleanor reproaches John for not dealing with the question sooner, as This might have been prevented and determinants of elasticity made whole/With very easy arguments of Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay love,/Which now the manage of two kingdoms must/With fearful-bloody issue arbitrate (1.1.35-8). John replies Our strong possession and our right for us, to which Eleanor retorts, Your strong possession much more than your right,/Or else it must go wrong with you and me./So much my conscience whispers in shorter days your ear/Which none but heaven, and you and I, shall hear (1.1.39-43). Most critics follow Reese's conclusion that this shows that John is king de facto and possession is his only 'right' , though Edna Zwick Boris points out as Adults that Eleanor is not denying John's right but emphasising the government interference practical aspect of his advantage over Tried as Adults, Arthur. 46 Nothing in Eleanor's speech indicates that John has no right, or that he is a usurper.
Eleanor's qualification of John's assertion merely draws attention to the relative usefulness of possession, and the military strength it brings, in the fighting to come. Given he is up against French and other armies, it is obvious that his right alone is insufficient. The use of explain of bespoke documents conscience similarly does not have to imply a guilty recognition of the facts. Even within Shakespearian usage, the word at this time could simply mean inner knowledge. 47 Eleanor does not wish others to hear because a public acknowledgement of the relative uselessness of John's right is inappropriate to Tried as Adults Essay, the dignity of explain of bespoke his court, especially just after he has been challenged by Chatillon. Her subsequent words and actions are consistent with her holding the opinion that John's legitimate rule must be buttressed with her diplomatic sense. As Adults? She refers to determinants of elasticity, the will of Richard I, which in Holinshed plainly entitles John to the throne, in her confrontation with Arthur's mother: I can produce/A will that bars the title of thy son (2.1.470-1). Just as the fact that The Troublesome Reign is more anti-Catholic than John seems to license the claim that John is not anti-Catholic, so Eleanor's words that John's possession is more important than his right have led to the claim that he therefore has no right. The other key moment for John's illegitimacy, and for the play's exploration of the consequent instability of political legitimacy, is Falconbridge's reaction to Arthur's corpse at the end of the Juveniles as Adults Essay fourth act. Modern editors have been so sure that he accepts Arthur's claim that they have punctuated a potentially ambiguous speech so that only one interpretation is possible. In order to suggest an government alternative reading which supports John's legitimacy, I will quote from the First Folio:
Bast. As Adults? Go, beare him in thine armes: I am amaz'd me thinkes, and loose my way. Among the thornes, and dangers of this world. How easie dost thou take all England vp, From forth this morcell of dead Royaltie? The life, the andy right, and truth of all this Realme. Is fled to heauen: and Juveniles Tried England now is left. To tug and andy and larry wachowski scamble, and to part by th teeth. The vn-owed interest of as Adults Essay proud swelling State: Now for the bare-pickt bone of andy and larry Maiesty.
Doth dogged warre bristle his angry crest, And snarleth in the gentle eyes of peace: Now Powers from Juveniles Tried as Adults, home, and discontents at home. Meet in one line: and vast confusion waites. As doth a Rauen on a sicke-falne beast, The iminent decay of wrested pompe. Now happy he, whose cloake and center can. Hold out this tempest. Beare away that childe, And follow me with speed: Ile to school, the King: A thousand businesses are briefe in hand,
And heaven it selfe doth frowne vpon the Juveniles as Adults Essay Land. Andy Wachowski? 48. Editors of the recent Penguin, Oxford and Cambridge editions concur in seeing the Juveniles Essay fourth line as addressed to Hubert, who has now picked up Arthur as Falconbridge commanded, and in punctuating the passage so that From forth . . . begins a new sentence. 49 The clear interpretation is that, ironically, Hubert can lift all England as he lifts Arthur's corpse. Shorter School? Arthur is referred to Juveniles Essay, as England at 2.1.91 and 202 by Philip of France. All the life, truth and right of England, which resided in Arthur, has fled (like Astraea) to interference, heaven, and all that remains for the country left behind is a dogfight over the remaining in bones of Juveniles power. Arthur is both England, and dead royalty, and with his death dies political legitimacy.
No one speaks of Arthur's right more eloquently than the Bastard son of Coeur de Lion, according to Marie Axton. 50 For others, John's illegitimacy authorises views of the play's modernity, and Falconbridge's speech marks the apple symbol point where he chooses to Juveniles Essay, support a king whom he has just recognised as a usurper, making his own political meaning in a world where there is no guarantor of legitimate rule. His decision to explain the characteristics of bespoke documents, follow John must be an existential one, choosing a way despite his own awareness that whatever 'rightness' he invests it with is not inherent in it. 51. It is possible, however, to read the speech differently. If the thou of the fourth line is as Adults not Hubert, but the government heaven to which Arthur's soul has presumably fled, Arthur need not be acknowledged as rightful monarch at as Adults, all.
Arthur's soul is imagined both as actively fleeing and passively being taken up. Arthur's body, in a familiar metaphor, is a realme from which the ruler (England, as Arthur is government interference English) has gone. Alternatively, the England that has left the body just suggests life, in Juveniles Essay conjunction with Englishness. Wachowski? Either way, Arthur's right is to the realm of his own body. Juveniles Tried? Falconbridge then shifts to andy and larry wachowski, the larger realm, also lacking a ruler, but for the different reason that powers from Tried, home, and discontents at home are in conflict. The crucial point is whether this realm refers both to Arthur's body and to England. A simple gesture could make clear that the reference is to andy and larry wachowski, Arthur's body alone. Falconbridge is critical of John, but this need not impugn his legitimacy, as the terms he uses recall those used by the nobles disapproving of John's recrowning in 4.2. Each reference to John can be read as critical of the sumptuousness of the ceremony, and of the new clothing associated with it, much remarked on by the nobles at the time.
His first reference ironically situates John's majesty as bare-pickt rather than clothed with flesh. Proud swelling state refers back critically to Tried as Adults Essay, the wasteful excess of the recrowning, as does wrested pomp (that is, pomp employed in the characteristics of bespoke the improper context of John's ceremony, rather than wrested from Arthur). The final reference ironically characterises John's clothing as simple (cloak and center) and unlikely to as Adults Essay, last the tempest of disorder in the realm. Thus, although the whole speech is clearly critical of apple symbol John, and registers Arthur's loss, Falconbridge is not necessarily affirming Arthur's right to the crown. Falconbridge's words are difficult to understand, but an audience accepting John's legitimacy need not have understood him to challenge this right, and it is possible to imagine a performance which makes clear that John is legitimate King. His legitimacy is further buttressed by the qualifications of Arthur's right implicit in the words and actions of those supporting it. A claim supported by a man who carries on his back the spoils of a dead Richard I is Tried as Adults Essay not likely to have impressed an Elizabethan audience, even if they responded positively to the bemused and passive boy who at one point states I would that I were laid low in my grave./I am not worth this coil that's made for me (2.1.164-5).
John's legitimacy, however, raises the question of of elasticity his cession of the crown to Pandulph, which happens just after the Falconbridge speech quoted above. Tried As Adults? If John is not legitimate king, then his act is government robbed of political or constitutional authority, and is unlikely to bind his successors. In the 1960s John Sibly pointed out that papal claims for supremacy in England utilised historical as well as spiritual arguments, and suggests that John's illegitimacy was introduced precisely to counter these arguments. He begins from the premise that technically, John was not a usurper until Arthur's death, as he could still have resigned the crown when Arthur reached his majority, and sees Falconbridge's words before the recrowning as recognising that John is now a usurper: it is immediately after the 'flight to Tried as Adults, heaven' of determinants of elasticity any 'right' John may have had in the realm, that he 'surrenders' his crown. To an Elizabethan audience, this must very forcibly have demonstrated that John had just given up what he no right to give at all; and Juveniles Tried Pandulph had 'restored' what he had no right to andy and larry wachowski, receive in the first place. 52. The cession of the as Adults crown is merely an index of the current balance of power, and for shorter a Protestant audience devalues a morally bankrupt and/or illegitimate John still further. 53 If a legitimate John is posited, the status of this humiliating submission, to the very man John had so strongly defied earlier, needs to as Adults Essay, be addressed. The mere representation of John's submission need not have functioned simply to condemn him, despite the commonsense appeal of this position.
The Homily Against Rebellion draws different conclusions. Here John's submission to of elasticity, Pandulph is the clearest example, in its awfulness, of the chaos into which rebellion throws the Juveniles as Adults country. Hamlet Scene 2? The details of Juveniles as Adults John's contract with the Papacy are spelt out to indicate the extremity of the situation when Englishmen [ . . . The Characteristics Of Bespoke? ] brought their soveraigne lorde and naturall countrey into this thraldome and subjection to a false forraigne usurper. 54 John's legitimacy emphasises the indignity of his submission. Holinshed reproduces John's charter of submission and his words of fealtie, but does not criticise him, as he does on other matters. Foxe is slightly more difficult to interpret. A paragraph of the 1563 edition, omitted from the 1583 second edition, explains John's reasons for submitting as fear of the French king, and the perception that nothing else could be found to avoid the present destruction both of his person and the realm also. As a sorry subject of the Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay sinful seat of determinants of elasticity Rome he was sure, not without shame, that being under his protection, no foreign potentate throughout the whole empire was able to subdue him. 55 The negativity of Juveniles as Adults shame here may be Foxe's judgement on John, or John's own opinion of himself. But the 1583 edition reproduces John's Letter Obligatory to the Pope, and is unequivocal in its identification of John as a hapless victim of that execrable monster and antichrist of Rome. Thus, though an audience may well have simply cathected John's earlier anti-Papalism, the reverse is not necessarily true when considering responses to his submission.
The signification of John's cession of the crown depended on its context, so that within a Foxean narrative it might simply indicate the effectiveness of the Papacy in persecuting and humbling its opponents. Andy? It is also important to recognise that John's cession of the crown in Juveniles Tried Essay Shakespeare's play employs different dramatic strategies to his earlier confrontation, and that these strategies may well have directed an audience towards a response the final result of which would be to confirm John as legitimate. The representation of English kings losing crowns on the London stage of the 1590s shows signs of having been subject to andy, careful and Juveniles subtle theatrical negotiations. Though recent critics have retreated from the shorter school days once-commonplace conclusion that because the 1608 quarto of Tried Essay Shakespeare's Richard II was the school first to feature his deposition it must have been censored, there is still the Tried possibility that the first quarto of 1597, or the hamlet 2 act 2 play as performed, was cut, or that Richard's abdication/deposition was somehow 'unwritable' at Tried as Adults, this period. Determinants? 56 This 'unrepresented' 1590s deposition can be compared to those represented in Shakespeare's Richard III and 3 Henry VI. The 1595 quarto of the latter presents Henry's resignation of his throne to the joint protectors Warwick and Clarence in a scene half the length of its 1623 First Folio equivalent, in which Henry accepts the arrangement so that the people of this blessed land/May not be punished with my thwarting stars (4.6.21-2). The 1590s quarto underrepresents, rather than omits, Henry's deposition In Richard III deposition is directly represented only in a stage direction in which Richard fights Richmond and is slain.
Although the visitations Richard receives in his sleep before the battle can be argued to be a displaced representation of a deposing tribunal, to Juveniles as Adults Essay, whose conclusions Richard involuntarily assents, the death of the king in this instance is underrepresented in that it is a fait accompli. 'Underrepresentation' was not the only strategy used in the history plays of the 1590s. The 1591 quarto of The Troublesome Reign of determinants of elasticity King John, which covers much of the same ground as Shakespeare's play, follows Foxe and the Homily in representing John's recrowning at Pandulph's hands. As with the two earlier texts, its principal strategy is to attempt to limit interpretation by presenting the deposition/abdication as primarily signifying John's helplessness in the face of Popish prelates' persecutions, the Juveniles Tried Essay final wrong turning in a Troublesome Reign. The preface identifies John as a kind of English Tamburlaine, a warlike Christian and your Countreyman; For Christs true faith indur'd he many a storme,/And set himselfe against the Man of Rome. 57 This John, as in determinants of elasticity Shakespeare's play, defies Pandulph on their first meeting, and orders Falconbridge to Essay, ransack the abbeys, though The Troublesome Reign shows the action where Shakespeare only government alludes to it.
John recrowns himself in Juveniles as Adults front of his nobles, explaining that he does this not because he has been deposed, but because he is checking the assured witnes of your loves in a ceremony to bind the nobles to him, (Troublesome Reign, 1555). The play deals with such potentially difficult moments by apple symbol providing a clear cause for events, and Juveniles as Adults this applies also to John's recrowning by Pandulph. Interference? He prepares to meet the legate by assessing his situation under the Tried Papal interdict, recognising that his sins are too great for him successfully to documents, banish Popery (though he looks forward to it happening), and resolving to Juveniles Tried Essay, finely dissemble with the Pope (2 Troublesome Reign, 275) as the realm's chaos is caused by hamlet 2 act Papal interference. He ends by resolving equivocation: Dissemble thou, and whatsoere thou saist,/Yet with thy heart wish their confusion (283-4). On meeting Pandulph, John offers submission, penance, and as Adults crusade, and is rejected. His first impulse is to kill Pandulph, but he again submits, to apple symbol, be informed that surrendering his crown is the only acceptable course. Tried Essay? John resolves to fight rather than do so. Hamlet Scene 2? At that moment a messenger enters, telling that a large French fleet has put the country into mutiny. On hearing this, John's resistance collapses. He later receives his crown back as tenaunt to the Pope (637), berates himself (Shame be my share for yeelding to the Priest), and in his last speech traces this act as increasing his troubles: Since John did yeeld unto the Priest of Rome/Nor he nor his have prospred on the earth (707, 1075-6).
The dramatic strategy of The Troublesome Reign is to try to Essay, contain the implications of John's submission to of elasticity, the Pope by inserting it into a master narrative, the course of the ancient struggle between Roman and native Christianity (Protestantism). It provides a full account of how and why John yielded, and what John perceived the consequences to have been. By this strategy, the play attempts to Tried as Adults Essay, contain the implications of John's act for posterity. Because the causes of the deposition easily fit into of bespoke the Foxean picture of the Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay embattled proto-Protestant subverted by Papal wiles, to hamlet scene 2, represent the deposition itself is not necessarily to provide a subversive undoing of Juveniles John's status as proto-Protestant hero. This strategy might be called directive representation: the deposition is shown, but attempts are made to limit an audience's perception of its meaning. A third strategy is at work in Marlowe's Edward II, which was published twice during the 1590s also with a deposition/abdication scene. Of Bespoke? This third strategy might be characterised as overrepresentation, here defined as the Juveniles Tried Essay representation of an action or event so that a conclusive meaning is difficult to wachowski, draw from it. It is Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay not clear, for andy and larry example, from Edward's abdication/deposition scene why he has given up the crown, whether he has a choice, or whether he is in a fit state to understand what he is Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay doing. Andy? This ambiguity is foregrounded when Edward begins by comparing himself to a shadow now regiment is gone.
58 He then asks if he must resign his crown as Mortimer will take it, is told that it will rather pass to his son, denies this, is asked again whether he will resign, gives his crown to Leicester, takes it back just until night, is asked again for it, refuses, gives it back to protect his son's right on a reminder from Leicester, calls upon another to take it from him, hands it over, and sends a handkerchief wet with his tears to queen Isabel. The switches of Tried intent, and the complexity of Edward's emotional state make a mockery of Winchester's bland comment in the next scene that The king hath willingly resigned his crown (5.2.28). Moreover, Edward remains alive to worry at the contradiction of his status as king without a crown or regiment. Edward's abdication/deposition is shown, but what it signifies, other than that Edward no longer has the military or emotional resources to explain of bespoke, resist, is unclear. The deposition scene in the later quartos of Richard II works in a similar fashion. King John clearly underrepresents John's sensitive submission to the church. Where The Troublesome Reign attempts to Juveniles, direct attention from the constitutional consequences by focusing on John's reasons for, and reactions to, his swearing fealty, King John takes only 65 lines (during which John also hears of the effects of Arthur's death upon the rebels) to cover the period between the first mention of the idea and Falconbridge's rejection of explain of bespoke documents it as an inglorious league. John is not shown reflecting upon his tactics before he meets Pandulph, or on the submission's consequences. Although the as Adults play underrepresents this episode in comparison to scene 2, The Troublesome Reign, what happens is still clear.
John states he has yielded his crown, and Pandulph gives it back, as holding of the pope/Your sovereign greatness and authority (5.1.3-4). Underrepresentation is not, however, non-representation, though Barbara Hodgdon has recently pointed out Juveniles Tried that the play seeks to apple symbol, suppress precisely those events that might divide or fracture audience response. 59 But the Juveniles as Adults play can be read as recognising the apple symbol problems even in underrepresenting John's submission, and that it attempts to contain the negative implications of this via overrepresentation. It does not follow the Foxean strategy of Tried presenting the government recrowning with minimal comment and leaving the reader to Juveniles Tried, point the government interference moral; rather, it makes it difficult to understand, and thus subject to recuperative qualification by John's easily intelligible speeches in 3.1. Overrepresenting sensitive events and topics was common in Tudor histories. A. R. Braunmuller has identified dramatist and chronicler as sharing the problem of avoiding both censorship and charges of partisanship, and as having two choices: leave out causal explanations as Fabyan did, or include too many causes (Hall's 'double grace') and avoid choosing among them. Juveniles As Adults? Shakespeare and Holinshed wrote confusing texts because each believed that confusion was not sedition. 60 Braunmuller's useful formulation of the available strategies is confirmed in Holinshed's preface to the reader: I have in things doubtfull rather chosen to interference, shew the diversitie of their writings, than by over-ruling them, and using a peremptory censure, to frame them to Juveniles Tried, agree to my liking: leaving it nevertheless to each mans judgement, to controll them as he seeth cause. Interference? 61. It is perhaps misleading to characterise historical writing as primarily concerned with avoiding sedition, rather than as attempting to make orthodox sense out of unpromising material. Shakespeare may have attempted a different, though still orthodox, treatment of John's reign as compared to that in Juveniles as Adults Essay his sources, rather than avoided or covered up heterodoxy.
In the present context, Holinshed's crucial point centres on the notion of of elasticity controlling the Juveniles Tried interpretation of things doubtful. Where two straightforwardly represented events contradict one another such controll would be likely to depend heavily on extra-textual factors such as previous expectations. Thus, in the case of the characteristics of bespoke documents John, an Juveniles as Adults Essay audience might compare his submission with his defiance, and conclude that no conclusion was possible. But if the defiance was straightforward, and the submission confusing, an audience is less likely to have seen the defiance as cancelled or invalidated by the submission. The defiance would be central to of elasticity, a response to the play, and the submission marginal. Though John underrepresents John's submission in comparison with other texts, the issues upon which an interpretation depend are overrepresented: the validity of a recrowning, whether John can give away his crown, and what significance such an action has.
A parallel to this dramatic strategy can be seen in another text dealing peripherally with John. Thomas Wilson, writing in 1600 of the Juveniles Tried Essay state of England, states that it is an absolute Imperiall Monarchy held neither of Pope, Emperor, nor any but of God alone, and so hath bene ever since the year of the World 2855, which was 1108 years before Christ. 62 Wilson then engages with the supposed donation of Britain to the Papacy by the emperor Constantine, which he rebuts by pointing out hamlet scene 2 act 2 that subsequent conquests extinguished Rome's right. The only other threat to this independent England is John's submission: after this, K John did resign the Crowne to Pandolphus, the Pope's legate, and did receive it againe from him, to hold it of the Pope, paying yearly a certain Tribute; but then is easily answered (though it be the Pops strongest clayme) that King John was but an usurper, and Tried as Adults Essay being distressed besides with the Barons' Warres, he was forced to do yt to have the Pope's help, but his act was never confirmed by the States of the apple symbol Country and therefore frivolous. 63.
This passage, written for private circulation and not printed until 1936, stresses the constitutional importance of an engagement with John's submission, though this is not a question Holinshed, Foxe or the as Adults Homily addressed. Wilson overrepresents the arguments against Papal sovereignty; John is not merely a usurper, but a distressed, enforced and frivolous usurper. The tactic here is not to provide one conclusive refutation, but to produce the impression that the cumulative force of all explanations is strong enough to show John's submission as irrelevant to the current situation. A similar process is at work in days John, whereby a variety of qualifications are introduced to make a simple interpretation of the Juveniles Tried recrowning difficult to arrive at. In the play John does not explicitly challenge Pandulph's commentary on the submission's significance, but after Pandulph has left he introduces an odd qualification. Remembering the prophecy that he would this day give off his crown, he comments I did suppose it should be made on constraint;/Heaven be thanked, it is but voluntary (5.1.28-9). Given that one of the foci of The Homily's treatment of John's recrowning is on the indignity of the English king being forced to submit, this statement can be seen as an and larry attempt by Tried as Adults John to reiterate his independence of Pandulph, so that the andy and larry wachowski recrowning is a tactic, a piece of equivocation meaning nothing to John.
At the least, the distinction between voluntary and involuntary uncrowning implies that this kind of recrowning is not as bad as its alternative. This muddle can be read as either denoting John's personal muddle (he has lost the crown but tries to persuade himself he hasn't) or as a piece of obliquity for which there is no clear interpretation (though the implication is as Adults that the recrowning is not what Pandulph thinks it is). School Days? Falconbridge's prompt criticism of John's inglorious league (5.1.65) further confuses matters, suggesting John has made a military bargain. In the following scene, Pandulph is shown to be unable to honour his contract with John. Lewis, whom Pandulph has encouraged to Juveniles Tried as Adults, invade, is one of the shorter days threats John fears.
His first words after the Juveniles Essay truncated recrowning ceremony are to enjoin Pandulph to go to meet the French/And from his holiness use all your power/To stop their marches 'fore we are inflamed (5.1.5-7). Not only is Pandulph unable to provide what John needs; he is apple symbol also met with a forceful declaration of royal independence of the Papacy: I am too highborn to Juveniles Tried as Adults, be propertied,/To be a secondary at control,/Or useful serving-man and instrument/To any sovereign state throughout the world/[ . . . Apple Symbol? ] must I back/Because that John hath made his peace with Rome?/Am I Rome's slave? (5.2.79-82, 95-7). Thus, although Pandulph clearly presents the recrowning as signifying John's subservience to Tried as Adults Essay, the Pope, it is followed by shorter school days an obscure distinction drawn by Tried as Adults John, Falconbridge's perception that a purely political league has been made, and Lewis' declaration that he (and by implication, John) is royal and thus nobody's slave. Later, in braving Lewis, Falconbridge stresses that John's submission was voluntary, referring to Pandulph as this halting legate here/Whom he hath us'd rather for sport than need (5.2.174-5). King John can thus be seen to the characteristics of bespoke documents, use the same tactics as Wilson's State, presenting several arguments against Tried the seriousness of John's recrowning, which have a cumulative as well as an individual effect. It might even be said that much of the last third of the andy and larry play is constructed to contradict Pandulph's claims of the significance of the recrowning, for only two scenes before John receives the crown back from Pandulph, he recrowns himself, and is criticised for so doing. In Act 4 John enters once again crowned (4.2.1). Though his nobles defer to John's right to do as he likes, the ceremony is presented, in the words of Pembroke as superfluous: you were crowned before/And that high royalty was ne'er plucked off,/The faiths of Juveniles Tried men ne'er stained with revolt/Fresh expectation troubled not the land/With any longed-for change or better state (4.2.4-8). Days? Salisbury is more blunt, stating Therefore, to be possessed with double pomp,/To guard a title that was rich before,/To gild refined gold, to paint the lily/[ . Juveniles Tried As Adults Essay? . . Hamlet 2 Act 2? ] or with taper-light/To seek the beauteous eye of heaven to garnish,/Is wasteful and ridiculous excess (4.2.9-11, 14-16).
The nobles' criticisms emphasise John's sumptuous excess, as well as his political overcompensating: In this the antique and well-noted face/Of plain old form is Juveniles as Adults disfigured, so new a fashion'd robe startles and frights consideration (4.2.21-22, 27, 25). The physical excess of John's coronation will later be criticised in the Bastard's soliloquy over Arthur's corpse. But just as prominent are the political arguments. John's new coronation cannot strengthen his title, as that was already refined gold. He is trying to increase the light of the sun (himself) with a candle. Pembroke implies that the ceremony of recrowning might have some point in of bespoke documents the context of a domestic rebellion as a reassertion of the proper relationship between king and nobles, but this does not validate the later recrowning, as no nobles are present. The overall impression is that as John is legitimate, he cannot make himself more or less legitimate with ceremonies; that a recrowning can be a political miscalculation; and Tried as Adults Essay that such a ceremony does not materially alter John's supremacy. Scene? The five lines exchanged between Pandulph and John two scenes later must be read in this context. The play's overrepresentation of the issues surrounding John's recrowning works in Juveniles Tried as Adults tandem with the actual recrowning's underrepresentation.
The play gives little space to this traumatic event, but contextualises it so as to suggest that, whatever it is, is not a cession of sovereignty to the Pope by the Moses of the Reformation. A post-Armada audience interpreting King John would undoubtedly have had to controll and 2 reconcile the anti-Papal John with the submissive John, and to Juveniles as Adults Essay, negotiate the play's contestations of his authority. Interference? However, the text does allow a construction of John as legitimate monarch, and thus sincere in his anti-Catholicism. This presentation of Juveniles Tried Essay John would also have accorded with those in Holinshed, Foxe, the Homily and The Troublesome Reign, and would not have offended contemporary anti-Spanish or anti-Catholic nationalism. Shorter School? The model offered by critics identifying the play as modern, in contrast, situates the play as against the grain of most influential historical accounts, the predominant war fever of the theatrical repertory, and the likely mood of wartime London. At such a time, a play's religious politics are likely to be powerfully inflected towards orthodoxy in at least the most uncontroversial of areas: John's legitimacy as an opponent of the Papacy. To recognise this historical reading as possible, perhaps even likely, goes against as Adults the grain of post-Tillyard approaches to 2 act 2, the history plays, which David Womersley characterises by Juveniles Tried critics' unwillingness to believe that Shakespeare might have written in support of apple symbol doctrines they find repugnant or risible and a consequent locating of a remarkable dramatic complexity 64 in the plays. As Adults? The reinvention of the history plays described from a different perspective by Womersley and Curren-Aquino has helped to continue Shakespeare's dominance of the Renaissance canon as continually relevant politically, something which happens surprisingly frequently by andy and larry the traditional critical/polemical tactic of presenting Shakespeare, or his texts, as rising above the simplicity and polemic of contemporary sources. I have attempted to show how it is possible to read King John as irrelevant to modern political concerns, and that in at least one important respect Shakespeare is not our ambivalent, ambiguous, sceptical, questioning and ideologically subversive contemporary. 1 Deborah Curren-Aquino, King John: An Annotated Bibliography (New York: Garland, 1994), p. xxvi. 2 Sigurd Burckhardt, King John: The Ordering of this Present Time, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. 133.
3 Burckhardt, 134; Virginia Vaughan, King John: A Study in Subversion and Containment, in King John; New Perspectives, ed. Deborah Curren-Aquino (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1989), p. 62. 4 Phyllis Rackin, Stages of History: Shakespeare's English Chronicles (London: Routledge, 1990), p. 66. 5 Larry Champion, The Noise of Threatening Drum: Dramatic Strategy and Political Ideology in Shakespeare and the English Chronicle Plays (London and Tried Essay Toronto: Associated UP, 1990), p. And Larry? 98. 6 Guy Hamel, King John and The Troublesome Reign: A Reexamination, in Curren-Aquino (1989) p. Juveniles Tried Essay? 54. 7 Stephen Greenblatt, Invisible Bullets, in Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism, ed.
Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1985), p. 29; King John, ed. Robert Smallwood (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974), p. 12. 8 David Aers, A Whisper in the Ear of Early Modernists, Culture and History 1350-1600: Essays on English Communities, Identities and Writing, ed. David Aers (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992), pp. 195-6. 9 E.M.W.
Tillyard, Shakespeare's History Plays (London, 1944; repr. Government? Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986), p. 220; see also M.M. Reese, The Cease of Majesty (London: Arnold, 1961), p. 270; Irving Ribner, The English History Play in the Age of Shakespeare (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957: rev. edn, London: Methuen, 1965), pp. 121-2; David Bevington, Tudor Drama and Tried Politics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1968), p. 200. 10 This argument is developed thoroughly in apple symbol Deborah Kehler, 'So Jest With Heaven': Deity in King John, in Tried Essay Curren-Aquino (1989) p. 101. 11 King John ed E.A.J. Honigmann (London: Methuen, 1954), 3.1.75-86. Unless otherwise specified all references to Shakespeare's plays are from the determinants Arden editions. 12 Lily Campbell, Shakespeare's Histories (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library Publications, 1947;3rd edn, London: Methuen, 1964), p. 154. 13 C.W. Heiatt, Dating King John, NQ, xxxv (1988), p. 463 dates the play to 1593/4; Roslyn Knutson, The Repertory of Shakespeare's Company 1594-1613 (Fayetteville: Arkansas UP, 1991), p. 75 suggests 1596-97; L.A.
Beaurline's edition of King John (Cambridge UP, 1990), p. Juveniles? 210 plumps for of bespoke 1590; A.R. Braunmuller's edition (Oxford UP, 1989), p. 15 chooses 1595-96; Smallwood, p. Juveniles Tried Essay? 10 also supports 1593/4, and Honigmann, p. lviii 1590/1. 14 Carol Wiener, The Beleagured Isle: A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism, Past Present, LV (1971), pp. 52-3; R.B. Wernham, After the Armada (Oxford: OUP, 1984), pp. 453-60. 15 David Cressy, Bonfires and Bells: National Memory and the Protestant Calendar in Elizabethan and Stuart England (London: Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1989), p. 119. 16 Peter Clark, A Crisis Contained? The Condition of English Towns in the 1590s, in The European Crisis of the 1590s ed. Peter Clark (London: Allen Unwin, 1985), p. 55.
18 R.B. Wachowski? Outhwaite, Dearth, the English Crown and as Adults the 'Crisis of the 1590s', in Clark (1985), p. Shorter Days? 25; Henry Knyvett, The Defence of the Realm (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906). 19 A. Pritchard, Catholic Loyalism in Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay Elizabethan England (London: Scolar Press, 1979), pp. 6-8, 12. 20 T.E. Shorter School? Hartley, Elizabeth's Parliaments: Queen, Lords and Commons 1559-1601 (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1992), pp.
98-101. 21 Donna Hamilton, Shakespeare and the Poetics of Protestant England (Lexington: Kentucky UP, 1992), p. Tried Essay? 4. 22 Peter Lake, Moderate Puritans and the Elizabethan Church (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1982), p. 6. 23 See Carole Levin, Propaganda in the English Reformation: Heroic and Villainous Images of King John (Lewiston/Queenston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988). 24 Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles of apple symbol England, Scotland and Ireland, Vol. II (London, 1807; repr. New York: AMS Press, 1965), pp. 339, 319. 25 Certain Sermons or Homilies (1547) and Juveniles as Adults A Homily Against Disobedience And Wilful Rebellion (1570): A Critical Edition, ed. School Days? Ronald Bond (Toronto and London: Toronto UP, 1987), p. 243.
26 Wernham, p. 555. 27 Andrew Gurr, Play going in Shakespeare's London (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987), p. 135. 28 Bevington, p. 195. 29 Rackin, p. 187. 31 Robert Ornstein, A Kingdom for a Stage (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1972), p. 88.
32 John Blanpied, Time and Essay the Artist in Shakespeare's English Histories (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1983), pp. 100-101. See also William Hawley, Critical Hermeneutics and Shakespeare's History Plays (New York and determinants of elasticity Bern: Lang, 1992), p. Juveniles As Adults? 70. 33 Vaughan, 1989, p. Government Interference? 70; see also James Bryant's odd conclusion that John's antipapal remarks can be seen [ . . . ] not as being derogatory to the Roman Catholic Church but as an expression of the Reformation position, Tudor Drama and Religious Controversy (Macon, GA: Mercer UP, 1984), p. 133. 34 Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, ed. Geoffrey Bullough (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1962), Vol. IV, p. 22. 35 For the former stance, in addition to as Adults Essay, Bullough, Reece and Ornstein cited above, see Marie Axton, The Queen's Two Bodies: Drama and the Elizabethan Succession (London: Royal Historical Society, 1977), p. 108; Philip Edwards, Threshold of a Nation (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1979), p. 115, and Bevington, p. 198.
For the latter position, see Hawley, p. 70; Champion, p. 96; Hamel, p. 55. 36 Kehler, p. Apple Symbol? 103; see also Edward Berry, Patterns of Decay: Shakespeare's English Histories (Charlottesville: Virginia UP, 1975), p. Juveniles Essay? 115. 37 Reese, p. 275; Emrys Jones, The Origins of Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), p. 239. 38 Champion, p. 96. 39 Rackin, p. 184; David Womersley, The Politics of Shakespeare's King John, RES, XI (1989), p. Scene 2 Act? 502.
See also Robert Jones, Those Valiant Dead: Renewing the Past in Shakespeare's Histories (Iowa City: Iowa UP, 1991), p. 60 and Beaurline, p. Tried As Adults? 51. 40 Douglas Wixson, 'Calm words folded up in smoke': Propaganda and Spectator Response in determinants of elasticity Shakespeare's King John, Shakespeare Studies, 14 (1981), pp. Tried As Adults Essay? 111-27 and Michael Manheim, The Weak King Dilemma in the Shakespearian History Play (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1973), pp. 116-60. 41 Since at least James Calderwood's Commodity and Honour in King John, UTQ, XXIX (1960), pp.
341-56. 42 Juliet Dusinberre, King John and embarrassing women, Shakespeare Survey, 43 (1989), pp. 37-52; Carole Levin, 'I trust I may not trust thee': Women's Visions of the the characteristics of bespoke documents World in Shakespeare's King John, in Ambiguous Realities: Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, ed. Carole Levin and J. Watson (Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1987), pp. Juveniles Essay? 219-34; Rackin, pp. Government Interference? 146-200. 43 A topic of interest since at least Adrien Bonjour's The Road to Swinstead Abbey: A Study of the Sense and Structure of King John, ELH, XVIII (1951), pp.
253-74. 44 William Camden, Remains Concerning Britain, ed. R. Dunn (Toronto and London: Toronto UP, 1984), p. 246. 45 See John Elliott, Shakespeare and the Double Image of King John, Shakespeare Studies, I (1965), p. Juveniles As Adults Essay? 72; R Burkhart, Obedience and apple symbol Rebellion in Shakespeare's Early History Plays, English Studies, LV (1971); Kristian Smidt, Unconformities in Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Macmillan, 1982), p. 73; John Loftis, Renaissance Drama in England and Spain (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1987), p. 74; Bonjour, p. 257; Reese, p. 263; Manheim, p. 131; Edwards, p. 115, Levin, 1987, p. 221; Hamilton, p. 43; Berry, p. 115; Bevington, p. 243; Honigmann, p. xxvii; Beaurline, p. 47; Hawley, p. 64; Hodgdon, p. 27; Robert Jones, p. Juveniles Tried As Adults Essay? 48; Rackin, p. 162; Kehler, p. Of Elasticity? 103; Dusinberre, p. 44. 46 Reese, p. 272; Edna Zwick Boris, Shakespeare's English Kings, the Juveniles People and the Law (London: Associated Press, 1978), p. 133.
48 Mr William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories and Tragedies, facsimile prepared by H. Kokeritz (New Haven and London: Yale UP, 1954), pp. 17-18. 49 Honigmann's Arden edition is closest to andy and larry wachowski, the First Folio, substituting an exclamation mark for its question mark; his notes indicate that the 'England' of the fourth line refers to both Arthur and the country. 51 Robert Jones, p. 60; see also Womersley, p. Juveniles As Adults Essay? 502 and Smallwood, p. 38. 52 John Sibly, The Anomalous case of King John, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. Interference? 421. 53 Emrys Jones, p. 256; Robert Jones, p. 57; Calderwood, p. 97; Bonjour, p. 264; Champion, p. 92. 55 Acts and Monuments, Vol. II (London: Seeley Burnside Seeley, 1843), p. Tried As Adults Essay? 332. I have checked that this passage is not present in the 1583 edition. 56 J. Leeds Barroll, A New History for Shakespeare and His Time, SQ, XXIX (1988), pp.
441-64. 57 The Troublesome Reign of King John, ed. Bullough, To the Gentlemen Readers, p. 72. All quotations from The Troublesome Reign are from government, this edition. 58 Edward the Second, ed. W Moelwyn Merchant (London: Benn, 1967), 5.1.26. 59 Hodgdon, p. 30. 60 A.R.
Braunmuller, King John and Historiography, ELH, LV (1988), p. 318. 61 Holinshed, Preface to the Reader. [Chronicles, Vol. II]. 62 Thomas Wilson, The State of Tried as Adults England Anno Dom 1600, ed. Shorter School? F. Fisher, Camden Miscellany, XVI (London, 1936), p. 1. 64 Womersley, p. 499.
Source: The Limits of Modernity in Shakespeare's King John, in Juveniles Tried Shakespeare and History, edited by Holger Klein and Rowland Wymer, The Edwin Mellen Press, 1996, pp. Andy And Larry? 91-118.
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Radiohead, or the Philosophy of Pop. Walter Benn Michaels. The Reality of Tried Essay, Reality Television. Explain The Characteristics Of Bespoke Documents! The Reality of Reality Television. Publication date Fall 2005. Tried! There is a persistent dream that television will be more than it is: that it will not only explain the characteristics of bespoke, sit in every home, but make a conduit for Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay, those homes to reach back to scene a shared fund of Tried as Adults Essay, life. Andy And Larry! The utopia of television nearly came within reach in 1992, on the day cable providers announced that cable boxes would expand to 500 channels. Back then, our utopian idea rested on assumptions both right and wrong. We assumed network-sized broadcasters could never afford new programming for so many active channels. That was right.
We also assumed TV subscribers wouldn#8217;t stand for 500 channels of identical fluff, network reruns, syndicated programs, second-run movies, infomercials, and home shopping. That was wrong. We were sure the abundance of channels would bring on stations of pure environmental happiness, carrying into Tried our homes the comforts everyone craves: the 24-hour Puppy Channel, the and larry, Sky Channel, the Ocean Channel, the Baby Channel—showing nothing but frolicsome puppies, placid sky, tumultuous ocean, and big-headed babies. It never happened. And yet cable TV did indeed get cut up for Essay, small pleasures, in the advertisement of more utilitarian interests, on shorter school the Food Network, the InStyle Network, and as Adults, Home and Garden Television (HGTV).(Natural beauty took hold on cable only in the pious slideshows of the Christian channels, where Yosemite is subtitled by 1st Corinthians.) The meaningful history of technology turns out to be a history of its fantasized uses as much as of the shapes it actually takes. Our cable-box dreams finally rested on one beautiful notion: the participatory broadcasting of explain the characteristics of bespoke, real life. With such a ludicrous number of channels, companies would just have to give some of the dial over to the rest of us, the viewers—wouldn#8217;t they? And we millions would flow into the vacuum of content. We#8217;d manifest our nature on channels 401 to Tried as Adults Essay 499 as surely as do puppies, ocean, and sky. We#8217;d do it marrying, arguing, staring at the wall, dining, studying our feet, holding contests, singing, sneezing. Hundreds of government, thousands of us had cameras.
Well, we#8217;d plug them in and leave the tape running for our real life. In this underlying dream, we were neither exactly wrong nor right. The promise of the 500 channels went to waste. The techno-utopians#8217; fantasies shifted to the internet. Nothing like the paradise we hoped for came to fruition on Tried as Adults TV, that#8217;s for sure. Instead we got reality TV.
The assessment of reality television depends first on your notion of television; second, on your idea of political community. Here is a standard misconception: since the noblest forms of artistic endeavor are fictional and dramatic (the novel, film, painting, plays), it can be assumed that the major, proper products of television will be its dramatic entertainments, the sitcom and the hour-long drama. Hamlet Scene! I think this is Tried as Adults wrong, and very possibly wrong for a whole number of reasons. Drama has a different meaning in a commercial medium where #8220;programming#8221; came into being as bacon to wrap the real morsels of steak, the 90-second advertisements. It means something different when it exists in a medium we switch on to see #8220;what#8217;s on TV#8221; rather than to find a given single work; when the scene, goal is more often to Juveniles as Adults watch television than to watch a particular drama and hamlet 2 act, then turn it off. From its beginnings in the early 1950s, TV has been blamed for encouraging overindividualism, for hastening consumer suckerdom, for spurring passivity and Tried Essay, couch-potatoness, and for making up the sensational bread-and-circuses of mass-culture tyranny. That pretty much covers it.
And yet when opponents tried to determinants of elasticity divide the wretched things flickering inside the Essay, idiot-box into apple symbol categories, they made excuses for quite unnecessary forms that they felt they recognized (highbrow TV dramas) while deriding unique and Juveniles as Adults, far more important items that didn#8217;t suit their vision of dramatic art (game shows, local news, now reality shows). The real principled problem ought to be with drama. The modern form of the longstanding Western philosophical argument against wachowski placing drama at Tried the center of a republic was articulated twenty years beforethe American Revolution. Rousseau insisted in his Letter to M. D#8217;Alembert that a republic (in his case Geneva, circa 1758) was correct to keep a theater out of its public life. To Rousseau, a republic is a political community in which each person is explain the characteristics of bespoke documents equal and sovereign—as it should be to us, today, living in Tried the American republic. The citizen is not sovereign alone, but sovereign through his activity in a community of peers. The drama, when it was given too much power, crowded out the true entertainments of any republican political community— entertainments whose delights must be rooted in that self-regard and free judgment in daily activity which strengthens the bonds of citizen to citizen. Of Elasticity! (Bear in mind that Rousseau, in ancien regime Paris, loved the theater: #8220;Racine charms me and I have never willingly missed a performance of Moliere.#8221; A corrupt order, of nobility and Juveniles Tried as Adults, monarchy, could hardly be made worse by drama and might be made better. But the philosopher loved a republic more.) Rousseau expected that a republic#8217;s civic entertainments would be displays of what people already do. Andy And Larry Wachowski! Singing, building, decorating, beauty, athletics, and dancing gave pleasure and #8220;entertainment#8221; because the participants not only accomplished the acts but became spectacles to themselves—and to others, their equals and fellow-citizens, who had done just the same activities. Republican entertainments might often take the form of the contest or the demonstration.
But they might also be the special celebration of as Adults, ordinary living itself—the #8220;festival#8221;: Plant a stake crowned with flowers in the middle of a square; gather the people together there, and you will have a festival. Do better yet; let the spectators become an entertainment to andy and larry themselves; let them become actors themselves; do it so each sees and loves himself in the others so that all will be better united. #8220;Let the spectators become an entertainment to themselves#8221;: a part of TV has always done this. It has meant, at different times, local programming, Huntley and as Adults Essay, Brinkley, the hamlet scene 2, national news at Juveniles as Adults Essay 6 and local news at 11, talk shows and talent shows, This is Your Life and shorter, the regional tours of Wheel of Fortune . Accept, though, that television#8217;s most important function might always have been to Essay let citizens see each other and be seen in their representatives—in our only truly national universal medium—and you#8217;re left to ask what will accomplish it best today. School Days! Reality television may furnish its dark apotheosis—a form for an era in which local TV has been consolidated out of existence, regional differences are said to Juveniles Tried as Adults be diminishing (or anyway are less frequently represented), and news, increasingly at determinants of elasticity the service of as Adults Essay, sales departments, has forfeited its authority to represent the apple symbol, polity. Essay! We need myths, not only of our ideal, and our average, but of our fallen extreme. Since the establishment of informed-consent rules in the 1970s, the scene 2, golden age of social psychology is gone. No more Stanley Milgram#8217;s proof that ordinary citizens will push the voltage to the red zone while the electrocuted actor screams—so long as a lab-coated tester is there to give the Essay, orders. No more Philip Zimbardo#8217;s proof that fake guards will brutalize fake prisoners if you arbitrarily split Stanford students into two groups, lock them in a basement, and leave them to their own devices. No more Harold Garfinkel#8217;s demonstrations that testers can drive strangers berserk if they stare at other riders on the elevator or if children refuse to recognize their parents.
Today we are reliant on Elimidate , Punk#8217;d , and Survivor . Apple Symbol! Watching reality television is like walking one long hallway of an unscrupulous and Juveniles Essay, peculiarly indefatigable psychology department. The first ideal-type of reality TV is the determinants, show of the pure event. Cops represents one end of its spectrum, the low-budget dating shows ( Blind Date , Elimidate , Fifth Wheel , Xtreme Dating ) the Juveniles as Adults, other. You discern patterns in each—the effect on the watchful viewer is of a patterned repetition of documents, wholly singular encounters. In the endless scenes of arrests, traffic stops, drive-by warnings (#8220;OK, you ain#8217;t going to do it again#8221;), domestic disturbances, and interviews with complainants (#8220;Calm down, ma#8217;am, just tell me what happened#8221;), it becomes clear that justice, at the level of the arrest, has less to Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay do than you might have thought with the and larry, code of law. Juveniles Tried As Adults! Between cop and civilian, everything is determined by apple symbol personality; each word is a step in Juveniles Tried Essay a negotiation; the tools each side possesses seem arbitrary and confused, in the wheedling or vagueness of the suspect, the mock-authoritativeness and lack of information of the cop. So you make notes to your criminal self: never voluntarily submit to a search. But it doesn#8217;t take long to realize that, in the situation, you wouldn#8217;t remember all you#8217;d learned watching Cops ; politeness and hustling would take over. In the immediate interaction between two people, each staring into the other#8217;s eyes and trying to persuade him toward escape or incrimination, drugged by fear when not hazy with narcotics, you see the hidden face-to-face interactions of your countrymen.
And on Blind Date and Xtreme Dating and Fifth Wheel , with wary daters eyeing each other over pasta dinners, leglessly drunk in a hundred indistinguishable neon dives and, afterwards, on the best dates, mumbling vulgar blandishments in hot tubs, you see that romance is not angelic recognition nor simple animal lust but a negotiation—the same as in hamlet 2 act 2 the Cops arrest. The blind date and the traffic stop become on late-night TV the two paradigmatic experiences of American encounters between strangers. Homogenous America is instantly disproved by bizarre America. Juveniles As Adults Essay! It is reassuring to hamlet scene 2 watch this openness and Juveniles Tried, fumbling. Finally you see without intermediary dramatization the determinants of elasticity, landscape of tanning salons and restaurants and Tried as Adults Essay, aikido studios in apple symbol every corner of the country, the still-distinct accents but universalized, television-influenced behaviors, the dilemma of what to say and which personality to project, as if the social relation were being rebuilt, in a cutaway scale model of our society—a great televised Ark of as Adults Essay, a changing civilization—two by two.
So even though evidently all women look for school days, #8220;sense of Juveniles, humor#8221; and all men want someone #8220;I can have fun with,#8221; even though all good girls say they are #8220;wild#8221; and all good boys avow that they are #8220;players,#8221; this has only an equivocal effect on individuals#8217; relentlessly erroneous attempts to approximate trends and manners learned from TV, which seems to be what#8217;s really going on. Yoyoing modesty and immodesty (#8220;I#8217;m a bad girl. I mean, I#8217;m mostly bad in bed#8221;); frank talk about penis size and and larry wachowski, boob jobs but wildly variable estimates on the morality of kissing on a first date; shy clumsiness masked under pornographic aspirations (#8220;Have you ever had a threesome?#8221; #8220;No, that#8217;s more like, a goal of mine#8221;)— this , the cameras prove, is the current American performing-reality. Everyone tries to play someone else on TV, but still feels so many tethering strings from the Tried as Adults, prosaic, deficient, and plain polite that conformity becomes chaotic and imitation idiosyncratic. #8220;Voyeurism#8221; was never the right word for what it means to andy wachowski watch these shows. You feel some identification with the participants, and even more sympathy with the situation. Juveniles As Adults! #8220;And if I were pulled over—and if I were set up on a blind date—how would I fare?#8221; But primarily, and this is the hamlet 2 act 2, more important thing to say about reality TV, there is always judgment . You can#8217;t know the deeds your countrymen will do until you see them; and once these deeds are seen, you won#8217;t fail to judge and retell them. Reality TV is related in this respect to the demimonde of The People#8217;s Court , Divorce Court , Judge Hatchett ,and Judge Judy . Classy critics hate these shows too, or claim to. I think that#8217;s a mistake. The way in which all reality TV—and much of daytime TV—can be #8220;real#8221; across social classes is in its capacity for Tried as Adults Essay, judgment. The #8220;friends#8221; on shorter school days Friends were an Juveniles as Adults Essay, ideological group, propagandists for shorter, a bland class of the rich in a sibling-incest sitcom. The show didn#8217;t allow you to Tried as Adults Essay take their idiocy to task, nor ever to question the details of how they paid their rent or their hairdresser#8217;s bill, or how they acted on the #8220;outside.#8221; If only Judge Judy could sit in judgment of them, once!
If only government, Cops would break down their door and throw them against the wall! Monica, you ignorant Skeletor, eat a sandwich! Ross, you vainglorious paleontologist, read a book! You mortuary creep ! Truly, the judge shows have a vengeful appeal: they gather every inept, chiseling, weaseling, self-focused sort of person you meet in your daily life and, counting on each one#8217;s stupidity and vanity to Juveniles Essay get him up into the dock, they yell at him. This is one way to come to terms with your fellow citizens.
Much reality TV, by contrast, communicates a relative openness of judgment, though judgment is its one constant—and does so also by its wider identity of situation between the viewer and those before the government, cameras. (Nearly everybody has dated, and, from rich to Tried as Adults poor, nearly everybody fears the police when driving and will call on them when threatened.) Reality TV#8217;s judgment falls on #8220;another oneself,#8221; however much one retains the right to disown and ridicule this nitwitted fellow-citizen. Nowadays, at every level of our society, there is a hunger for judgment. Andy And Larry! Often this becomes summary judgment—not so much the wish to know the truth, but the brutal decisionism that would rather be wrong than stay in suspension. This is the will not to deliberate but to sentence. In the as Adults, political realm, it has influenced the shape of the apple symbol, current disaster. Its soft manifestations own the therapeutic talk shows, in the sniffling and nose wiping of a Dr.
Phil , where the expert is never at Juveniles Tried as Adults a loss. He will not say: #8220;No, your situation is too messed up for and larry, me to advise you; I have a similar problem; think for Juveniles, yourself.#8221; Whereas the hamlet 2 act 2, cheapest and rawest reality TV offers you a chance to judge people like you, people who do lots of the same things you do. It is cheap, it is amoral, it has no veneer of virtue, it is widely censured and a guilty pleasure, and it can be more educational and truthful and American than most anything else, very suitable for our great republic. Until, that is, one began to see what the capital-rich networks would make of it. For they got into the act, like dinosaurs in an inland sea, and they made the waters heave. They developed the grandiose second ideal-type of filmed reality, courtesy of bigger budgets and serial episodes: the show of the group microcosm. The microcosms were large-scale endeavors, financed by FOX, MTV, NBC, ABC, CBS, and the WB. (The other shows had been cheaply made and served up to UHF and low-budget cable stations by syndication, or, like Cops , run in the early barebones years of FOX and retained.) MTV#8217;s The Real World , which put teens in a group house with cameras, was the earliest and most incomplete example.
The pun in its #8220;real world#8221; title meant both that you would see how non-actors interacted (initially fascinating) and that this was, for many of the children on the show, their first foray away from Juveniles as Adults home (pretty boring, after the umpteenth homesick phone call). MTV#8217;s goal was to make up a #8220;generation,#8221; not a society, as MTV is the most aggressive promoter of one version of youth as a wholesale replacement of adult life. Subsequently the shorter school days, broadcast networks converted the dating #8220;event#8221; show into sagas of as Adults Essay, thirty suitors, peeling them away one by apple symbol one until only the chosen bride or groom remained. Big Brother turned the house show, too, into a competition. An even more triumphant microcosm was Survivor —followed, in time, by The Amazing Race . The newer shows that defined the microcosmic reality and blended it with competition adopted the Tried Essay, same basic forms of social discovery that had animated the apple symbol, birth of the English novel: the desert-island Robinsonade of Survivor , the Tried as Adults, at-the-ends-of-the-earth-bedragons imperialist travelogue and quest romance of The Amazing Race , even, perhaps, the sentimental seductions of The Bachelor , where so many willing Clarissas rode in limousines squealing to a manor house to hand their hearts to Lovelace. Of Bespoke! Yet Survivor never took up the society-from-nothing isolation of the desert island, which had motivated the original Robinson Crusoe . The Amazing Race didn#8217;t care about the Englishman-in-Lilliput foreignness of Swift or the chance meetings of Juveniles Tried as Adults, picaresque or even the travelers#8217; tall tales in apple symbol Hakluyt.
The shows had no interest in starting civilization from as Adults scratch. Nor for that matter were they much interested in travel—on The Amazing Race , you glimpse the blurred locals out the and larry wachowski, windows of speeding cars. These shows were about the spectacularization of a microcosmic America—about the reduction of society to a cross-section of our countrymen—still so very American, never #8220;going native.#8221; The shows put together sociable Americans, so they would have nothing left but their group interactions, their social negotiations, to keep them going. Nobody let them starve, nothing endangered them. Nominally structured as a contest of skill, skill mattered little and Tried as Adults Essay, #8220;alliances#8221; much on Survivor . The sniping and soothing in couples and trios—forming and reforming, betraying and sticking together—were the main things of interest on government interference that show and on The Amazing Race , where it was hard to tell if we were supposed to care, really, that one pair ran faster than another. How do Americans talk and Juveniles as Adults Essay, how do they arrange things, in a completely minimal setting, a little like the office and a little like the home but not totally unlike a sequestered jury? So many of the contestants brought the workplace with them, and they were meant to, since they were identified at every subtitle of their names with their stateside jobs: Actor/Model, Computer Programmer, Fireman.
This was our festival. Let#8217;s see if the alliance can hold between the Stock Trader, the Carpenter, and the Actress. Who will emerge as the #8220;Survivor#8221;? Let#8217;s race the Midget and her Cousin, so lovable, against the Bad Couple Who Should Not Marry. Let#8217;s see who our true representatives are. The structure of each of the shows that #8220;voted people off the island,#8221; requiring the andy and larry wachowski, microcosm to Juveniles Essay draw itself down each week, echoed, with static, the old idea of a republic of political equals, who despite unequal skills and endowments one by one would recuse themselves from activity to leave a single best representative behind to speak in interference public for their interests. If we truly all are equals in America, this would be a picture, in ideal form, of how we choose aldermen and selectmen and Congressmen—using our sovereignty to Tried as Adults withdraw our sovereignty, that is to say, to explain documents focus it in the hands, for two or four years, of Tried as Adults, individuals who act for us. By this means the microcosm programs resembled political allegories. And yet many of the reality shows of the microcosmic community were quite deliberately, self-consciously implanted, sometimes by the rules, sometimes by the informal instructions given to players, with an original sin. That sin was the apple symbol, will to power by trickery, the Juveniles Tried Essay, will to deception, which puts the power-mad ahead of the natural leader.
And the players did not rebel—they accepted this, knowing it too well from home, from what they would call their #8220;real life.#8221; #8220;That#8217;s how you play the game,#8221; each aspiring survivor explained, with the resignation of determinants, a trapped bear chewing off its leg, #8220;you have to Juveniles Tried Essay fool people, you can only be loyal to yourself.#8221; They had the republican ideal in interference their hands, and didn#8217;t use it. It got confused with the economic or Darwinian model of competition, in Juveniles Tried as Adults which anti-representative stratagems are justified because one wins in the defeat and eradication of all others to gain a single jackpot. This, too, was an of elasticity, aspect of the realness of #8220;reality#8221; for Americans: we knew we were witnessing republics of Tried Essay, voting or shared excellence competing, or perhaps blending, with another force in our lives. As deception and power-hunger are the sins built into the microcosm, so the fixed norm is the flaw introduced into shows of pure judgment. It produces the third ideal type of reality TV: the show of the industry standard. It was latent in the grand-scale dating shows, these contests that brought in wachowski the single judge and red roses and arbitrary rules and an image of romantic love from somewhere in Tried Essay the minds of Hallmark: but who knows, maybe this was close enough to the values of dreamy romance to the characteristics of bespoke documents form some people#8217;s preexisting reality.
In American Idol , though, you see the strong beginning of the Tried, reality show of the third type. American Idol was the best, and the most insinuating, of the hamlet scene 2 act 2, industry shows because it took one of the Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay, basic categories of common endeavor, that Rousseau loved well—a singing contest, the commonplace sibling of a beauty or dancing or athletic contest. Everyone sings, if only in the shower—and the footage of the worst contestants made clear that the determinants of elasticity, contest did include all of us, that the equivalent of as Adults, singing in the shower was being considered, too, on the way to the final idol. The show had #8220;America#8221; judge, by casting the final votes, en masse . Yet it used professional judges in the meantime, a panel of allegorical experts, Simon Cowell (rhymes with #8220;scowl#8221;; the Stern Judge; George III), Paula Abdul (the Universal Sexy Mommy; Betsy Ross), and shorter school, Randy Jackson (the Spirit of Diversity). Allegorically, America would free itself from the tyranny of the Juveniles Tried Essay, English King, having learned his wisdom, pay due homage to its own diversity, and enjoy the independence to make its own choice—which the hands-tied Englishman#8217;s production company would have to live with, and of bespoke, distribute to record stores. Poor George III! What one really learned was that, unlike a singing contest in the high school gym, the concern of the recording industry was not just, or no longer, whether someone could sing. It was whether a contestant was fitted to as Adults the industry, malleable enough to meet the norms of music marketing. The curtain was pulled away from the Great Oz, and the public invited to examine his cockpit and explain of bespoke documents, vote which lever or switch to as Adults Essay pull next. As it turns out, it is really no less pleasant to choose a winner to suit the norms of music marketing, than to choose on individual talent.
One was still choosing, and the idol would still be ours. An idol of the marketplace, to be sure, but still our representative American idol. Shorter! The major new successes of the past few years have taught (or pretended to Juveniles teach) the norms of other industries. The Apprentice , a show in which one tries to learn skill in business, teaches the hamlet scene 2 act, arbitrariness of contemporary success in relation to skill. The winners are conditioned to meet a certain kind of norm, not really familiar from anywhere else in life, which corresponds to #8220;the values of business#8221; as interpreted by as Adults Trump.
America#8217;s Next Top Model shows how a beauty contest ceases to be about beauty. The real fascination of the apple symbol, show is learning, first, how the Tried, norms of the fashion industry don#8217;t correspond to ordinary ideas of beauty (you knew it abstractly, here#8217;s proof!), but to determinants requirements of the display of clothes and shilling for cosmetics; second, how the show will, in Tried the name of these norms, seek something quite different in its contestants—a psychological adhesiveness, a willingness to andy and larry be remade and obey. The Starlet suggests the distance between the norms of TV acting and the craft of acting—and yet again, in the name of #8220;how it#8217;s done in the industry,#8221; which provides one kind of Tried as Adults Essay, interest, the contestants are recast psychologically, which provides the other. And on it goes, with #8220;how to become a chef#8221; ( Hell#8217;s Kitchen ) and #8220;how to be a clothing designer#8217;s minion#8221; ( The Cut ), et cetera. 1. All this is interesting and school, revealing in its way. But the final stage is all too familiar: that is, the flow back of norms justified by industry into norms for inner spaces—first the mind, which accepts insane instructions and modifications, then the spaces that have nothing to do with either public life or work, and should offer safety from Juveniles Tried as Adults their demands.
I am thinking of the home and the integral body, underneath the skin. For a final, baroque range of reality shows has emerged in the last two years: The Swan , Extreme Makeover , and, when these turned out to be slightly more than viewers could bear, Extreme Makeover: Home Edition and its copycat shows. The Swan and Extreme Makeover also drew on the most basic of all spectacles-of-excellence, the beauty contest or #8220;pageant#8221;—which once formed a way of seeing or understanding the country, as in the Miss America contests (when you would root for your state while admiring the flowers of the explain documents, other forty-nine). And the new shows advanced a new kind of Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay, norm by recreating it surgically, by literally rebuilding people#8217;s faces and bodies to suit, not beauty, but a kind of televisual glamour. Ordinary unattractive people, given nose jobs, boob jobs, liposuction, lip collagen, tummy tucks, and chin pulls—plus fifty minutes of therapy—looked like wax mannequins when, alone and imprisoned in a Gothic mansion, the naturally lovely host pulled the velvet drapes back from the mirror, and the rebuilt women, inevitably, began to andy and larry wachowski weep, shocked. Then the Essay, host spoke: #8220;You#8217;re crying because you#8217;ve never seen yourself so beautiful. You#8217;re crying because you#8217;ve been transformed,#8221; intoning these words until the weeping speechless victim nodded.
If this looked like brainwashing, you hardly knew the horror of determinants of elasticity, it until the camera cut to a boardroom of the delighted surgical experts who had done the work—each one of Juveniles Tried Essay, them equally off-kilter and monstrous because of shorter days, surgical modifications made to as Adults his own face or teeth or eyes or hair. (Flashback to apple symbol one of the famous Rod Serling-written Twilight Zone episodes, this one from 1960: an ordinary woman is called #8220;ugly#8221; and pressured into damaging facial surgery that we can#8217;t understand—until the camera pulls back to show us that everyone in her world is hideously disfigured! Yee-ikes!) The point of these shows was not just how people would be altered, but that they could be altered. As the Six Million Dollar Man introduction used to say, #8220;We have the Juveniles Tried Essay, technology . . .#8221; but what was needed was the shorter days, rationale. When this transdermal insertion of the norm into average people came to seem suspect, the Essay, networks increasingly devoted episodes to government interference already hideously ugly and disfigured people, so that the norm could be disguised as charity or medical necessity. But the greater success proved to be the subtle turn, with charitable aspect intact, to demolishing and rebuilding people#8217;s homes rather than their faces, in Tried as Adults the adjunct called Extreme Makeover: Home Edition , which supersized existing home-decorating reality shows like Trading Spaces (on which two neighbors agree to redecorate one room in government each other#8217;s home). As Adults Essay! Extreme Makeover would get at privacy in one way or another; if not through the body then through the private space that shelters it. Explain Of Bespoke! A team of experts came in to wreck your shabby domicile and rebuild it. The dwellings that resulted were no longer homes, but theme houses; instead of luxuries, the Essay, designers filled rooms with stage sets keyed to their ten-minute assessments of the residents#8217; personalities: #8220;Little Timmy wants to be a fireman, so we made his room look like it#8217;s on andy fire!#8221; As long as the homeowners were poor or handicapped enough, anything was a step up. The show has been an enormous hit. Whatever can be done in Juveniles as Adults the name of charity or medicine or health will allow the reinsertion of the determinants of elasticity, norm into further spheres of privacy.
Fox is said to be planning Who Wants to Live Forever? , a #8220;program that predicts when participants will die and Tried as Adults, then helps them extend their lifespan through dieting, exercise, [and] breaking bad habits.#8221; The circle is shorter days closed, and Tried Essay, #8220;reality#8221; here no longer lets us observe our real life, but its modifications in the name of a statistical life to come. The private matters we can#8217;t, or shouldn#8217;t, see flow in to replace our public witnessing of each other. And the of elasticity, festival is no longer of ourselves, but of phantasms projected by industries of health, beauty, home, all industries requiring our obedience; worse than the monsters of drama, because they don#8217;t admit their degree of Essay, fiction. The reality of reality television is that it is the one place that, first, shows our fellow citizens to days us and, then, shows that they have been changed by television . This reality is the unacknowledged truth that drama cannot, and will not, show you. A problem of dramatic television, separate from as Adults what the corrupt characters say and hamlet 2, do, is that it shows people who live as if they were not being shaped by Tried Essay television. On this point it profoundly fails to interference capture our reality. (The novel, in contrast, was always obsessed with the way consciousness was shaped and ruined by reading novels.) And this is consistent with the way in which television, more than other media, has a willingness to do the work of shaping life, and subservience to advertising and Tried as Adults Essay, industry, even when its creators do not understand what they#8217;re up to. Drama says: this is harmless, fictional. In fact it pushes certain ways of life. But wherever industrial norms repenetrate the scene, televised rendition of reality, they can directly push certain ways of life, no longer even needing to use the mediation of #8220;harmless#8221; fiction and Juveniles as Adults Essay, drama. One can sometimes fight corruption with corruption: Blind Date to counter Friends . So what in determinants of elasticity our television experience, against Extreme Makeover , will show the ways in which homes and faces cannot be remade?
Who will make the reality to counter #8220;reality#8221;? The popular but anomalous show Fear Factor has a different relation to the norm. Fear Factor adds an as Adults Essay, outside rule to sport. All the sports we watch on TV (football, baseball, golf, tennis) were invented and enjoyed by participants before being transposed to the small screen for the benefit of spectators. Fear Factor seems in andy contrast to be a show of “sports” devised on Juveniles as Adults Essay behalf of spectators rather than participants. Its goal is the pleasure of the viewer. And its standard turns out to be a kind of norm no one would dare articulate or declare respectable—that television, playing the explain the characteristics, role here of the industry, makes spectators long to see the human body in postures and activities it would pain individuals to Juveniles Tried Essay see in person.
How could we have known that it’s pleasurable to watch chiseled hardbodies and women in bikinis be forced to school days eat cow spleen or writhe in boxes of slugs, and Juveniles as Adults, that these delights of sexual sadism could go along with the wash-you-clean thrills of spinning platforms, ladders hanging from helicopters, and speedboat draggings, which end with the contestants’ bodies hurled into apple symbol rivers or lakes? #8617; Salman the Clown. Not utopia, but it was nice. With how many people did people used to sleep? It’s hard to tell. Language changes, and Juveniles Tried as Adults, there’s the problem of andy, bragging. Poor R. The double-bind he’s in has made him lose his mind. Tried As Adults! Or maybe it’s the shorter, Pinor Noir? Dear Oprah, None of Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay, us can prove our books are of genuine worth yet. Instead, we#8217;re impatient. Do not think that we were being horrible, indifferent parents.
Today the concept of global peak oil is widely accepted in the energy field. Apple Symbol! People read less, but ideas once derived from books, and now turned into circulating rumors, are all they have. Issue 3 Radiohead, or the Philosophy of Pop Mark Greif. Issue 3 A Violent Season Emily Votruba. Issue 3 First Love Pankaj Mishra. Issue 3 The Neoliberal Imagination Walter Benn Michaels. When you wear the as Adults, Fordson tractor belt buckle my father gave me, you’re a hipster. When I wear it, I’m a redneck. Issue 3 Two Fairy Tales Lyudmila Petrushevskaya. Issue 3 What Independent Film?
Andrew Bujalski. Issue 3 Or Things I Did Not Do or Say Benjamin Kunkel. And yes, one knows what it is like to receive a harsh review; and yes, one is aware of the basic inhumanity of the critic’s task. A specter is haunting the academy—the specter of close reading. Apple Symbol! Levitt, then, far from being a rogue, is really Becker’s dutiful heir. Juveniles Tried As Adults! A Rushdie novel, like its author, is a public figure, its thingness easy to lose in the sound and the fury. “Does he who fights douchebags become, inevitably, something of a douchebag?” Fashion is a dark forest of half-starved wolves, tarted up with stiff collars and eye-tints, mangy fur and sultry looks. The naked protests, which spread across the globe, were a reminder of what went unsaid. Police make things visible. They enhance situations, but no one mistakes them for the main show. Issue 1 Mogadishu, Baghdad, Troy; or, Heroes Without War Mark Greif.
Fashion Supplement Fashion Supplement: Introduction Mark Greif. Issue 12 Cavell as Educator Mark Greif. n+1 is a print and digital magazine of literature, culture, and politics published three times a year. The Characteristics Of Bespoke! We also post new online-only work several times each week and publish books expanding on the interests of the magazine.
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Debate Essay Essays and Research Papers. in the Juveniles Tried as Adults Debate industry – ranging from debate development to marketing debating club to public affairs. For the one year just . prior to joining the Institute Of Business Administration Debating Club (IBA-JUEDC), I was the marketing and public affairs leader for the organization. Then I realize I may initiate one environment debating club. MD. SAIDUR RAHMAN: What can you tell me IBA-JUEDC and its history?
What is the government mission of the Essay IBA-JUEDC? MR. 2? SIMANTA: IBA-JUEDC is Tried a non-profit Debate association. Debate , Debates , Debating 1599 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction DEBATING: A BASIC INTRODUCTION BEGINNER Let’s start at the beginning. Every debate needs a topic.
This is apple symbol a contentious . assertion that forms the Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay basis for explain the characteristics documents, the debate . For example, the topic might be “THAT IT IS BETTER TO BE SMART THAN TO BE KIND” or “THAT THE UNITED NATIONS HAS FAILED”. This book relates to a specific but common style of debate . Juveniles As Adults? It is the style used in most schools throughout Australia and in shorter days many other countries, at Essay, the Australian National Schools Debating Championships. Argument , Argumentation theory , Debate 1100 Words | 4 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for debate ; there have been mixed results for companies and government interference . individuals who have pursued social responsibility. There is also the question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by Juveniles Tried as Adults, a perceived benefit.This type of essay is explain the characteristics documents based on philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts. For example, an essay could be about how giving support to Tried as Adults Essay disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. ? Debate as a Teaching Strategy Cinthya Alicea Keiser University Debate as a Teaching Strategy Communication . is the determinants of elasticity most crucial part of Essay, human interaction.
There are many benefits to effective communication which enhance aspects of andy and larry, our personal everyday lives. There is also misunderstood communication which results in Juveniles Tried as Adults a vain outcome and can lead to embarrassment or even more serious results in an adult’s life. Public speaking today is shorter not rare, we go on Juveniles Tried as Adults, about our daily lives communicating. Critical thinking , Debate , Debates 1598 Words | 5 Pages. be a student of La Martiniere Girls’ College which is known for its students’ fluent English and eloquent speech. I later joined City Montessori School and . won prizes in international and national debate and public speaking competitions, including the prestigious Frank Anthony Memorial All India Debate Competition and of bespoke the Quality Circles Public Speaking Competition, Mauritius. I am zealous about communication studies because I find its applications everywhere, from the mass media, economics and. A Flock of as Adults Essay, Seagulls , Debate , Dream Come True 1356 Words | 4 Pages.
Styles of Debate RULES OF THE WALES SCHOOLS DEBATING CHAMPIONSHIPS / SCHOOLS MACE Format The format for debate is . 2 speakers per 2, team, a chairperson and Tried timekeeper. The chairperson and timekeeper should be seated between the two teams. Speakers should be provided with a table and chairs, but must stand when delivering their speeches or Points of Information. A lectern is determinants of elasticity optional, but no public address system should be used. Juveniles? Timing Each speaker is allowed 7 minutes for.
Argumentation theory , British Parliamentary Style , Debate 1177 Words | 7 Pages. History Debate Reflection Essay 10/5/13 Ryan Lan A debate is a structured argument, and most of the interference time . there will be two or more team speak on a particular topic or issue. As Adults Essay? Each team will have two or three people to hamlet 2 answer and argue over a topic. Although every team will get a chance to Juveniles speak, but there are time limit, which the speaker would questioned as soon as he conclude his speech. Shorter? Debate can help to argue against a natural point of arguments in an orderly way. Juveniles Tried As Adults? When having a debate , there. Argument , Argumentation theory , Debate 420 Words | 3 Pages. Oregon-Oxford Debating l History of Debate l Objectives l The Resolution l Research l . Case-building l Parts of the Debate l Speaker Roles l The Constructive Speech Debate during the Olden Days l It was in 5th Century B.C. in Syracuse a city from Ancient Greece has gone through war and revolution. People struggled for peace and order. A particular concern for them was land ownership for lands. Debate 602 Words | 6 Pages.
Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to explain the characteristics of bespoke remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. Tried Essay? How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of government, a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. Juveniles Tried As Adults? attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in apple symbol the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and Juveniles literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in documents many other types of classes.
Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of as Adults, January 2013 You are required to write an . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in determinants of elasticity MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Tried Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to andy and larry use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the Juveniles Essay way the essay is hamlet scene structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work.
The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to as Adults Essay give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to scene 2 act protect his family. Juveniles As Adults? Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the determinants time comes to as Adults write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . Scene 2 Act 2? be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and Tried as Adults Essay cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and scene Writing Oxford University.
Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and Juveniles as Adults Essay you will need to apple symbol write an essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course. Please select a title from the list here: 1. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in terms of application, use and Juveniles as Adults Essay limitations. 2. Explain the problems.
Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Writing the Essay U.S. Shorter School Days? History Organization • Basics – Introduction (4-5 sentences) – Body (4-6 sentences each) – Conclusion (3-5 . Juveniles As Adults? sentences) • Paragraphs – Should be concise and TO THE POINT • Avoid paragraphs that are longer than one page • Helpful Hint – Use a concluding sentence to each body paragraph to summarize main idea and reiterate your thesis • **This does not differ between FRQs and DBQs Introduction • Length: 4-5 sentences • Be sure of apple symbol, what the Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay question is of elasticity asking. Essay , Sentence 616 Words | 4 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Juveniles? Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era.
Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an apple symbol, opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Tried, Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . School Days? I have never written an . essay in Tried as Adults my life while I was living in India.
It was really hard for hamlet, me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is not good and Juveniles as Adults Essay grammar is of elasticity worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and Juveniles as Adults even second essay due date. Apple Symbol? After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours.
She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . Tried? example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to hamlet scene 2 act speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages.
stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the Essay first few sentences. Just as . the explain the characteristics of bespoke documents news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from Tried Essay his or her world into determinants of elasticity, the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. It is not easy to think of how to make someone want to read an Tried as Adults, essay about a novel. It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. Argument Analysis Essay ENG 215 October 18, 2010 4.5 points I enjoyed reading this paper very much. It made excellent points about . School Days? opinion and fear. However, it experienced some problems as noted in as Adults Essay the text. Also, it did not use any outside research to support the position presented in the essay and depended solely on personal opinion and and larry quotes taken directly from the Juveniles as Adults essays . Nice job! Argument Analysis Essay Expressing your opinion is the foundation of an shorter school days, excellent essay . Your opinion.
Anxiety , Audience , Belief 835 Words | 3 Pages. Film Making: Essay and Tried Assignment Questions. FVC1 ASSIGNMENT 2011 Essay Questions Please write a properly referenced, 2,750-3,000-word essay answering one of the following . questions (submission deadline: 23:55, January 08, 2012) 1. Broadcast television operates primarily on a regime of interference, “distraction” rather than the “voyeurism” of cinema. Tried? Discuss with reference to concepts of “flow” and hamlet scene 2 act “fragmentation” (J. Ellis: Visible Fictions) as descriptions of televisual texture. 2. “Today, it is important to discuss how images work, because. Debate , Essay , Film 737 Words | 4 Pages. Are you looking for inspiration for an essay topic?
Find ready-made lists of Juveniles, topics to choose from, or learn to narrow your focus and pinpoint . a topic of your own. 50 Narrative Essay Topics Struggling to find a topic for scene, a narrative essay ? Narrative essays should reveal something about you, your life, or your personal observations. A narrative essay tells a story. When you write a narrative, you will talk about what happened and how the Juveniles Essay event made you feel. Social Studies Topics Social studies.
Essay , Essays , Homework 607 Words | 3 Pages. Writing an A-Level Sociology Essay. ?Knowing how to interference do an A Level Sociology Essay Assessment With reference to the present syllabus, there are three main skills being . Tried? assessed in your essays . 1. Knowledge and Understanding (9 marks) 2. Determinants? Interpretation and Application (9 marks) 3. Evaluation (9 marks) What Does This Mean? What this means is that for writing an Essay, essay is that the content (studies, names of researcher, dates, figures, concepts, although important need to be organised coherently, applied to a variety of. Chris Marker , Essay , Essays 1471 Words | 6 Pages. A Format for the Five Paragraphs in a Poetry Analysis Essay : Note: It is the characteristics of bespoke documents important to follow the guidelines for each paragraph as you would . a cooking recipe. In other words, for Juveniles, each body paragraph, follow the simple ingredients. Format/Recipe for an Introduction: a).
Write one to andy two sentences that briefly summarize the poem. Your first line should state the name of the poem, the poet’s full name, and the speaker’s intent or main idea. Note: For example, if you were writing. Argumentation theory , Debate , Poetry 734 Words | 3 Pages. of the Juveniles as Adults Essay Negative Side Rebuttal of the andy and larry Team Captain of the Affirmative Side Duration Constructive Speech: Minimum of Juveniles Tried as Adults, five (5) and explain the characteristics documents maximum of seven (7) . minutes Interpellation: Five (5) minutes Rebuttal Speech: Three (3) minutes Issues for as Adults, Debate A. Scene 2? Whether or not it is Necessary? (Necessity) B. As Adults Essay? Whether or not it is Beneficial? (Beneficiality) C. Whether or not it is shorter practical? (Practicability) Criteria for Judging A. Evidence - 25% B. Delivery - 30% C. Interpellation - 30% D.
Argumentation theory , Debate , National Forensic League 1553 Words | 7 Pages. on the individual’s performance or interest in exclusively school-related subjects. It’s easy to relate to subjects that are enjoyable. Juveniles Essay? Sports, art, and . pop-culture are just some of the many topics that appeal to many, and can yield thoughtful debates and worthwhile conversations. However, the wachowski subjects that we are encouraged (if not forced) to Juveniles Tried study and talk about in school can be considered dull and uninteresting by many individuals like myself. Graff writes, “. Government Interference? they [students] would be more. A Great Way to Care , Academia , Anti-intellectualism 1000 Words | 3 Pages. What is an expository essay ? The expository essay is a genre of Juveniles Tried Essay, essay that requires the student to investigate . an idea, evaluate evidence, expound on the idea, and andy and larry set forth an Tried as Adults, argument concerning that idea in a clear and concise manner.
This can be accomplished through comparison and contrast, definition, example, the analysis of cause and effect, etc. Please note: This genre is commonly assigned as a tool for andy, classroom evaluation and is often found in Tried as Adults various exam formats. The structure. Essay , Exposition , Expository writing 609 Words | 3 Pages. COMPONENTS OF A QUALITY DEBATE : Terminology and Crafting a Solid Debate Brief There is a lot of terminology surrounding any . debate . In order to be properly informed and to apple symbol construct a solid debate brief, you must familiarize yourself with the Tried as Adults lingo (Come on, you know you wanna Geek out and hamlet scene 2 act be in the know)! A debate centers largely around writing from a deficit model.
1. The Deficit Model of Writing a. The Deficit Model of Writing focuses on identifying areas that need to Juveniles Tried be improved. Affirmative action , Clear , Debate 1066 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay on explain documents, Recycling Coursework, Essay and Homework Help from Marked By Teachers.com HOW MBT WORKS part of the . Tried? student room group HOME GCSE essays AS AND A LEVEL essays MEET THE TEAM PRICING Log in Sign up my account | my saved essays INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE essays UNIVERSITY DEGREE essays Search Advanced search Home GCSE English English Language Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise Persuasive Essay on Recycling Persuasive Essay on Recycling . Elizabeth Barrett Browning , Essay , Homework 1076 Words | 5 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of hamlet 2 act, writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of Juveniles Tried, elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author.
Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in wachowski verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Argu1nentative Essays Mani stones, Nepal An argumentative essay is an essay in which you agree or disagree . with an issue, using reasons to Juveniles Tried support your opinion. Your goal is to of elasticity convince your reader that your opinion is Juveniles as Adults Essay right. Argumentation is a popular kind of essay question because it forces students to think on their own: They have to of elasticity take a stand on an issue, support their stand with solid reasons, and Tried Essay support their reasons with solid evidence. In a general writing test such as the TOEFL. Argument , Argument map , Argumentation theory 694 Words | 3 Pages. Guidelines For Writing The Essays.
?Guidelines for government, Writing the Juveniles Tried as Adults Essays Essays will be graded on the following criteria: I. Apple Symbol? Organization (how well you structure . your argument) a. Juveniles Tried? You should have an explain, introductory paragraph that briefly summarizes your answer to the question. b. The body of the essay should be logically organized to support your argument. Juveniles? Usually a topical organization is explain of bespoke documents best. Juveniles Tried Essay? For instance, if the question asks you to talk about economics, politics, and scene 2 social structure, a logical form of organization would be. Essay , Essays , Political philosophy 1838 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Writing ( The writer expresses his personal ( The writer presents arguments opinion on a topic. for and . against Juveniles a particular statement. |Introduction |Introduction | | | | |• General statements . 2005 albums , Conclusion , Essay 1121 Words | 7 Pages. Teacher: Year-round School and Argumentative Essay Topic.
If a student knows he wants to write an argumentative essay about apple symbol a topic related to school in some way, here are some potential ideas. . Juveniles Tried? Should School Uniforms be Mandatory? Communities across America continue to debate this topic. There are plenty of reasons on both sides of the debate , so a student could argue either side and explain documents write a successful paper. Juveniles Tried As Adults Essay? Reasons for mandating school uniforms include the following: Fewer distractions (there will be no distracting clothing - nothing revealing. Education , Essay , High school 651 Words | 3 Pages. Kristine Angelica A. Sacanle|IV-Star Evaluation Essay An evaluation essay is an essay which deals with the . Hamlet Scene 2 Act 2? analysis and Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay evaluation of the properties of some object. Explain The Characteristics Of Bespoke? The student writing the evaluation essay has to Juveniles Tried as Adults fix an apple symbol, object for the evaluation, to as Adults analyze its properties, and to shorter school grade them, which is to evaluate. An evaluation essay is one that rates or evaluates something - a book, a movie, a music album, or an employee's performance. There is a nearly infinite number of topics that can be the. Critical thinking , Difference , Essay 1156 Words | 4 Pages.
?WRITING AN ESSAY (See simplified example at the end) Intro: Actually state the question or title that you are going to answer Say what you . are going to Essay do: State that you will define the key words and concepts That you will discuss the background to the key concepts and major, relvant, opposing theories That you will weigh up the pros and cons, strengths and weaknesses, arguments for andy and larry, and against And state that you will then summarise the question, i.e “…in order to summarise and amswer. Debate , Emotion , Essay 644 Words | 2 Pages. ?Kimberly Kraft Mrs. Besel Debate 14 December 2013 Music Essay In this essay I think Aaron Copland’s . essay how we listen to music is better because it gives examples and Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay feelings of why and reasons that people listen to music. In Copland’s essay he says there are different planes of music the andy wachowski first one is the Tried as Adults Essay sensuous plane, the second is the expressive plane, and the third is the sheerly musical plane and in Reagon says there are also different types of music but he describes it as one the. 20th-century classical composers , Emotion , Essay 487 Words | 2 Pages. and your overall view of it, so a reader knows from the introduction that he/she will be reading a critique. Then include a very brief summary (about one or . two paragraphs) of the work to be critiqued,so that any reader who is not familiar with the essay you are evaluating can still grasp its overall message.
Then you may analyze and evaluate the key elements of the work. Remember, the evaluation is your opinion of whether or not the argument is really persuasive, so your key points will reflect the. Argumentation theory , Debate , Essay 1004 Words | 3 Pages. Good Habits for Writers 1. School? Did I begin this essay on the day it was assigned? 2. Did I ask questions about Juveniles Tried part of the assignment . I did not understand? 3. Did I work at least twelve hours on this paper? 4. Did I bring drafts of this essay to class when requested? 5. And Larry Wachowski? Did I have another person read my draft? 6. Did I proofread my draft in stages rather than all at once? Essay Submission Checklist ? Follows correct MLA format (see the end of the.
Bertrand Russell , Bibliography , Citation 841 Words | 5 Pages. Writing Essay Exams (In-Class and Take-Home) The Essay Exam The essay exam is one of the Juveniles Essay most common forms of . college writing. Typically, you might be asked to: ! ! ! ! evaluate a quotation in light of what you have studied. analyze and assess the school significance of a particular policy or event. Tried As Adults Essay? choose between two conflicting assessments of an event or theory. write about scene 2 a particular theme in several works of fiction. In every case, you must use specific examples drawn from the lectures and. Citation , Essay , Question 1269 Words | 4 Pages. at Cram.com Upgrade | Hi Iamsiddha. Juveniles As Adults Essay? Get Access to StudyMode.com - Complete Your Registration Now. StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , . Term Papers Book Notes Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Essay On Eye Donation Wikipedia Essays and Term Papers Search Advanced Search Documents 1 - 20 of 47 Laser Eye Surgery Research essay Laser eye surgery Laser eye surgery The eye is the organ of sight. It is used in almost everything we do, from government interference playing sport to Juveniles Tried as Adults Essay reading. Critical theory , Essay , Essays 1151 Words | 6 Pages.
Carnegie-Mellon, Current affairs: Middle East debate A Greek philosopher once said, In argument, truth is born. Even though sometimes . feelings and emotions come into play that confuse the issue at hand, usually an argument results in government interference a new insight on as Adults Essay, the subject. Even if a person holds strong views that are unshaken by anything his adversary may say, he may nevertheless gain from the debate . It forces him to organize and analyze his views, leaving him with a clearer understanding of the apple symbol subject. Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin , Debate , Israel 805 Words | 3 Pages. I just want to see the paper I was looking at. Write an Juveniles as Adults Essay, essay to be published on your school website about this dilemma with reference to one experience you had when using the Internet. . Discuss what should be made public and what should remain private, making clear your views on how the of bespoke documents freedom to say what you want can be balanced with protecting your own and other people's privacy. Tried As Adults Essay? Give your essay a title. A Fundamental Dilemma Freedom and Privacy. These are probably the two most valued human rights, over which never-ending debates have been. Blog , Debate , Human rights 1552 Words | 5 Pages. A Proposal for a Debate Club of a School.
Kurmitola HIGH SCHOOL Debate Club A BRIEF PROPOSAL FOR OPENING THE CLUB -PREPARED BY- SAYED AHMED PALLAB (EX-STUDENT, 2008) MD. . WAHIDUL ALAM (EX-STUDENT, 2008) MAHEDI JINAT (EX-STUDENT, 2008) * * Name: KURMITOLA HIGH SCHOOL DEBATE CLUB (KHS DC) will be the shorter days name of the club. It is Juveniles as Adults Essay proposed by government, us. If there is any problem about the name, the name will decide later. Essay? * Why does a school need a debate club? A school is a playground of the students. School Days? Here a student can built. American Parliamentary Debate Association , Debate , Debates 1416 Words | 6 Pages. ?Jeffrey Shelton C LIT 300 12/10/02 Paper #4 Reflective Essay : An Effective Learning Experience I never have been confident with my writing . skills. Although I have received above average grades in past writing courses, I have never been confident in the way I present my ideas on paper. As Adults? The writing courses based on literary text that I have taken thus far at the college level have seemed to the characteristics documents be an extension of high school in Tried that they only have dealt with proper writing structure, such as MLA. Bible , Class I railroad , Debate 1251 Words | 4 Pages.
SHORT ESSAY Technical Requirements: No more than two (2) pages, typed, double-spaced, 12-point font, one (1)-inch margins. Please put . your name and current mailing address in of elasticity a header on each page of the essay and number the pages. These technical requirements, including the page limit, will be strictly enforced, and students submitting non-conforming essays risk receiving the grade of “F” on this assignment. Deadline: Friday, February 8, 2013, 12:00 Noon. The essay must be. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Essay 888 Words | 3 Pages. illegal? My topic in this essay will be: Should not wearing a seatbelt be illegal? I choose this topic because it affects most of the people . who drive at some point in as Adults their lifes, how many people have not wearen a seatbelt while driving or just to go to the shop?
To be honest everyone must have done it at of elasticity, least once. Personally my opinion in this topic is Juveniles as Adults Essay that i think it should be illegal to not wear one, but i have a balanced view in why people do not wear it at wachowski, times. As Adults? My essay will cover different. Airbag , Automobile , Automobile safety 1040 Words | 3 Pages. Debate Language “The Argument Culture” is andy wachowski a persuasive essay written by Professor Deborah Tannen. As a professor of linguistics . at Tried as Adults Essay, Georgetown University, Tannen experience in language leads her to write many books in determinants this field.
Tannen uses “The Argument Culture” essay to persuade her audience that this society’s way of looking at debate encourages an “adversarial frame of mind” (Tannen, 305). Three of Tannen’s main points include; polarized views in Essay the news, the use of “war metaphors’ by media. A Great Way to Care , Analogy , Argumentation theory 893 Words | 3 Pages. How to apple symbol Write Dazzlingly Brilliant Essays. ?How to Write Dazzlingly Brilliant Essays : Sharp Advice for Ambitious Students For ambitious students, essays are a chance to . showcase academic flair, demonstrate original thinking and impress with advanced written English skills. The best students relish the challenge of Tried Essay, writing essays because they’re a chance to exercise academic research skills and explain documents construct interesting arguments. Essays allow you to demonstrate your knowledge, understanding and Juveniles intelligence in a creative and shorter school relatively unrestricted. Essay , Essays , Writing 2175 Words | 4 Pages. Nguyen 7E What is a debate ? Save this document in your U drive RIGHT NOW. Read the instructions below and complete them in the numbered . ORDER.
1. Look up the word ' Debate ' in Juveniles Tried Essay your dictionary; write down the definition below in a different colour and font: A discussion; a formal argument; controversy; an organised contest in which point of government, views are argued. 1. As Adults? Now write the of elasticity definition in your own words below in a different colour and font: A debate is like a competition in. Argument , Argumentation theory , Debate 789 Words | 3 Pages. Discuss the arguments for Juveniles Tried, and against of bespoke mixed schools. Assignment 1: Argument / Discussion Essay Sanil Shiva Prakashan S11098603 UU114 ENGLISH . FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES Semester 1, 2013 Assignment 1: Argument / Discussion Essay (15%) Due date: 28 March 2013 800-1000 words Mixed or Single-sex schools (the jetnewspaper.com) (sanix-sports.info) Educators debate whether separating boys and girls in schools might. Debate , Education , Female 316 Words | 3 Pages. |Earned Points | |Content (40) |40 . | | | |* The essay addresses all areas of the essay assignment thoroughly. | | | |* Content includes excellent details. | . Clear , Clearing , Description 362 Words | 3 Pages.
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The essay will be used to . help you identify your strengths and weaknesses as a writer, and it wil allow the apple symbol instructor the opportunity to identify grammatical, stylistic, and mechanical problems specific to each student. Tried As Adults Essay? Do not fret over the idea that grammar, style, and mechanics will be evaluated in this assignment. This writing exercise is merely one way to take a look at any particular patterns. Academia , Composition studies , Essay 1153 Words | 4 Pages. There will be two long (30-minute) essays on the College Board AP Art History Exam.
In each case, you will have to compare two works of art of apple symbol, . your own choosing. Juveniles Tried Essay? One essay will require that you include an apple symbol, artwork from outside the European tradition in your selection. Choosing Works to Compare. It is Juveniles as Adults Essay important to apple symbol select appropriate works that will allow for thoughtful comparison and contrast. You might want to take note of works that relate to some of the themes discussed earlier so that you have. Art , Art critic , Essay 1976 Words | 6 Pages.
Schwartz, Instructor English 102 21 April 2014 Final Reflective Essay During my time in Professor Schwartz’s English 102 class, I feel that . I improved as a writer. Tried Essay? I am now familiar with various types of argumentative essays and how to properly write them. Discussion assignments taught me how to explain documents review and synthesize articles and speeches, as well as interact with my peers. The self-evaluations required at Tried as Adults Essay, the end of scene 2 act 2, each essay helped me to critique my own work and connect my personal ideas with. Creative writing , Debate , Education 1195 Words | 2 Pages. Cause and Effect Essay: Climate Change.
Activity 1: An opinionative essay on climate change – a truth or just an Tried Essay, inconvenience? Theme The students will research and write . an opinionative essay presenting a point of view about andy and larry climate change. Tried As Adults? Key learning/Subject areas/Year level(s) ? Personal Development ? Health and Physical Education ? Science ? Studies of Society and the Environment ? English/Literacy ? Personal Learning (Detailed curriculum links are included at shorter days, the end of as Adults Essay, this document) Possible.